Skip to main content

Full text of "The Canadian Nurse Volume 56"

See other formats


..
" 

 




 

 







the 


.
, 



ànadian 


VOLUME 56 . 


NUMBER 1 


. 


MONTREAL 


JANUARY 1960 


Nur e 



íncere Wísþes 
for a 
T!)appp 
anb 

r05perOU5 
JlebJ pear 


./ J. 
Æ 
,-:fY"NED AN' PUBLISH D BY 


HE CANA))IAN 


.. 


" 
, R $ E 5' ASS. 0 C I A , ION 



\ 


'-.' 


\ 


. <, ,', ';, / 


"\;., , 


" 
, ".-- 


\ 



 


J 
 
.. J l1 /. 


'I t 
i -
 " 
i. 
. 
. 
1..:.-/ 


," 


U16 @
 I . TER, ð
 



THE 
I
 A N A D I A N 
N U R S E 


. 


INDEX 


Volume 56 


JANUARY 
 DECEMBER 
19)60 


. 


() \\T l' E DAN D PUB LIS H E D B Y 
ffiF r
 lX 
 OJ AN N1TR SFS' A SSOf:T ATTON 



THE 


CANADIAN 


N U RS E 


JOURNAL BOARD 


\ ()TI
<: :\IF:\rnER
- 


Chairman - 5i
tl'r :\Iary Felici!as 


Helen :\I. Carpenter (ex officio) 


Hae Chittick 


Suzanne Giroux 


,Alice Girard 


Ethel .:\1. Gonion 


Katherine :\IacLaggan 
:\1ary Richmond 
Si
ter Florence Keegan 


Xox-YUTI
(; .:\fE:\JBFRS: 


:\ 1. IIl'a r1 S j \-er 


Secretary 


:\Iargaret E. h
l'1T 


EDITORIAL ADVISERS 


Alberta ........................................................ 1 rene :\L Rohertson. llRJ I - Híth .\ vc., Edmonton 


B,'itish Coillmbia ......................................:\Iarion E. :\Iacrlonell. IHOí \\'. Jóth .\vt'., Yancouver 13 


Manitoba ................................................... Sheila L. Xixon. 25 Langside St.. \\ïnnipeg 


New R"'",swick ,.......................................Shirley Y .\lcoe. 180 Charlotte St., Fredericton 


N ew/ollndland ..........................................lsah
1 Sutton. Ü(,a :\1 ullock St r
et. St. John's 
N ova Scotia ...0............................................:\1 rs. HUI'
 
Iac k, X ova Scotia Sana toriul11, I
 en! \ i lie 


Ontm'io ........................................................J can \ \. att, R. X ., \.0.. .B Price S t fect. Toronto 


p,-jnce Edward J sland .............................. \- erna Darrach 


Q ttebec ........................................................ (;enevievl: l.al11arr
. H (,pi tal de I' En fant - J eStis, Quebec 
Sistcr :\1 ary _\ ssumpta, St. 11 ary's H os pi tal, ÀI ont real 
SaskatchewlllI ............................................ \ ïctoria .\ntonini, 206(, R
tallack St., Regina 



r 


\" 


'. 


:.- 



 


, 


....,' '. 


Our Navy 
Needs Your 
Nursing Skill 



u 


... 


.. 


.. 



 

 


L.- 


-... 


1 
,I 
! 


..
 
' , " 


/' 


"" 


-, 
 


"V, 


, 
,:, 
,; 



 


... - "-'<Ii 
6;:'-:- 
. 
.: 
" 
 


 
 


" 
" 
'- 


CN-5-S7 


, 


sr 


.'" . 

. 


*" 


'1 


A Naval Nurse is on important nurse - coring for the health of 
Canada's fighting sailors. 
She leads on eventful life - with opportunities to engage in special 
fields, both medical and surgical and others - to travel - to serve 
her country - to enjoy the status and privileges of on Officer in 
Canada's senior service. 


Our expanding Navy has openings now in its Nursing 
Service - for provincially-registered graduate nurses who 
are Canadian citizens or British subjects, single and under 
35 years of age. 
Apply todayl Upon entry you will be offered a permanent or short 
service commission with officer pay, allowance for uniforms, full 
maintenance and other benefits including 30 days annual leave with 
pay and full medical and dental core. 
As a Naval Nurse, you'" find real opportunity to advance in your 
profession! For full information apply to: 


MA TRON-IN-CHIEF, 
NAVAL HEADQUARTERS, OTTAWA 


or 
YOUR NEAREST NAVAL RECRUITING OFFICE 


Royal Canadian Navy 


JANUARY, 1960. Vol. 56. No.1 


1 



INDEX TO ADVERTISERS 


JANUARY, 


1960 


Abbott Laboratories Ltd. ........ 5 J. B. Lippincott Co. 



 Cover IV 


Bland & Co. .......,.... ....... 15 


Clearasil Inc. .................. 55 
Dept. of 
ational Defense - Navy 1 The Ryerson Press. . . . . . . . . . . .. 77 


Parke Davis & Co. Ltd. ..... 58, 59 
J. T. Posey Co. ................ 73 


Charles E. Frosst & Co. . . . . . . . ., 57 Swift Canadian Co. Ltd. ........ 65 


Gerber Products of Canada Ltd. .. 53 Uniforms Registered ...... Cover III 


Identical Form, Inc. ............ 75 VanZant & Co. Ltd. ............ 16 


Knox Gelatine (Canada) Ltd. 48, 49 


Lilian '\Vatson Travel Sen'ice ... 77 
White Sister Uniform Inc. Cover II 
John \Vyeth & Bro. (Canada) Ltd. 67 


Johnson & Johnson ............63 


* 


* 


* 


Subscriþtion Ratcs: Canada & Bermuda: 6 months $1.75; one year, $3.00; two years, $5.00. 
Student nurses - one year, $2.00; three years, $5.00. 
U.S.A. & foreign: one year, $3.50; two years, $6.00. 
Single copies 35 cents. 


In combination with the American] ourllal of Nursing or Nursing Outlook: one year, $8.00. 
Make cheques and money orders payable to The Canadian X urse. 


Change of address: Four week's notice and the old address as well as the new are necessary. 
Not responsible for Journals lost in mail due to errors in address. 
Authorized as Second-Class Mail, Post Office Department, Ottawa. 
lIember of Canadian Circulation Audit Board. 


Advcrtising Rcpreselltati'l'cs: W. F. L. Edwards & Co., Ltd., 34 King St. E., Toronto 1, Onto 
\Valter Slack, 801 Public Ledger Building, Philadelphia 6, Pa. 


1522 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal 25, Quebec 


2 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



THE 


CANADIAN NURSE 


VOLUME 56 


NUMBER 1 


JANUARY 1960 


4 BETWEEX OURSEL\ ES 


6 Knv PRODUCTS 


1 0 RAKDO:\I CO)ßIE::-JTS 


1 7 \ V A
TED: LEADERS........................................._.............................A. Girard 
19 THREE \\TISHES....................................................................... ....D. AI. Percy 
23 TEST CO
STRUCTION IN 
NURSING EDUCATIOi'oj......m.m.............................JVm. H. Lucow 


34 I N THE AD:\IITTING OFFICE...................................................AJ . Tardif 
37 THE NURSE Ai'ojD THE NEW PATIENT........................]. Trudeau 
40 THE PATIENT CmIES TO HOSPITAL.................................D. Fortin 


42 1\URSING ACROSS THE NATION 


45 I\URSI::-JG PROFILES 


50 TALK OF l\L-\::-JY THINGS...................................................H. L. Bolger 
56 COXVENTION PERSO:>lALlTY 


60 GENERAL P ARAL YSIS........................................................................j. Gibson 
62 I NF ANTILE ECZE :\IA.....................................................................E. J 0 hnso n 
69 1fIsSIONARY X URSE..................................................................AJ. Johnson 
72 IN' ,ME
IORIA)I 


74 INTERNATIO::-JAL PEDIATRIC STUDY TOUR...............P. J. Lyttle 
75 BOOK REVIEWS 


78 E)IPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES 


96 OFFICIAL DIRECTORY 


The 'views expressed 
in the various articles 
are the views of 
the authors and 
do not necessarily 
represent the policy 
or views of 
THE 'CANADIAN NURSE 
nor of the Canadian 
Nurses' Association. 


Journal Board: Mrs. A. I. MacLeod, chairman, Sr. l\f. Felicltas, Misses H. Carpenter, R. Chittick, S. Giroux, 
E. Gordon, K. MacLaggan, A. Girard, president CNA; Misses M. P. Stiver, M. E. Kerr. 
Editorial Advisers: Alberta, Miss Irene M. Robertson, 11831-87th Ave., Edmonton; British Columbia, Miss 
Marion E. Macdonell, 1807 W. 36th Ave., Vancouver 13i Manitoba, Miss Sheila L. Nixon, 
25 Langside St., \Yinnipeg; New Brunswick, Miss Shulev Y. Alcoe, 180 Charlotte St., 
Fredericton; Newfoundland, Miss Isabel Sutton, 66a Mullock St. St. John's; Nova Scotia, 
Mrs. Hope Mack, P.O. Box 76, Hantsport; Ontario, Miss Jean Watt, R.N.A.O., 33 Price St., 
Toronto; Prince Edward Island, Sr. M. David, Charlottetown Hospital; Quebec, Miss Geneviève 
Lamarre, Hôpital de I' Enfant J ésus, Quebec City (French), Sr. M. Assumpta, St. Mary's Hospital, 
Montreal (English); Saskatchewan, Miss Victoria Antonini, S.R.N.A., 2066 Retallack St., Regina. 
Executive Director: Margaret E. Kerr, M.A., R.N. 
Assistant Editors: Jean E. :MacGregor, RN.,R.N.; Gabrielle D. Coté, l\I.A.,R.N., Pamela E. Poole, RN.,R.N. 
Cirntlation Manager: \\'innifred MacLean. Production Assistant: Elizabeth l\I. Hanlon. 
Advertising Assistant: Ruth H. Baumel 
1522 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal 25, Quebec 


JANUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No.1 


3 




etøeen ()
 


Y olume 56! It dues not seem possible 
that it is almost five years since the golden 
anniversary of the founding of our J ol/rnal 
was celebrated. Month by month we are 
edging closer to the 60th - the diamond 
anniversary of publication. How should that 
be celebrated? 


* 


* 


* 


Elsewhere in this issue is the half page 
application form that we im,ite you to use 
to secure your own copy of the index of the 
material published in 1959. The copies will 
be available within the next few weeks. 
Even though the J ollrllal is published in 

eparate issues for each of our national 
languages, both are combined insofar as the 
index is concerned. Every article that has 
been published in either language during 
1959 is included in this bilingual reference. 
Since OnliY a limited number of copies 
of the index is printed, please send your ap- 
plication form along immediately. 
* * * 
.\n important announcement, appearing on 
page í4, heralds the second step in the 
program of translation from one language 
to the other that began with the first issue 
of L'/Ilfirlllièrc Calladicllllc in June, 1959. 
Beginning next month all of the professional 
advertisements will be published in both 
languages - those giving information re- 
ganling postgraduate courses in universities 
and hospitals as well as the numerous insti- 
tutions and organizations that are seeking 
staff for a variety of positions. 
Some oi you may wonder "hy the JOIl1ïlal 
Board cons.idered it just and right to share 
all of the information regarding employment 
or postgraduate training opportunities in 
obviously English language institutions with 
our French-speaking colleagues. The answer 
puts those of us who are English-speaking 
unly to shame! Thousands of the nurses 
whose native language is French are com- 
pletely or partially bilingual. ::\lany of the 
latter long for the chance to improve their 
knowledge of English through association 
with completely English-speaking staffs and 
patients. Ho\\ many of us whose native 
tongue is English would have the courage to 
seek work in a French hospital? 
* * * 
.\ shining example of complete bilingual- 
ity is our g raciou
 president, ::\f iss -\ LIeF 


4 


GIRARD, whose 
ew Year me
sage appears 
in this issue. Despite an exceedingly heavy 
work-load as director of nursing at Hôpital 
Saint-Luc, ::\[ontreal, and principal of the 
school of nursing there. ::\Iiss Girard finds 
time and energy to shuttle back and forth 
to Ottawa for frequent meetings, to meet 
with government committees, to perform all 
the multifarious duties that fall to the lot of 
the president of an organization as busy as 
the Canadian Nurses' .\ssociation. \Ve were 
very hesitant about adding to her tasks by 
our remindcr of the guest editorial. We are 
must happy that she consented to send m all 
her message. 


* 


* 


* 


.\11 of us have been suhjected to the 
obj ective-type examinatiuns at one time or 
another. "Parlor games," those who consider 
them much less effective titan the essay-type 
examinations, will snort. If you feel that 
way about them turn to the sample ques- 
tions in DR. \Y. H. Lücow's article and, 
without referring to the correct answers, 
complete the test to the best of your ability. 
You 1/Ia.\' be due ior a surprise! 
* * * 


Thousands of new patients are admitted 
to hospitals all onr our country every day. 
For some it is an awesome eÀperience, a 
step into the unknown that is beset with 
fear, even terror. Even whet"e prepaid hos- 
pitalization plans relieve anÀiety regarding 
expenses, there may be a haunting dread of 
rapidly accumulating hills for eÀtras that 
will whittle away careful savings. Above 
all, there are all those questions that have 
to be ans\\ered for the person in the admit- 
ting office! 
The thoughtful, kindly nurse in that de- 
partment of the hospital, who welcomes the 
new patient with as much courtesy and 
friendliness as a good hostess welcomes a 
guest in an up-to-date hotel, can help ta 
soothe the fears and calm the douhts, even 
though she is swamped by a hcavy list of 
new admissions. _\s is pointed uut in our 
brief series of articles on the work of the 
admitting department, that is where good 
public relations begin. 


\\ïtllOUt musIc life ,,'ould he a mi!;take. 
NIETZSCHE 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



(S) 


THIS little housewife had a 
problem - sweet-tooth Hubby on 
a sweet-free diet. (And beginning 
to get nervous about it.) She 
tried everything. Fancy salads. 
Bigger helpings. .But Hubby's 
.frown darkened by the day. Then 
one day she read in a magazine 
about a discovery, a new 
non-caloric sweetener. One that 
she could actually cook and bake 
with - in any food, at any 
temperature. One which gave 
the perfect taste of sugar - with 
no bitter aftertaste in ordinary 
use. That night there were 
cookies, pudding, coffee - sweet 
coffee - and a big, big smile across 
the table. . . 


ABBOTT 


. . . and so she 
started using 


Sucaryl@ 
(Cyclamate, At)boU) 


For samples 
and 
recipe booklets, 
write 
Abbott 
Laboratories 
Montreal. 


, 
 1 
J 

 
- 
--... 
 .
:' 
""""'" ""
 
,J. 

,. 
"'! 


t 


JANUARY 1960. Vol. 56. No. 1 


5 




'P
 


PUBLISHED THROUGH COURTESY OF Canadian Pharmaceutical] olfrnal 
AND IN COOPERATION WITH THE PHAR:\IACEUTICAL FIR:\IS. 


ALTAFUR 
Indications-Systemic bacterial infections. It is particularly effective against staphylo- 
coccus, streptococcus, D. pneumoniae and E. coli. 
Administration-Average adult dose is a 250 mg. tablet q.i.d. with meals and at 
bedtime. 
Description-Altafur, brand of furaltadone, is a nitrofuran (synthetic antimicrobial, 
not an antibiotic or sulfonamide). Chemically it is 5-morpholinomethyl-3-(5 nitrofurfuryli- 
deneamino )-2-oxazolidinone. 
Manufacturer-Eaton Laboratories, Norwich, N.Y. Canadian distributors: Austin 
Laboratories, 32 Baker St., Guelph, Ontario. 
CATRON 
Indications-Anti-depressive agent effective in mental illness, angina, and hyper- 
tension. 
Administration-Must be given by mouth. 
Description-One of a group of agents known as monamine oxadase inhibitors which 
operate by inhibiting enzymes in the body that destroy neurohormones such as serotonin 
and norepinephrine. 
Manufacturer-Lakeside Laboratories (Canada) Ltd., 24 Wellington St. West, Toronto, 
Ontario. 
DESITIN HC 
Indications-To alleviate inflammatory and allergic symptoms and to promote healing 
in severe, acute and chronic inflammatory internal hemorrhoids (non-surgical), proctitis, 
cryptitis; inflamed postoperative scar tissue; internal anal pruritis. 
Administration-l suppository twice daily for up to six days or as required. 
Description-Each suppository contains 10 mg. hydrocortisone, high grade Norwegian 
cod-liver oil, lanolin, zinc oxide, bismuth subgallate, balsam of peru, in a cocoa butter 
base. 
Manufacturer-Desitin Chemical Company, Providence R.I., Canadian Distributor: 
Leslie A. Robb, 54 Baby Point Rd., Toronto, 9. 
DlAPARENE PERIANAL CREME 
Indications-For prevention and treatment of stool irritation (perianal dermatitis) in 
the newborn. 
Description-Active ingredients are methylbenzethonium chloride, zinc oxide, starch, 
cod liver oil and casein in a water repellant base. 
Manufacturer-Homemakers' Products (Canada) Limited, 36 Caledonia Rd., Toronto, 


10. 


HEATEX 
Indications-To aid in the prevention of heat fatigue and exhausthn. 
Description-Each tablet c:)mbines: sea salt containing the 39 analyzable trace 
elements that are lost in human perspiration, ascorbic acid and dextrose. 
Manufacturer-Taylor Laboratories, Houston, Texas. 
HISPRIL 
Indications-Wide variety of allergic conditions and non-allergic upper respiratory 
infections. 
Administration-Available in 5 mg. spansules and 2 mg. sC::Jred tablets. Adults: 1 
spansule every 12 hours or 1 tablet 3 or 4 times daily. Children: under 6 years, llz tablet 
(l mg.) once or twice daily; 6-12 years, adult dose or 1 spansule daily or a 2 mg. tablet b.i.d. 
Description-Hispril contains diphenylpyraline hydrochloride. 
Manufacturer-Smith Kline &: Fren ch Laboratories, Montreal 9. 
MEPHYTON 
Indications-Whenever there is a threat of hemorrhage due to hypoprothrombinemia, 
such as following the use of coumarin compounds and indanediones (mephyton has no 
antagonistic effect upon the action of heparin). 
Administration-As emulsion in 1 cc. ampoules containing 50 mg. per cc. to be used 
when oral therapy is not practical or for emergencies. 5 mg. scored tablets when bleeding 
is not present or an immediate threat. 
Description-Mephyton is Vitamin K. (2-methyl-3phytyl-l, 4-naphthoquinone). 
Manufacturer-Merck Sharp &: Dohme, Division of Merck and Co. Limited Montreal, 30. 
OTOBIONE 
Indications-Topical treatment and symptomatic relief of external otitis and chronic 
otitis media caused by pyogenic and mycotic infections. 
Description-Otobione combines the anti-inflammatory properties of a steroid 
(Prednisolone) with an otic solution of neomycin and sodium propionate (Otobiotic). 
Manufacturer-White Laboratories Ltd., 5100 Sax Street, Montreal. 
The Journal presents pharmaceuticals for information. Nurses Jmderstand that only a physician may prescribe. 


6 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



'd
\b 
'c!1 1t;r\'-:2 ,
. 
_ Il1O:: 
... - - 



 


SCHOOL for GRADUATE NURSES 
McGILL UNIVERSITY 


PROGRAM FOR GRADUATE NURSES LEADING TO THE 
DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF NURSING 


Two-year program for nurses with McGill Senior Matriculation or its equivalent. 
Three-year program for nurses with McGill Junior Matriculation or its equiva- 
lent. In the first year students elect Public Health Nursing or Teaching and 
Supervision in one of the following clinical fields: Medical-Surgical Nursing, 
Psychiatric Nursing, Maternal and Child Health Nursing. 
In the second year students elect to study in one of the following fields: 
Nursing Education, Administration in Hospitals and Schools of Nursing, 
Administration in Public Health Nursing. 


PROGRAM FOR GRADUATE NURSES LEADING TO A DIPLOMA 
Students are granted a diploma on the completion of the first year of the 
degree program. All first-year students elect to study in a particular field as 
stated above. 


PROGRAM IN BASIC NURSING LEADING TO THE DEGREE OF 
BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN NURSING 
Five-year program for high-school graduates who have passed in the required 
papers of the McGill Junior School Examination or their equivalents. This 
program combines academic and professional courses with supervised nursing 
experience in the McGill teaching hospitals and selected health agencies. 
This broad background of education, followed by graduate professional 
experience, prepares the nurses for advanced levels of service in hospitals 
and community. 


For further information write to: 


DIRECTOR, McGILL SCHOOL FOR GRADUATE NURSES, 
1266 PINE AVE. W., MONTREAL 25, QUEBEC. 


[!)B 


CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 
OF WASHINGTON, D.C. 


For Professional, Supervisory and 
Administrative Nursing Staff 
DIRECTOR: MISS H. E. JONES, REG.N. 
SUITE 304, 97 EGLINTON AVENUE E., 
TORONTO, ONTARIO. 
HU. 1-6301 or HU. 1-6362 


OffERS 
Registered Nurses a 16-wk. supple- 
mentary program in pediatric nursing. 
Admission dates, January 5, May 3, 
August 30, 1960, January 3, 1961. 


ONTARIO PLACEMENT CENTRE 


For complete information write to: 


DIRECTOR OF NURSING 
212S-13th STREET, N.W., WASHINGTON 9, D.C. 


JANUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No. 1 


7 



PRE-CONVENTION COURSE IN NUTRITION 


A course featuring Nutrition Education, to precede the biennial convention of the Canadian 
Home Economics Association, will be sponsored by the Nutrition Division, Department of 
National Health and Welfare, at the Macdonald Hotel, Edmonton, on July 4th, 5th and 6th, 1960. 
Designed for the professionally-trained, its sponsors will welcome attendance by Public Health 
Nurses, Home Economists, Dietitians, Nutritionists, Doctors and Dentists. Topics under considera- 
tion include: 
NORJ',"AL NUTRITION TEACHING NUTRITION 
INFANT NUTRITION EME1GENCY FEEDING 
GERIATRIC NUTRITION WORLD FEEDING 
NUTRITION EDUCATION IN PROFESSIONAL TRAINING 


Suggestions are invited. Those interested in further information are asked to forward the 
attached coupon. 


Registration Fee: $10 


* 


* 


* 


NUTRITION DIVISION, 
D
PARTMENT OF NATIONAL HEALTH AND WELFARE, 
OTTAWA, ONTARIO 
Please send information about the PRE-CONVENTION COURSE ON NUTRITION to: 


(Nome) 


(Address) 


My field of activity or special interest 


Suggestions for the course program 



 
: 

;
'
-:-;- .,"- 
--........: -,- 
... 



' 

 


TO BIND YOUR 1959 COPIES 


we suggest 



. 


that you purchase one of our new SELF-BINDERS. 
These are equally useful for the school of nursing 
library or for an individual nurse. 



 


..: 


.. . 


:,. 


A large supply of these "Self-binders" has just 
been received. Order yours today by completing 
the form below and sending it with your cheque 
or money order for $3.00 each, to: 


THE CANADIAN NURSE JOURNAL 
1522 SHERBROOKE STREET WEST, MONTREAL 25, QUEBEC. 


NAME 


STREET 


TOWN OR CITY 


PROVINCE 


NO. OF BINDERS 


AMOUNT ENCLOSED 



 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



1959 INDEX 


SUBSCRIBERS 'VISHING TO RECEIVE COPIES OF THE 
1959 1ltde
 
ARE REQUESTED TO CO
IPLETE THIS COUPON AND 
MAIL IT TO 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 
1522 Sherbrooke St. 'Vest 
\IONTREAL 25, QUEBEC 


Plcase þrint all details. 


Name 


Street 


City 


Zone No. 


Prov. 


Nun1ber of copies desired 


PRELUDIN ENDURETS 
Indications-Treatment of obesity. 
Administration-One Preludin Enduret on arising generally controls appetite 
throughout the daytime and evening hours. 
Description-Each Preludin Enduret contains 75 mg. of phenmetrazine hydrochloride. 
The medication is dispersed homogeneously throughout a special matrix which provides 
a slow, even distribution rate. 
Manufacturer-Geigy Pharmaceuticals, 2626 Bates Rd., Montreal, 26. 
PYRIDIUM TRI-SULFA 
Description-Each tablet contains: Pyridium (phenylazo-diamino-pyridine HC1) 150 
mg., sulfadiazine 167 mg., sulfamerazine 167 mg., sulfamethazine 167 mg. 
Indications-For analgesic and anti-infective action in urinary tract infections. 
Contraindications-Chronic glomerulonephritis; pyelonephritis of pregnancy with 
gastro-intestinal disturbance; severe hepatitis where excretion is 10w; uremia. 
Administration-Adult dose: one tablet 4 times daily. 
Manufacturer-WarTIer-Chilcott Laboratories Co., Ltd., 727 King St. W., Toronto. 
SILICONE SKIN SPRAY 
Indications-For all bedfast patients, particularly if incontinent or immobilized to 
protect the skin against chafing and irritation. It affords protection of skin surrounding 
ileostomies, colostomies and biliary drainage areas. 
Administration-Easily sprayed on the skin by means of aerosol container. It forms a 
durable bacteriostatic, moisture resistant coating. 
Description-Contains silicone and hexachlorophene. 
Manufacturer-Clay-Adams Inc., 141 East 25th Street, New York 10. 
UREVERT 
Indications-Reduction of intracranial pressure resulting from head injuries or brain 
tumors. 
Administration-Intravenous 70 ml. of invert sugar solution for each 30 grams of urea. 
A verage adult dose I gram per kilogram of body weight. 
Description-Urevert is packaged as a unit consisting of two containers, one holdir ;J 
sterile, lyophilized, synethic urea under vacuum and the other containing sterile inv -..::-t 
sugar solution (Travert). 
Manufacturer-Baxter Laboratories of Canada, Ltd , Alliston, Ontario. 


JANUARY. 1960. Vol. 56, No.1 


9' 



PSYCHIATRIC COURSE 


For 


REGISTERED NURSES 


THE NOVA SCOTIA HOSPITAL offers to 
qualified Registered Nurses a six- 
month certificate course in Psychiatric 
Nursing. 


. Classes in March and September. 


. Remuneration. 


. Preference given to Nova Scotia 
applicants. 


For further information apply to: 


Superintendent of Nurses 
Nova Scotia Hospital 
Drawer 350 
Dartmouth, Nova Scotia 


NOVA SCOTIA SANATORIUM 
KENTVILLE N.S. 


Offers to Graduate Nurses a Six- 
Month Course in Tuberculosis Nursing, 
including Immunology, Prevention, 
Medical & Surgical Treatment. 
1. Full series of lectures by Medical 
and Surgical staff. 


2. Demonstrations and Clinics. 


3. Experience in Thoracic Operating 
Room and Postoperative Unit, 
4. Full maintenance, salary & all staff 
privileges. 


5. Classes start May 1st and Novem- 
ber 1 st. 


For information apply to: 


SUPT. OF NURSES, NOVA SCOTIA 
SANATORIUM, KENTVILLE, N.S. 


10 



andom f301rlments 


Dear Editor: 
:\Iay r say that I do not agree completely 
with the author of "\Vhy Judge Them?" 
of the November issue. The author lays the 
total blame at the doorstep of the parents. 
This conclusion is based on the testimony 
of the unmarried mother. How valid then 
is this conclusion? I t is unlikely that a young 
woman in this position is capable of examin- 
ing herself or her parents objectively, either 
before or after becoming pregnant. 
The author mentions the number of broken 
homes and unhappy homes that are not ac- 
tually physically broken. If this is a reason, 
why are there not more unmarried mothers 
among the daughters of these homes? Surely 
there are more unhappy homes than there 
are unmarried mothers. 
Is it not more correct to find some ex- 
planation in the fact that the unmarried 
mother is unable to cope with the exper- 
iences of her life in a way which is ac- 
ceptable to the mores of society. Surely the 
therapy used in the author's homes for 
unmarried mothers verifies this latter point 
of view. 


D. R., Saskatchewan 


Dear Editor: 
I have just read my November copy of 
The Canadian Nurse and I would like to 
comment in particular on the article about 
the unmarried mother. 
The subject has been dealt with most 
compassionately and very understandingly. 
It should be required reading for parents 
with teenage daughters or sons! Over and 
over again psychologists have pointed out 
how necessary firm but just parental control 
is in the lives of children. Our girls and 
boys need to know where their parents stand 
in relation to certain moral issues so that 
they, too, can take a stand. The example 
set by the parents, the opportunity for frank 
discussion between mother and daughter, 
father and son - all help our young people 
in their very important business of growing 
up to mature happy adulthood and, event- 
ually, parenthood. 
I am called upon to do considerable stu- 
dent nurse counselling in my work. I most 
certainly intend to use this article in my 
discussions with the girls since I feel that 
it will contribute to their understanding of 
others and also help them personally. 
E. 11:. H., British Columbia 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



DALHOUSIE 


UNIVERSITY 


School of Nursing 
COURSES OFFERED 
1959 - 1960 


1. Degree Course in Basic Professional Nursing 
Candidates for the degree of Bachelor of Nursing are required to complete 
2 years of university work before entering the clinical field, and one year 
of university work following the basic clinical period of 30 months. On 
completion of the course the student receives the Degree of Bachelor of 
Nursing and the Professional Diploma in either Teaching in Schools of 
Nursing or Public Health Nursing. 
2. Degree Course for Graduate Nurses 
Graduate nurses who wish to obtain the degree of Bachelor of Nursing are 
required to complete the three years of university work. 
3. Diploma Courses for Graduate Nurses 
(aJ Public Health Nursing 
(bJ Teaching in Schools of Nursing 


For further information apply to: 
DIRECTOR, SCHOOL OF NURSING 
DALHOUSIE UNIVERSITY, HALIFAX, N.S. 


Dear Editor: 
I am finding the issues of L'b,jir11lière 
Calladicnne very interesting but I would 
like to see more articles related to otolaryn- 
gology and ophthalmology. 
Having had a friend who had surgery per- 
formed for a detached retina, I would like 
to know more about this condition - its 
causes, the operative technique and prognosis. 
L. F., Quebec 
Dear Editor: 

fay I use this opportunity to tell you 
how much I appreciate L'[nfir11lière Calla- 
diellJle. 
It helps me to keep up with the new tech- 
niques and new drugs that appear almost 
daily and with which I am unfamiliar. 
M-B. P., Quebec 
Dear Editor: 
I did not have to turn over the page to 
know the author of "Great Expectations," 


though I did so with interest to finish 
reading it. 
1Iay I congratulate you on a very excel- 
lent article? A few more like it should 
work marvels in this day and age, when this 
aspect of nursing appears to be among the 
last to be given consideration. 
M. M., Quebec 
Dear Editor: 
I want to congratulate you on L'[nfir- 
mière Calladielllle, which is a very instruc- 
tive and interesting journal. It provides 
hours of profitable reading and keeps one 
up-to-date with the latest medical discoveries 
and new techniques in the various hospital 
departments. 
Enclosed is a money order for a year's 
subscription and I shall certainly renew it 
at the end of that time. Thank you for the 
special rate for student nurses. 
R. F., Quebec 


Did you know that men such as Einstein, 

fax Born and Sikorsky were all refugees, 
who gave their adopted countries priceless 
knowledge and industry? 
The Red Cross TVorld, Yo!. XXXIX, No.3 


JAJ.'JUARY. 1960. Vol. 56. No.1 


The best mirror is an old friend. 
- GEORGE HERBERT 
* * * 
Love your neighbour, yet pull not down 
your hedge. - GEORGE HERBERT 


11 



THE MOUNTAIN 
SANATORIUM 


HAMILTON, ONTARIO 


TWO-:\IONTH 
POSTGRADUATE COURSE 
IN THE IMMUNOLOGY, 
PREVENTION & TREA T\IENT 
OF TUBERCULOSIS 


This course is especial1y valuable 
to those contemplating Public 
Health, Industrial, or Tuberculo- 
sis Nursing. 


F or further illformatioll aþpl'jl to: 
Director of Nursing, 
Mountain Sanatorium 
Hamilton, Ontario. 


THE WINNIPEG GENERAL 
HOSPITAL 


Offers to qualified Registered Grad. 
uate Nurses th
 following opportu- 
nity for advanced preparation: 


A six month Clinical Course in Oper- 
ating Room Principles and Advanced 
Practice. 


Courses commence in JANUARY and 
SEPTEMBER of each year. Maintenanc
 
is provided. A reasonable stip
nd is 
given after the first month. Enrol- 
ment is limited to a maximum of six 
students. 


For further information pleas
 
writ
 to: 


DIRECTOR OF NURSING 
GENERAL HOSPITAL 
WINNIPEG, MANITOBA 


QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY 
SCHOOL OF NURSING 


COURSES OFFERED 


Undergraduate 
Degree Course, 5 years leading to 
BNSc. Degree 


Graduate Nurses 
a. Degre Course, two years. 
b. Diploma Courses, one year. 
Public Health Nursing 


or 
Teaching and Supervision in Schools 
of Nursing. 


For information apply to: 


DIRECTOR 
SCHOOL OF NURSING, 
QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY 
KINGSTON, ONTARIO 


12 


MOUNT HAMIL TON 
HOSPITAL 


offers a three-month Postgraduate 
Course in Obstetric Nursing to quali- 
fied Registered Nurses. 
Additional lectures in Teaching and 
Administration will be given in con- 
junction with McMaster University. 


FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE 
AVAilABLE. 


Course to commence 
January, April, September. 


For further information apply to: 


MISS ELIZABETH FERGUSON, R.N., 
SUPERINTENDENT OF NURSING, 
MOUNT HAMILTON HOSPITAL, 
HAMILTON, ONTARIO 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 




IVERSITY OF SASI\:A TCHE\V AN 
School of 
 ursing 



^ 


. 


..:
 


:I. 


'... . 


i
 
:;
 
.:-:; .. 


. . . , 
y- , 


". . .".......". ' .;:.q'J' 
.,
..,;:.'''-
...; 


'''''"-'t
, '- 



 


_
 ., ' , . 
 ,- \.-;d.:::; .:---;. 
.;Ju..:'. .:.. 
.

 ,. .. ,_, W!. 
', ltU'
 ",
_";:.n 
At
,i,. 

',.:
 ,
:;: 


'\
r:
 :
ì
: :: 
t. 
. 'U,ft nt ' l . '.. 1. 
'ì.'.., .;111 
'1,1 ßI it J!
II" 
.,' ii t
tlif 
n . 
 . .t. 
n ,'
 .," 
...... ":
.{ 
:: '^' ... 


'- 


, 


... 



 '
" 
. 
t . 


, 
" 


-. 

. .... 



. 


\' 



::., 



',,,,,<
,v,. 


" 


..... 

 


in cooperation \vith 
UKIVERSITY HOSPITAL 


PROGRMIS FOR GRADUATE NCRSES 
Teaching and Supervision 
To meet the needs of nurses wishing to prepare for positions of responsi- 
biHty in either teaching or supervision in Schools of Nursing. 
Public Health Nursing 
To meet the needs of nurses wishing university preparation for staff work 
in public health nursing agencies. 
Administration of Hospital Nursing Service 
To meet the needs of nurses preparing for head nurse, supervisory or 
matron positions. 
This program is supported by the W. K. Kellogg Foundation. 
Diplomas are granted on successful completion of the above programs and 
credits earned may be applied toward the degree of Bachelor of Science in 
Nursing. 


PROGRAMS FOR mGB SCHOOL GRADUATES 
Leading to the Degree in Nursing 
Students with senior matriculation may pursue a combined academic 
and professional program leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in 
Nursing. In the final year students will elect to study Teaching and 
Supervision or Public Health Nursing. This broad educational background 
followed by graduate professional experience enables nurses to progress 
rapidly into positions of responsibility. 
Leading to the Diploma in Nursing 
A three year hospital program is conducted for students meeting the 
entrance requirements of the University. 


For further illformation or illquiries about scholarships, write to. 
DIRECTOR, SCHOOL OF NURSING, UNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHE\V AN 
SASKATOOS, SASKATCHEWAN 


JANUARY. 1960. Vol. 56. No. 1 


13 



THE NATIONAL HOSPITAL 
QUEEN SQUARE 
London, W.C.1 
and 


MAIDA VALE HOSPITAL 
London W.9, England 
(Institute of Neurology, University of 
London) 
Postgraduate Nursing Education for 
Medical Neurology & Brain Surgery 
One year courses are open to Nurses on 
the General Register with good educational 
background. 
3 mo. full time instruction in the school 
under guidance of the Sister Tutor assisted 
by a teaching staff of senior neurologists 
& neuro-surgeons. 
a-mo. clinical experience, 1 mo. vacation. 
Certificate & badge of the hospital awarded 
to successful students. Staff nurses' salary 
paid throughout the year. This work has a 
special appeal to nurses interested in 
research & the humanitarian aspect of 
nursing. 


Apply, in writing, to Matron, 
THE NATIONAL HOSPITAL, 
W.C.1. 


COURSES 
FOR 
GRADUATE NURSES 


in various clinical fields. 


Terms begin February 8, 
1960, May 2, 1960, July 25, 
1960 and October 17, 1960. 


Room, meals, laundering of 
uniforms, and honorarium 
provided. 


Apply to: 
DIRECTOR, 
COOK COUNTY SCHOOL 
OF NURSING, 
DEPT. C., 1900 WEST POLK ST., 
CHICAGO 12, ILLINOIS 


THE JOHNS HOPKINS 
HOSPITAL 
SCHOOL of NURSING 


Offers to qualified Registered Nurses 
a 16-week supplementary course in 


OPERATIVE ASEPTIC TECHNIC 


with instruction and practice in the 
general surgical, neurosurgical, plastic 
orthopedic, gynecologic, ophthalmolo- 
gic, urologic and ear, nose and throat 
operating room services. Uaintenance 
and stipend are provided. 


For information write to: 


DIRECTOR, SCHOOL OF NURSING 
THE JOHNS HOPKINS HOSPITAL 
BALTIMORE 5, MARYLAND, U.S.A. 


14 


WILLS EYE HOSPITAL 
Philadelphia, Penna. 


The largest eye hospital in the 
United States offers a six-month 
course in Nursing Cm'e of the Eye to 
Graduates of Accredited Nursing 
Schools. Operating Room Training is 
scheduled in the course. 
· FulI maintenance and a stipend of 
$205 per month for the first four 
months. $215 per month for the last 
two months, plus maintenance. 
· REGISTRATION FEE is $20 
· Course starts March 15 & Septem- 
ber 15. Ophthalmic Nurses in great 
demand for hospital eye departments, 
operating rooms & ophthalmologists' 
offices. 


For information write to: 


Director of Nurses, 
Wills Eye Hospital. 
1601 Spring Garden Street, 
Philadelphia 30, Penna. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



ROYAL 
VICTORIA 
HOSPITAL 


SCHOOL Of NURSING 
MONTREAL, QUEBEC 


Postgraduate Courses 


(a) Six month clinical course in Obstet- 
rical Nursing. 
Classes - September and February. 
(b) Two month clinical course in Gyne- 
cological Nursing. 
Classes following the six month 
course in Obstetrical Nursing. 


(c) Eight week course in Care of the 
Premature Infant. 


2. Six month course in Operating Room 
Technique and Management. 
Classes - September and March. 


3. Six month course in Theory and Practice 
in Psychiatric Nursing. 
Classes - September and March. 


Complete maintenance or living-out allow- 
ance is provided for the full course. 
Salary - a generous allowance for the 
last half of the course. 


Graduate nurses must be registered and in 
good standing in their own Provinces. 


For information and details of the courses, 
apply to:- 
Miss H. M. Lamont, B.N. 
Director of Nursing, 
Royal Victoria Hospital, 
Montreal, P.O. 


JANUARY, 1960. Vol. 56. No. 1 


The tailored look is the result of 


Bland's distinctive style and the 


meticulous care In making the 


uniforms. 


I;;;> 


:;) 

 



. 
It.' 


\ ,!Q 


t.!
1 , 
It
 


I'
 


" 


You may have the New Catalogue if you write 


Made and Sold Only by 


BLAND AND COMPANY 


2048 Union Ave., Montreal, Canada 


15 



for your own 
and your patients' 
skin care 
CJ<
Ivt

 
skIN 
, C4
ê 
prevents. . . relieves 
rough, dry skin 



. '. 
 . " '"/,,,,"7' 
. " 
, .t .
':. \ ' {,.., 
. '. .:-."::. I \, , . ,. . . . "-. : · 
,'- . --
 ,- ..... 
 .... . 

 \ 
 '., 

 


. . . ideal after" scrub-ups" . for "detergent hands" . for use after 
dermatoses . for babies' tender skin . powder base, chafing, chapping 


VANZA CREME 


Soothing. emollient Vanza Creme forms 
a thin, protective, non-greasy film which 
protects against dehydration. . . 
PJubricates" with a cholesterinized 
water-in-oil emulsion. 
smooth-spreading . . . quickly absorbed 
2
 oz. tube, and 4 and J 5 oz. jars. 


---- -----'" 
"na n . 
 
1 



!:': þ. ?
 ,. ' 
N c
 
,,---. " 
'------- ' 


........... 
.. 
. 
. 
. 
. 


MAIL COUPON FOR FULL-SIZE TUBE 


. 
. 


A 
COMPANION 
PRODUCT: 


. 
. 


VanZant & Co., limited, Dept. CN-3 
357 Co!lege Street, Toronto, Ontario 
Please mail me free of charge a complimentary tube of 
Vanza Creme and guest size Vanza Superfatted Soap. 


. 
. 


VANZA 
. SUPERFATTED SOAP 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
........... 


NAME .....................o......... . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


for <ensitive or dry 
skin, fine. also, 
for nursery use. 


STREET. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


. 
. 


CITY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. PROY................. 


16 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



THE CAnADIAn nURSE 


A 
IN 


MONTHLY 
ENGLISH 


JOURNAL FOR 
AND FRENCH BY 


THE 
THE 


CANADA PUBLISHED 
NURSES' ASSOCIATION 


NU RSES OF 
CANADIAN 


VOLUME 56 


74 STANLEY AVENUE, OTTAWA 


NUMBER 1 


MONTREAL, 


JANUARY 


1960 


Wantrd: Leaders 


Dr ITH the increasing development of 
" a social consciousness in the varied 
and complex problems of the nursing 
profession today it seems that a major 
concern must be the development of 
leaders. On a board scale, we are 
concerned with the changing policies 
and philosophy of nursing education 
and nursing service. \ Y e want our 
schools of nursing to be organized, 
administered and financed in such a 
way as to conform with modern the- 
ori
s of edncation. \ Y e \vant our nurs- 
ing services geared to the fulfilment of 
the needs of SOl'let\'. \\-e are anxious 
to determine most efficiemh' the func- 
tions of onr yarlOUS categories of pro- 
fessional nurses and of our nursing 
personnel. \Ye \\"ish to make dear what 
we expect from nursing studies and 
research projects and how \\"e plan for 
the maximum utilization of the data 
we collect. \ Yhen we examine these 
problems frum al1 these angles, we are 
perhaps partly justified in thinking 
that what we lleed most may not be 
more nurses but more leaders. - 
On a smal1er 
cale. we are confront- 
ed with the everyday problems of 
leadership. \Ye mnst select and pre- 


JANUARY. 1960. Vol. 56. 
o. 1 


pare the nurses who, through the ex- 
periences and skills that they acquire 
as teachers, head nurses and super- 
visors, will prepare for the broader 
tasks that today's changing order wil1 
present as tomorrow's challenge. 
\\' e often hear the complaint that 


(G Carpenter) 
_-\LICE GmARO 


17 



potential leaders are loath to accept 
positions of leadership. Have we made 
these positions appealing enough to 
induce those who show some promise 
of success, to want to accept the added 
responsibilities? Should we not start 
looking for potential leaders among 
student nurses and is it not our duty 
to train leaders? \ V e never know the 
measure to which a person can develop 
leadership qualities until she has been 
given the opportunity to exercise this 
ability. \Ve all know persons who have 
developed surprisingly well when 
placed in the right situations. Since 
leadership is concerned with how peo- 
ple can be helped to work together 
effectively and happily to\.\;ards a com- 
mon end, team work offers good situ- 
ations for the young nurse to try 
her skills in human relationships. 
Studies made by the Carnegie Founda- 
tion indicate that success in leader- 
ship depends more on desirable per- 
sonal qualities than on any other single 
factor. 
The young nurse with these qualities 
in such a situation can often, with 
youth's natural vigor, energy and en- 
thusiasm, gain what she lacks in experi- 
ence, for experience is of value only if 
it has been of the right kind. If the 
young nurse offers possibilities that we 
must not neglect, the mature nurse on 
the other hand may have the surer 
judgment, the breadth of vision and 
the prestige that her accomplishments 


offer. She is also more apt to have 
better developed skil1s, ability and 
poise. Have we not aU, at one time or 
another in our career, admired a 
mature leader who has influenced our 
behavior and inspired our life? In a 
study of why some leaders fail, the 
leading reasons were lack of apprecia- 
tion of the importance of human rela- 
tions, inability to cooperate with others, 
to delegate responsibilities and to make 
decisions. 

Iildred E. 1\ e\o\.ton states five "I" 
qualities designed to help attract and 
develop potential leaders: 
Identify the leadership characteristics. 
Interpret the role of a leader. 
Inspire the ambition to become a leader. 
Instruct for leadership. 
Initiate the climate for leadership. 
To elaborate on these qualities 
would take too long. All are, perhaps, 
equal1y important but I believe that 
the last one should permeate all phases 
of the others. Before complaining of 
the lack of leaders let us look at the 
air that we create around us and see 
if it is that of a good climate in which 
to grow leaders. 


Newton, M. E. Developing Leadership 
Potential. Nursing Outlook, July 1957. 


ALICE GIRARD 
President 
Canadian Nurses' Association 


Going to Boston in Febrnary
 


The annual four-day joint sectional meet- 
ing of the American College of Surgeons will 
be held at the Sheraton-Plaza Hotel, Boston 
from February 29 through March 3. Nurses 
are guests of the college and as such pay no 
registration fee. 
The preliminary program is as follows: 
February 29 
Morning: Panel - The Person with an 
Ileostomy 
Afternoon: Panel discussion and demonstra- 
tion - Surgical Sepsis. 
March 1 
Morning: Panel - Rehabilitation of the 


18 


Severely Inj ured Patient. 
Afternoon: Panel - Medical and Surgical 
Nursing in the Basic Curriculum. 
March 2 
Morning: The Burned Child: fresh burns, 
the convalescent patient, nursing aspects. 
Afternoon: Panel - Nursing Research: Its 
potential Growth and Development 
March 3 
Morning: Panel - Comprehensive Care of 
Patients who have Maxillofacial Surgery and 
Laryngectomy. 
Th
re will be hospital tours and demonstra- 
tions for nurses Monday through Wednesday. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Three Wishes 


DOROTHY M:. PERCY 
Remember if you can the message given to you on your graduation day. How 
different perhaps from these three wishes for a group of 1959 graduates. 


I N the far off olden time (1926) when 
I was briefly associated with The 
Ottawa Civic, it seemed a busy enough 
place in all conscience. The first of 
the new houses in this area were 
creeping close to the hospital. There 
was, however, considerable concern 
lest patients' relatives and friends 
would find the hospital "a bit far out" 
on visiting days. 
Now, in more senses than one, the 
Civic is almost in centre town. As 
this hospital, built in the 1920's, strives 
with courage, energy and vision to 
meet the medical and nursing needs- 
and demands - of the 1950's, we see 
an increasingly meaningful interchange 
between hospital and community, For 
example, nurses in hospital are finding 
themselves giving more health teaching 
to patients and their families. This 
is part of the therapy in which the 
nurse in hospital participates. 
Conversely, the nurses in the com- 
munity are doing more bedside nurs- 
ing as greater numbers of patients 
move out earlier from hospital to their 
homes. This movement is bound to be 
accelerated. Early ambulation, self- 
help, rehabilitation - an of these and 
other factors as well are adding to 
clinical nursing the coloring of that 
which was once considered public 
health nursing only. The care in their 
own homes of increasing numbers of 
patients discharged earlier from hos- 
pital or prevented from going unneces- 
sarily into hospital, is giving clinical 
coloring to the work of the public 
health nurse. 
This is interesting and challenging 
for the hospital and the community. 
Among other things, it points up the 
interdependence of the two and the 
urgent need for the development and 


This address was given to the 1959 
graduating class of the Ottawa Civic 
Hospital by Miss Percy, Chief Nursing 
Consultant of the Department of Na- 
tional Health and Welfare, Ottawa, 
Ontario. 


JANUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No. 1 


maintenance of dose and better com- 
munication between them. There are 
important implications, too, for the 
education of the student nurse. 
It would be fatally easy for me 
at this point to elaborate on the com- 
plex and baffling problems that face 
nursing today, Some of the problems 
you are familiar with; others will 
doubtless affect you shortly. Today 
is supposed to be, in a very special 
sense, your Day. For you, then, I 
make three wishes. I wish for you: 
1. A hard life 
2. The courage to be udifferent." 
3. SO'1nething which, for the mo- 
'ment, will be labelled Si11'tply 
uI.A." 
N ow what do I mean by deliberately 
wishing you "a hard life?" Am I com- 
pletely out of step on an occasion when, 
as a matter of course, the most fre- 
quently repeated wishes you will hear 
win be for you success and happiness? 
Not at all. These things are not mu- 
tually exclusive - success, happiness 
and hardness of life. I believe, with 
all my heart, that young people have 
a tremendous capacity for response to 
the present-day equivalent of "blood, 
sweat, toil and tears." The trouble is, 
that we so often offer them instead of 
bread, a "stone." 
I repeat therefore the hope that you 
will have a "hard life." Please note, 
I am not suggesting that there should 
be any slackening in efforts to bring 
about long overdue improvements in 
nurses' salaries and working conditions. 
Such improvement is vitally urgent. 
\Vhat I am pleading for is that as 
young nurses you will not think ex- 
clusively in terms of security but rather 
of how and where you can make the 
best investment of your newly acquired 
professional skills, not only as nurses, 
but also as citizens. 
Mr. Gratton O'Leary, speaking 
some time ago to the Rotary Club 
of Ottawa, characterized as frighten- 
ing this 
pitiful craving for the unadventured 


19 



life, for \\> hat is called "security:" men 
at 20 dreaming úi 65; in youth, aspiring 
to a saie senility: men becoming smal- 
ler and meaner through shrinking from 
the duties and responsibilities of life. 
In my tra\-els across Canada in the 
course of my work I 
ee nursing in 
many of its aspects. I catch g1impse
 
of the needs and the breath-taking 
chal1enges there are for young people 
in our country. ); ever were the op- 
portunities so many or so exciting for 
the young nurse who is alert, keen 
and ready to meet them head on. 
Don't let anyone te11 you the pioneer 
davs of Canarla are over! There are 
stiÍl frontiers - even in tne geographi- 
cal sense. 
The horizuns are indeed unlimited. 
One thinks of tne opportunities pre- 
sented by the newer concepts of nurs- 
ing care in the fields of psychiatry. 
rehabilitation, geriatrics, home care. 
etc. There is the crying need for more 
we11-prepared teachers in schools of 
nursing. The changing emphases in 
commtmitr nur
ing are fascinating, too. 
Nursing has strnck its tents and is nn 
tne march. 
N or are the opportunities limited 
to onr own country. Canadian nurses 
are making a distinguished contribu- 
tion in many centre
 abroad through 
the \Vorld Health Organization and 
Colombo Plan programs. 
The worcI apprenticeship is not in 
very good odor in nursing education 
circles today. \\Te might remind our- 
selves, nowever, that in medieval times 
a person was apprenticed not to a job, 
hut to a master_ Frankly, I look for- 
ward to the day when 

;e shaH ha\"e 
"Masters of Nursing" (not neces- 
sarilv or solely in the academic sense, 
incr
asingly i'
l1portant and rlesirable 
as these degrees may be for a certain 
number of nurses) but masters of the 
art of lIursing.. practitioners þar ex- 
cellence of nursing in its widest and 
deepest sense, from whom the on-com- 
ing generations of nurses can learn 
much that is not contained in text- 
books. Perhaps one or two of you 
may, after the "passport" you receive 
today has been stamped with various 
experience "visas", aspire to be that 
kind of practitioner of nursing. It 
could be rewarding not only for you, 
hut for yonr patient
 and the doctors 
as well. 


20 


So nmch for the .. hard life" that is 
going to make demands on every- 
thing you have to offer of skins, per- 
sonalitv and character. \\'hat about 
my seéond wish - the courage to be 
different? 
One of our greatest dangers today. 
not only in nursing but in almost every 
field, is that of developing into "con- 
formists." People are afraid to be "dif- 
ferent," of being "individuals." This 
is particularly tragic when we see it 
among young people who should be, 
in the constructive 
ense of the word. 
rebels. Quoting l\Ir. O'Leary again: 
\Ve think in headlines, live on slogans 
and catch-words dreamed up for us by 
cocksure commentators on radio and 
television who have all life's answers 
wrapped up for us in cellophane. We 
are a11 "know-how," and no "know- 
why"; all facts and no knowledge, all 
specialization and no wisdom; all sign- 
posts and no destination. 
Rather grim, isn't it? But there is 
a hard core of stern truth in it. It is 
hard. to be an individual today, to 
think inrlependently, to act indepen- 
dently. \Ye move with the herd. We 
are vulnerable to the impact of mass 
communication media. "Togetherness" 
has become a cult. It is increasingly 
difficult to ohtain time, quiet and pri\y- 
acv in which to learn "the color of 
oD'e's sou1." 
I should like tu incite you to open 
rebel1ion against the status quo. The 
problems that beset our profession 
need some fresh, independent think- 
ing. Don't sit back and let the "mus- 
ing leaders" do this fOJ' you. Belie\'e 
me, the)' are groping, too ? Yours may 
he the ideas that will help cut through 
some of the tired c1ichés and inade- 
quate compromise solutions. J n what- 
eyer field of nursing you find yourself, 
don't be afraid to think as an indi- 
,'idual, and to make your views known. 
It mav be hard to 
be different but it 
is esséntial if we are to hreak out of 
this viciou
 circle of mediocrity ;1Ild. 
conformity. "\\'here a11 think alike, 110 
one is thinking very mnch." 
)\ ow T suppose you are wondering- 
ahout my third point - uJ.A." There 
is a little olò book in my bookca
e 
of which I am very fond.' Its title i
 
"Pedagogue Pie." It was published in 
England in 1936 (now ont of print. 
alas!) and was written hy D. F. P. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Hiley. then about to retire after 40 
years as headmistress in a girls' schoo1. 
The author must have been a salty 
old lady and although her terse, pithy, 
philosophical reflections have to do 
with teachers and teaching, much of 
what she has to say applies equal1y 
\yel1 to nurses and nursing. For in- 
...-tance, she makes this strong plea for 
the development of interests outside 
one's work: 
Though one should give one's whole 
self to one's profe-ssion it is just the 
superabundance of personality that will 
not be absorbed, but slops over into other 
things that is going to make one's work 
vital and productive. 
This seems to me an important word 
fur our da\' when we are al1 in every 
\\'alk of life, caught in traps of ove;- 
organization and over-specialization. 
Do make sure, as you launch out into 
your professional life, that you invest 
in those values that, strictly speaking. 
lie outside nnrsing but which, in a 
\'ery special sense, wil1 increa
e your 
stature as a nurse. 
r would wish for you that you never 
lose your desire to learn something 
new (or, it may be, something old); 
that you keep your sense of curiosity 
sharp: that, if you think you haven't 
had much time up to now to read 
widely, you win set about discovering 
the delights and consolations of books. 
Nurses, you kn0w, (at least we older 
ones) are sometimes suspected of being 
narrow in our interests and, it must be 
confessed with sorrow, even of being 
a bit tedious, earnest and downright 
dul1! Anything that will jolt you out 
of your nice comfortable rut, that wiU 
hroaden your horizons, wiII help make 
it unlikely that you will ever be labell- 
ed "dul1." 
I think here, too, of music, paint- 
ing, bowling, dramatics, swimming, 
square dancing, gardening, cycling. 
hird watching. hobbies of various sorts; 
work with church groups, community 
activities - oh, just dozens of things. 
The main thing is that whatever you 
do should be different, in degree at 
least, from your everyday work. Most 
important, it should be something YOll 
like doing because it's fun, not because 
you (or anyone else) thinks you should 
do it. 
You see. outside interests will help 
to make you a more vital, more in- 


JANUARY, 1960. Vol. 56. No.1 


teresting, more understanding per sun : 
in short, a better nurse, wen equipped 
to give generously of yourself to a 
troubled world hungry for friendly 
concern. Hear our retired headmist- 
ress agam: 
\Vhat really permanently impresses 
one is the increasing richness of life 
. . . Do let the free part of your person- 
ality flap in the wind. Keep your sense 
of wonder fresh and your interests 
active, especially human, artistic, spir- 
itual interests. 
Oh yes, what is "J..l.",! Thi
 i
 an 
abbreviation I use to designate some- 
thing that the headmistress feels no 
professional woman should be without 
- a touch of what she cans "jovous 
assishness" - the art of being: eJvery 
once in a while. and for no particular 
reason, )ust what it says - "a joy- 
ous ass ! 
How about a "spot of J./\.." - guar- 
anteed to havc definite value as a 
head shrinker, and as an allrou1J(1. 
sure-fire antidote for the "poison" of 
taking oneself or one's work too se- 
riously? Just a mite crazy, you under- 
stand. _ \s the headmistress puts it: 
"There is something to be said for an 
agreable touch of lunacy. l\Iadnt'ss 
is so vitalizing." Not a bad pre
crip- 
tion, taken in small doses with a nice 
discrimination. whenever \'ou fll1rl 
yourself becoming tense, irrÍtated and 
frustrated with this exasperating IH1
i- 
l1ess of being a nurse. 
Now one last word which, I think. 
stuns it all up and apart ft-om which 
nothing we are or do has any real or 
lasting significance. Dr. Karl 
Iennin- 
ger, one of the wodd's outstanding 
figures in the mental health field says: 
"Love is the key to the succes')ful 
treatment of the mentally ill patient." 
He might have said: "Love i...- the key 
to the successful treatment of all.\' þa- 
tient, or indeed of any person. ,. This 
we must learn for it says it aI1. 
I t would seem of utmost importance 
that all of us understand that, when 
we say this, we are expressing our 
belief in something that is mort' than 
a pious platitude, totally unrelated to 
the stark requirements of professional 
competence. In the heartbreaking pres- 
sures exerted today on hospitals there 
is a real danger of the personal factor 
being overlooked in pursuit of organ- 
ization. Faced b,' the need for ever- 


21 



expanding facilities and mounting costs, 
it is inevitable and understandable that 
hospital authorities be ceaselessly con- 
cerned with efficient operation. We 
need to remind ourselves from time 
to time of the reason for the existence 
of a hospital - that the services ren- 
dered are for a person. given to a 
person, by a person. This philosophy 
must permeate the attitudes and be- 
havior of an who serve in the health 
field. It will affect especiaIly the one 
who has the closest relationship to 
the patient, the nurse. 
You who are graduating are \veIl 
equipped for what you haye to do. You 
have much to offer your patients in 
the way of skins and techniques. It 
is vital for the safety, comfort and 
ultimate recoyery of your patients 
that you understand the purpose and 
nature of these and that you perform 
them wel1. But YOU and I know that. 
while essential, these are not the whole 
of nursing. In spite of scientific dis- 
coveries and technical advances in me- 


dicine (rather, perhaps, because of 
them) your patients, who are human, 
are still very much in need of under- 
standing, sympathy, and compassion. 

Iany patients, I think you will find, 
are impressed not so much by what 
you do for them or with them, but by 
what you are to them. It is what you 
give of yourself that is of therapeutic 
value. So, in this "helping" profes- 
sion you have chosen - this "giving" 
profession, if you will - make sure 
that in addition to everything else you 
give your patients, you give them 
yourself, too. As one of the older poets 
reminds us, "The gift without the 
giver is bare." 
This final thought I want to leave 
with you has been weIl said recently. 
I quote from an editorial written in 
tribute to the late Dr. 'Villiam Cone, 
of the l\lontreaI Neurological Institute. 
To all those who came to him won- 
dering and worrying, he gave the full- 
ness of his hope, and in the hopeless 
times, stood with them in their sorrow. 


In the Good Old Days 


(Thc Calladian Nurse - JANUARY, 1920) 


Possibilities of N c'wfolllldialld - Lord 
Morris said, not long ago, that there are 
sufficient fish on the Newfoundland banks 
and along the Newfoundland and Labrador 
shores to feed the whole of the British Em- 
pire. It is the second largest producer of 
iron in the British Empire, England being 
first. There is enough to supply the needs 
of the world for the next hundred years. 
* * * 
The 111 others' Memorial - A silver cross, 
hung from a purple ribbon, is to be given to 
any mother in Canada who 10st a son in the 
war. 1-lajor-General 1lewburn, Minister of 
Militia, is the authority for the statement. 
* * * 
The Prince a Canadian - In one of his 
after-dinner speeches in New York, the 
Prince of \Vales said: "I have become a 
rancher and a farmer in a small way by 
buying a ranch in Alberta. This makes me 
feel quite a Westerner; for the young, free, 
democratic spirit of the \Vest appeals to me 
enormously. I had a wonderful time in Cana- 
da, and Canadians quite spoiled me by the 
kindness and hospitality which they showed 


22 


me throughout my three months' tour across 
the Dominion and' back." In another speech 
he said that he came to the United States 
not only as an Englishman, but as a Cana- 
dian, across a border for three thousand 
miles undefended by a fort. 
* * * 
Belated News for Eskimos - The Eski- 
mos living near Cumberland Bay, on the 
Arctic Coast, had had no visitors from the 
outside world since 1917. When the crew of 
a Norwegian steamer told them of the end 
of the war, and the Allied victory, they were 
greatly excited. They celebrated with sing- 
ing and dancing, to the music of a melo- 
deon. They were strongly pro-AIly, as 
they had been badly treated by a German 
crew that visited them before the war. 
They were skeptical about the submarines, 
being unable to understand how a vessel 
could sink another vessel when itself under 
\'iater. 


I t is true that liberty is precious - so 
precious that it must be rationed. - LENIN 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Test Construction in Jursing Education 


\VILLIAM H. Lucow, PH.D. 


If you have had difficulty in measuring the achie'z:ements of your nursing students 
and can identify your problems, the solutions may re'veal 
then'Lselves in this study of the construction and use of objective 
tests. 


P RESEKTED below are the ingredients 
of a four-session course in test con- 
struction given to teachers from :\Iani- 
toba schools of nursing at their Insti- 
tute for Instructors held June 15-19, 
1959 in \Vinnipeg. 
Session One started with the in- 
structor's declaration that the invi- 
tation "tickled him to death" like the 
grasshopper ,,,ho swallowed a cater- 
piHar. 
The purpose of the gathering was 
to gain facility in constructing and 
using objecti'Te tests with which to 
measure the achieyement of nursing 
students. The 'Tirtues of objective 
tests, 
11!qity a nd - 
iabilitL were 
briefly discussed, and t e meeting went 
on to the practical consideration of a 
sample test based on one of their of- 
ferings, Fundamcntals of Nursillg. As 
an introduction, the test ,,"as taken by 
the teachers themselves, who were the
 
in a better position to foHow the 
argument on how validity and re- 
liability might be incorporated. The 
test is giyen in full on page 
The first step in test construction 
is the drawing up of a table of speci- 
fications. This should be done before 
the first lecture is gi\'en. The syllabus 
or program of studies together with 
the textbook are studied by the in- 
structor, who then draws up a plan of 
topics weighted in importance by per- 
centages. The proportions of marks 
for each topic in the final examination 
correspond roughly to those planned. 
The table of specificationsl used as 
the basis for the sample test in the 
fundamentals of nursing appears on 
page 
Each topic in the table of speci- 
fications is identified by a key letter, 
to be used on 3 x 5 cards when the 
individual items are composed. This 


Dr. Lucow is in the Faculty of Edu- 
cation, University of Manitoba. 


JANUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No. 1 


should be done daih-, after each lec- 
ture, so that the fiñal test may have 
content and curricular validity. By the 
end of the cour
e the file of items 
should be large enough to afford an 
adequate selection. 
Ya1idity may be further incorpor- 
ated by dropping or altering items 
that prove ineffectiye in the first ad- 
minis
 ra tion. 
Session Two was used to analyze 
hypothetical answers to the test. (The 
instructor did not use the responses 
by the teachers in the audience be- 
cåuse he felt sure all items were an- 
swered correctly, and there would be 
no
hing to anãlyze.) :\Iimeographed 
copies of the hypothetical answer sheets 
were distributed, and all teachers pre- 
sent could proceed indiyidually with 
the tabulation and analysis of scores. 
The Tahulation Sheet is shown on 
page 32. An "x" indicates a correct 
response, and an "0" indicates an in- 
correct response. 
Analysis of the items was directed 
toward t".o aspects of ya1iditv: the 
index of difficulty and the index of 
discrimination. The difficulty of an 
item is defined as the percentage of 
correct responses. Thus, a high index 
of 9070 indicates an easy item, while 
a low index indicates a difficult one. 
Items correctly answered by all can- 


''9 


... 


" 
::;;. -- 


\V
r. H. LL"co\\' 


23 



didate::. must be eliminated. Similarh', 
items missed by aU should be thro\\:n 
out. A good ".orking range is from 
difficulty indexes of 30% to í07'r, 
with more of them closer to 50% than 
far from it. Items 6. 27, 28. and 13 
would ob\"iously be thrown out on this 
score. 
The index of discrimination indi- 
cates whether the top students did 
better on an item than did the bottom 
students. In order to determine this 
index, the pupils are listed in order 
of merit. as on the tabulation sheet, 
and the top half is cum pared with 
the bottom half (or top third with bot- 
tom third). Item 14. on which more 
poor students did better than the good 
students, is an example of re\-erse dis- 
crimination. Such an item should he 
dropped 'when the test is re\'isec1. 
The rletails of test con
truction and 
analvsis of results ma\' be found in 
most of the reference...; fIsted at the end 
of this article. 
Session Three \\"a:-- concerned \\-ith 
elementarv statistical notions of meas- 
ures of 
entral tendency and di:,per- 
sion of marks. This led to a discussion 
of the normal cun'e and the awarding 


ra w scores and proceeded to give let- 
ter grades. A, B, C, D, and E in the 
course. For final record purposes, 
however. the marks must be stated in 
numbers out of 100. The problem was: 
How miglzt letter grades be cOllverted 
into nU11lber scores. v 
These conditions had to be met in 
solving the problem: 
1. The pass mark \\'as 60. so an 
"E" would haye to be helow 60. 
2. The distribution of scores would 
be assumed to be normal. 
3. The grade "C" would extend 
half a standard de\-iation on either 
side of the mcan. and the other letter 
grades \\-ould be one standard devi- 
ation wide proceeding from "C" as in 
the diagram below. 
-1-. The mark of I 00 would be at 
the position three "tandard deviations 
from the mean. 
The fol1o,,-ing formula was derived 
to fulfill the foregoing conditions: 
SO X-:\f 220 
L==- + 
9 a 3 
where L is a standard score satisfy- 
ing the conditions. X is the numerical 
ra\\' score of a candidate. 1\I is the mean 


-3.00' 


-1.50' -.50' +.50' +1.50' 
THE NORMAL CLRVE 


+3.00' 


A fi'l'c-lettcr marking system would have the indicated percelltage 
of students getting each grade. 


of marks on the basis of standard 
scores rather than on raw scores. 
Session Four continued the matter 
of marks and grades with consideration 
of a special problem that had arisen 
in practice. 
Suppose an instructor of nursing 
students realized the unre1iability of 


24 


of the group wntmg the examination, 
and u is the standard deviation of th
 
group. 
The information in this formula 
could be used to solve the original 
problem of converting letter grades 
into numerical scores. Using the 
boundaries set by the conditions above, 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



the practical limits turn out to be: 
.A == 87 to 100 
B == 78 to 86 
C == 70 to 77 
D == 60 to 69 
E == below 60 
Some suhjecti\-e judgments \\-ould 


ha ye to be made in deciding whether 
a mark was a high A, a middle A, or 
a low A, etc. 
The last session ended with a 
discussion of essay-type questions 
and how they might be made more 
reliable. 


TABLE OF SPECIFICATIO
S 


Fundamentals of 
 ursing 
(Based on Harmer and Henderson, Textbook oj the Principles 
and Practice of Nursing, Fifth Edition, Macmillan, 1955) 


TOPIC 


I. 


Place of Nursing in Health SerL'icc 
1. Purpose 
2. Relationships (with others concerned) 
3. Functions 
4. Preparation 


II. Ministration of Nursing Care 
1. Nurse uses h
r ministration as a means of 
knowing the patient as a person. 
J Through her ministrations, the nurse at- 
tempts to meet the physical, psychological 
and spiritual needs of the patient in order 
of rdative importance to him. 
3. During th
 ministrations, the nurse: 
Encourages th
 patient to care for himself 
by such means as: placement of articles, 
special equipm
nt convenience of arrange- 
ment, written directions. 
Helps th
 patient to accept care necessarily 
given by others and to seek help when 
appropriate. 
Uses her ministrations for teaching those 
facts and procedures, purposes and rational 
of his therapy which the patient can use in 
meeting and solving problems of rehabili- 
tative self-care. 
4. Nurse uses the ministrations to seek evid- 
ence that the necessary modifications in the 
activities of daily living, such as: eating, 
resting, exercising, eliminating, are directed 
toward rehabilitation. 
5. When patient's concerns of a medical nature 
occur or persist, the nurse encourages him 
to discuss them with the physician, or, â 
he is unable to, the nurse herself set:ks 
medical resources for him. 


III. Oúscr'i.'atioll 
1. Nurse notes patient's characteristic physical, 
intellectual, emotional and social behavior to 
situations such as: placid, tense, compliant, 
aggressive, withdrawn, out-going, optimistic, 
pessimistic, euphoric, inconsistent, garrulous, 
quiet, social reasoning, opinionated, sad, 
happy, constructive, negativistic. thoughtful, 
gullible; alarmist, realistic, breadth of in- 
terests, attention span. 
2. 
urse notes patient's response to stress, such 
as: anxiety, hostility, aggression, withdrawal, 
over-alertness, over-talkativeness, perspir- 
ation' tremor, flushing, ill-at-ease. 


JANUARY. lQ60. Vol. 56 No 1 


KEY LETTER PER CENT 


p 


5% 


NC 


30% 


o 


20% 


>1:;: 



3. Nurse notes patient's individual responses to 
therapeutic measures in their relationship 
to his characteristic behavior. 
4. Nurse notes the relationship of the patient's 
behavior in the activities of daily living, 
such as: self-regulated exercises, sleep 
habits, food habits, rest habits; to the health 
teaching he receives from the nurse, and 
to his expressed attitudes toward life. 


IV. Teaching 
1. In planning health teaching with the patient 
the nurse seeks verbal expression of the 
patient's concept of his condition and its 
management, as well as an expression of 
his readiness and motivation to learn self- 
care. 
2. Whenever possible, the nurse includes mem- 
bers of the patient's home setting in her 
teaching of home care. 
3. Before presenting information, the nurse 
seeks evidence of the patient's ability to 
carry out self-care, or of his knowledge of 
what changes in his condition to watch for, 
such as signs of progress or of regression; 
or of his ability to observe and to use his 
ability to observe, and to use his reactions 
to therapy as a means of regulating his 
care with safety. She then corrects mis- 
interpretations, presents additional inform- 
ation, and reinterprets with him. 
4. Nurse seeks evidence that her teaching has 
increased the patient's awareness of his 
health problems, his capacity, and limitations, 
to the point that the patient understands what 
follow-up is desirable and where to seek it. 
5. Nurse permits the patient to make his own 
decisions, or collaborates with him when 
they share in making plans which affect him. 
Nurse helps the patient to solve his problems 
by encouraging him to express the first steps 
that he sees toward a solution and reviews 
these with him before adding factors or 
suggesting alternatives for his consideration. 
When patients with similar clinical conditions 
discuss the problems they have in common, 
the nurse guides the group in solving prob- 
lems of self-care. 


v, C o11lmunication 
1. Nurse in authority has some direct com- 
munication with the patient and is obtain- 
able if he requests her. 
2. Nurse gives evidence, through statements 
and gestures, of consistent acceptance of the 
patient, without approval or disapproval. 
3. Nurse permits the patient to set the direc- 
tion of discussion about himself. For the 
most part, the nurse keeps the conversations 
patient-centered. Nurse identifies and keeps 
the concerns expressed by the patient in 
focus as 10ng as he discusses them. Nurse 
identifies and seeks to clarify with the pa- 
tient what meaning his illness has for him, 
such as: pain, fear, mutilation, recurrence, 
recovery, death; his relationships, such as: 
family, friends, doctor; and his life settings, 
such as : home, work, social, spiritual. 
4. Nurse clarifies the patient's questions with 
him and tests his meaning of the terms he 
uses before answering him. Nurse tests the 


?
 


T 


25% 


c 


20% 


THE CANADIAN URSE 



patient's understanding of the terms she uses 
and the explanation she gives him. 
5. When patient's concerns of a medical, 
spiritual or emotional nature recur or per- 
sist, the nurse encourages him to discuss 
them with the appropriate person of author- 
ity, or, if he is unable to, the nurse herself 
seeks the appropriate authority for him. 
6. Nurse reflects the patient's feelings without 
any interpretation of them. In reassuring 
the patient, the nurse isolates or seeks to 
to have the patient express the hopeful facts 
that he sees and reviews these with him 
before adding other hopeful truths. 


AN OBJECTIVE TEST ON FUKDA:\fENTALS OF XlJRSI
G 
Experimental Edition 
(Based on Harmer and Henderson, Textbook of the Principles 
and Practice of Nursillg, Fifth Edition, Macmillan, 1955) 
Section One 
Instructiolls: Use T for true and F for false in answering the following statements. 
Record your answers on the answer slip provided. Do not write on this paper. 
Example: Disease is an abnormal state of the body. T 
Etiology refers to the treatment of disease. F 
1. Likes and dislikes of food by the patient must be ignored while he is in hospital. 
2. A nurse must be impersonal when referring to a patient: she should say, "the cardiac 
in Bed 2" rather than the name of the patient. 
3. Deep-seated emotional stress may interfere with the appetite of the patient. 
4. Occupation and economic status of the patient must not affect the kind of care given 
by the nurse. 
5. It is appropriate and desirable under some circumstances to do things for patients that 
they are entirely able to do for themselves. 
6. In pediatric service, a dose of T.L.c. may be given without a doctor's prescription. 
7. Constipation is more crucial than kidney failure. 
S. Play therapy has a meaning for the nurse that is different from its meaning for the- 
psychologist. 
9. The most difficult phase of medical practice is diagnosis. 
10. The introvert is often elated and euphoric. 


Section Two 
I nstrllcti01ls: Complete the following statements on your answer slip. 
Example: The capital of Manitoba is . _ . . . ... Winnipeg 
11. Normal body temperature on the centigrade scale is 
12. Meat should not be served on Friday to a patient whose religion is ........_ 
13. The collection of all information about a patient is known as 
14. A state of unconsciousness from which the patient cannot be aroused is reported 
as 


15. Inactive exercise in the form of massage is referred to as 
16. Symptoms that cannot objectively be observed by the nurse, such as pain or itching, 
are classed as 
17. Activity with no serious motive or material gain is known as . 
18. Conversation and interest of the nurse is, for the patient, a psychological 


JA:-.J"UARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No.1 


27 



19. -\ ssistance to a mother during alJd following deli very is one of the phases of nursm
 
referred to as . 
20. .\ psychotic who alternates between extremes of moods IS classed as 


Section Three 


I".'ilrltctiol/s: Put the letter representing the best answer on your answer slip. 
Example: The nurse's greatest responsibility is toward 


(a) doc tor 
(b) patient 
(c) hospital 
(d) supervisor 


ans wer: (b) 


21. Hestoration of patient to uptimum independence is referred to as 


(a) rehabilitation 
(b) recupel-ation 
(c) revival 
(d) a miracle 


22. The gynic shape is 


(a) fat 
(b) feminine 
(c) tonic 
(d) tall 


23. TIlt' "seven danger signals of cancer" taught by the Canadian Cancer Society includes 
(a) discharge from your job 
(b) persistent hoarseness Or cough 
(c) any change in a sore 
(d) persistent constipation or ditiiculty in elimination 


24 In the matter of elimination, the nurse is responsible for 
(a) diagnosis of stuol 
(b) treatment of metabolism 
(c) analysis of urine 
(d) facilities and privacy 


25. The ultimate aim of psychotherapy is 
(a) shock treatment to precede lobotomy 
(b) mental deficiency 
(c) to bring about self-treatment 
(d) to bring the person into satisfactory relationshivs with others 


26. The best guide in selecting OCCuIJation and recreation for an individual is 
(a) mental age 
(b) chronological age 
(c) height 
(d) weight 


28 


"HI<' eLl. N LI. TH AM "'TTTD"'
 



27. Rehabilitation begins with 
(a) diagnosis 
(b) treatment 
(c) psychosis 
(d) remuneration 


28. Probably the most effective method of teaching a patient to look after himself IS by 
(a) lecture and presentation 
(b) supervision and demonstration 
(c) example and discussion 
(d) written instructions 


29. An exuberant, optimistic, talkative person might be described as 
(a) hypoactive 
(b) hypodermic 
(c) hyperactive 
(d) hyperglycemic 


30. The main purpose of a nurse 
(a) is to cooperate with doctors 
(b) remains unchanged throughout history 
(c) is to achieve a healthy citizenry 
(d) is to make the patient feel he can depend on her 


Section Fottr 
]uslntd;o"s: \Vrite the letter before the words in Column B that best match the words 
in Column A. Write only on your answer slip. 
Examþle: Colum" A Colu11'm B AlIswers 


1. nurse (a) chemical 
2. patient (b) teacher 
(c) pupil 1. (b) 
(d) emotion 
. (c) 


N o'w do the follow;ng: 
C olwmn A 


JANUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No.1 


Column B 
(a) twitches and tics 
(b) difficult breathing 
(c) abnormal eye movements 
(d) fear of photographers 
(e) inadequate oxygenation of blood 
(0 hatred for cameras 
(g) whispering 
(h) flight of ideas 
(i) needle-work 
(j) lying 
(k) inability to arrange words 
29 


31. nystagmus 
32. aphasia 
33. fabrication 


34. photophobia 


35. cyanosIs 



(1) abnormal sense of smell 
(m) occupational therapy 
(n) sensitiveness to moderate light 
(0) temporary suspension of breathing 


Now do the following: 
36. No substitute for this 
in actual nursing 
37. Estimate of patient's needs is based on this 


38. An example of a misleading symptom 


(a) hunger 
(b) intelIigence 
(c) cough 
(d) hypodermic 
(e) interest in medicine 
(f) shyness 
(g) experience 
(h) speed 
(i) patient's request 
(j) observation 
(k) printed chart 


39. Exclusively the doctor's responsibility 


40. Symptoms may be exaggerated by this 


(I) hypothesis 
(m) patient's imagination 
(n) prognosis 
(0) treatment 


Section Five 
Instructions: In this section you must choose all the correct alternatives and omit all the 
incorrect ones. There may be one, two, three, or all four correct. 
Tell the whole truth and nothing but the truth. 
Example: Three times five is more than 


(a) 5 
(b) 10 
(c) 15 
(d) 20 


answer: (a), (b) 


41. Nutritional diseases include 


(a) puberty 
(b) scurvy 
(c) beriberi 
( d) rickets 


42. Rehabilitation is viewed as a restoration of optimum usefulness for 
(a) certain categories of handicapped persons 
(b) only those who ask for it 
(c) only those who pay for it 
(d) everyone as part of their comprehensive 
care 


43. Return to normal eating habits may be encouraged 
(a) as soon as the patient is able to be up 
for part of the day 


30 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



(b) by surprising the patient with visitors 
during meal time 
(c) by having patients eat in groups 
(d) by having the patient sit up to eat 


44. "Plan of care" for the patient refers to 


(a) the doctor's schedule of visits 
(b) the distribution of parcels in under pri- 
viledged countries 
(c) modification of the patient's manner of 
living 
(d) instructions from a textbook 
45. Fundamental needs in sick and well persons include 
(a) to feeluseful 
(b) to eliminate daily 
(c) to be 10ved 
(d) to be approved of 
46. Feelings or emotions are expressed in such questions as 
(a) May I have some water? 
(b) Isn't the doctor coming soon? 
(c) \Vhat day is this? 
(d) Do you think I'll get well? 


4í. The nurse should teach a diabetic patient 


(a) how to administer insulin himself 
(b) ways of avoiding insulin 
(c) how to make insulin himself 
(d) how to test urine himself 


48. \Vhen a physician asks a nurse to teach a pregnant woman how to treat varicose veins, 
it is professionally correct for the nurse to ask for discussion on 
(a) diagnosis 
(b) symptoms 
(c) treatment 
(d) prognosis 
49. Yaluable pre-training experience for a nurse would be 
(a) baby sitting 
(b) assistant at summer camp for children 
(c) psychiatric treatment following amput- 
ation 
(d) living with a neurotic relative 
50. "Professional nurse" power may be spread by 
(a) using attendants and aides for simple 
cases 


(b) having the nurse supervise the care of all 
patients with a team of helpers, the pro- 
fessional nurse doing only the more com- 
plex work 
(c) limiting her activities to nursing care 
(d) intensive training 


JANUARY. 1960. Vol. 56, NO.1 


31 



IVIO .1 Ø) t-- '0::3' M M - = = = = t-- 
 - Ø) N = 
'0::3' '0::3' '0::3' '0::3' ...,. '0::3' '0::3' '0::3' '0::3' '0::3' M M M N N N 
OS X X X X X X 0 X X X X X 0 X X 0 
6Þ' x x x x x x x x x 0 x x 0 x 0 :x 
8Þ' x x x x x x 0 x x x x x 0 x 0 0 
LÞ' x x x x x x 0 x x x x x 0 0 X x 
9Þ' x x x x x x x x x 0 x x x x x X 
till 
SÞ' x x x x x x x x x 0 x x x u 0 0 c 
0 
Þ'Þ' x x x 0 x x x x x x x x x x 0 0 "" 

 
I:Þ' x x x x x '\( x x x x x 0 u x x 0 \I 
zt x 0 0 X X X X X X 0 X X X X x :x 0 
lÞ' x x x x x x 0 x x x x 0 0 X À 0 
OÞ' x x x x x x x x 0 x x x x x 0 ), 
61: À x X x X À X X 0 X X X X 0 \. 0 
81: x x 0 x x x x 0 '\( x x x x x x >. 
LI: x x x x "\( x 0 "- x "\( 0 x 0 x x 0 
91: x- x '\. X X X X X 0 X X X X X 0 0 
SI: x x x x x '\( x x 0 x x x 0 À X '\. 
Þ'I: x x x x x x x 0 x x x x x 0 0 () 
1:1: x x x x x x 0 x x x x x x u X x 
ZI: x x x x x x x x x 0 x x x x 0 x 
II: x x x x x x x 0 x x x 0 0 X À 0 
01: x x x x x x 0 x x x x x x 0 x 0 
6Z x x x x x x x ^ "\( x 0 x 0 x 0 0 
8Z 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 
., -. LZ x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x ^ 
01) 

 II 9Z x x x x x x x x 0 x x x x 0 0 
"" 0 
..c 0 
u SZ x x '\( x x x x x x 0 x 0 0 x 0 0 
fI) (I) 
s:: ï; tZ x x x x x 0 x x x x x x x 0 0 0 
0 .1: tZ x x x x x x x 0 x 0 x x x 0 À X 
.
 
ns II ZZ X x .... x x x x x 0 x 0 x x x 0 0 
..c 
"'3 Õ IZ x x .... x 0 x x x x x x x x x 0 0 
,.t:J Co 
tG >. OZ x x x x x u x x x x 0 0 0 0 0 0 
f- ::c 61 x x x x x x x 0 x x x X À X 0 :>. 
'-' 
81 x x x x x x x 0 x x x x x 0 À x 
LI x x x x 0 x x x x 0 x 0 x x x 0 
91 x x x x x 0 x x x x x x x 0 x 0 
51 x x "\( x x x x 0 x x 0 0 0 x 0 0 
Þ'I x 0 0 0 u 0 u 0 0 0 0 0 x 0 x '< 
[I x x x- 0 x x- x x x x x x x x x x 
ZI x x x x x u x x "\( x x 0 0 0 0 0 
II x x x x 0 x x 0 x x 0 x x x 0 x 
01 x x x x x x x x 0 x x 0 0 0 0 0 
6 x x- x 0 x x 0 x x x 0 "\( x x 0 x 
8 x x x x x 0 x x x x 0 0 0 0 0 0 
L x x " x 0 x- x x 0 x x x x x 0 x 
9 x x x x x x x x x X À X X X X X 
S x x x 0 0 x x x x x 0 0 x 0 0 0 
.. 
t x x x x x 0 x x x X \. 0 0 x 0 0 U 
II 
"" 
I: x x 0 0 x x x x x x 0 À X 0 X X "" 
:E 0 
Z x x x x x 0 x x x x x 0 0 0 0 0 u 

 II 
f-o I x '\. 0 X X X X X X X 0 X X 0 0 0 
;.-: 
N 
 -t Ir; 
 r---.. 'X. 
 "I ::! Ir; -= 
- 

 c5 
 - -::5 -::5 
 ç c5 ç 

 Z Z Z ;..-: Z % 7; 7: Z Z ;7, % :7; Z Z Z 
...... 
<1: 
 - 
 :i - c., <l.' - 
Z c" 
 
 
 
 
 
 oJ 
 c" 
- 
:f. (j; :f. :f. :f. :f. :f. :f. :f. :f. :f. :f. :f. Of. :f. :f. 
32 THE CANADIAN NURSE 



KEY 
1. F 26. a 
2. F 27. b 
3. T 28. c 
4. F 29. c 
5. T 30. c 
6. T 31. c 
7. F 32. k 
8. T 33. j 
9. T 34. n 
1O.F 35. c 
11. 37 0 36. .Q 
12. Cath. 37. j 
13. case stud}' 3R e 
14. (.-0 111 a 39. 11 
15. passivc 40. 111 
16. subj"lIe 41. bed 
17. play 42. ad 
18. Jlced 43. aed 
19. obstetrical 44. e 
20. manie 45. lIed 
21. a 46. bd 
22. b 47. ad 
23. b 48. abed 
24. d 49. abd 
25. d 50. abe 


Bibliography 
1. Krakower, Hyman. Tests and 
Measurements Applied to Nursing 
Education. Putnam's, K ew York, 1949. 
(See Chapter 10) 
2. Davis, Frederick B. Item Analysis 
Data. Harvard University School of 
Education, Cambridge, 1949. 
3. Thorndike and Hagen. Measure- 
ment and Evaluation in Psychology 
and Education. \Viley, N.Y., 1955. 
4. Ross and Stanley. Measurement 
in Today's Schools. Prentice-Hall, New 
Jersey, 1954. 
5. Lindquist, E. F. (Editor). Edu- 
cational Measurement_ American Coun- 
cil on Education, \ V ashington. D.C., 
1951 
6. Buros, Oscar K. The Fifth l\Ien- 
tal Measurements Yearbook. Gryphon 
Press, X'.]., U.S.A., 1959. 
í. The Measurement of Understand- 
ing, Part I. 45th Yearbook, N.S.S.E., 


JANUARY. 1960. Vol. 56. NO.1 


University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 
1946. 
8. \Vrightstone, Justman, Robbins. 
Evaluation in 1Iodern Educatiun. Amer- 
ican Book Co., N.Y., 1956. 
9. Bradfield, ::\loredock. :\leasure- 
ment and Evaluation 111 Education. 

lacmillan, Gait, Ont., 1957. 
10. Cattell, Raymund B. Personality 
and 
[otivation Structure and 1feasure- 
ment. \Vorld Book, N.Y., 1957. 
11. Ahman and Glock. Evaluating 
Pupil Growth. Allyn and Bacon, Bos- 
ton, 1958. 
12. Furst, Edward J. Constructing 
Evaluation Instruments. Longmans 
Green, Toronto, 1958. 
1 The table of specifications is larg-ely 
the work of Professor Margaret E. Hart, 
Director of Nursing Education at the 
University of Manitoba, whose generous 
cooperation is g-reatly appreciated by the 
writer. 


The simple act of blowing uut a book 
match has now become a medical test. It is 
used to measure the seriousness of airway 
obstruction in such pulmonary diseases as 
asthma or emphysema. 
Wheezing and prolonged expiration 
the usual bedside signs of a.irway ohstruc- 
tion - do not give the necessary inform- 
ation to evaluate respiratory function. It is 
usualIy evaluated by two rather complicated 
tests requiring the use of mechanical devices, 
which cannot always he hrought to a bed- 
side. 
The match test was devised as a simple 
bedside means for checking airway obstruc- 
tion. If a patient is unable to blowout a 
match held six inches from his mouth, it is 
a sign that he should undergo the more 
specific complicated tests. 
- ] ounw' of the American Medical 
'\ssociation 


* * * 
The diversity of physical arguments and 
opinions embraces all sorts of methods. 
- 1IoNT AIGNE 


* * * 
There's not the least thing can be said 
or done, but people will talk and find fault. 
- CERVANTES 


* * * 
A service beyond all recompense weighs 
so heavy that it almost gives offense. 
COR
EILLE 


33 



In the l\dlllitting Office 


:\IARC T AIWIF J 
I.D. 


The role of the adnÛtting office seem,s obvious enough, but do you know what 
functions it perfon11s? How it should be set up? Who should be 
in charge and why? 


T HE admitting office is a strategic 
point in the hospital - it might 
be called the nerve centre. Since its 
chief function is the admission of pa- 
tients, it should be located near the 
main entrance of the hospital, prefer- 
ably on the first floor and providing 
easy access to doctors, nurses and 
other personnel and most certainly 
for the patient. 
The space required will depend 
on the bed capacity of the hospital 
and the type of patient care offered. 
At the very least there must be a 
waiting room and a private office. 
The general appearance of this depart- 
ment is important. We should not 
forget that this is where the patient 
receives his first impression of the 
hospital. A pleasant atmosphere and 
absolute cleanliness are a necessity. 


The Personnel 
This is composed of the person in 
charge and the staff. It is preferable 
to appoint a nurse as head of this de- 
partment since her professional pre- 
paration fits her better than anyone 
else for this work. She is familiar with 
medical terminology and doctors' or- 
ders. She will be able to grasp the 
provisional diagnosis which is given 
by telephone very easily. Her very 
presence tends to soothe the apprehen- 
sive patient. The remainder of the 
staff is made up of investigators, book- 
keepers, telephone girls, and so forth. 
To this could be added one or more 
orderlies or commissionaires whose 
duty it would be to take the patients 
to their wards. 
Need one say that certain very de- 
finite qualities in the head of the de- 
partment and other personnel are 
prerequisite - sound judgment, a 


Dr. Tardif is the assistant medical 
director at Notre Dame Hospital, 
Montreal. 


34 


sense of responsibility, patience 111 
abundance and unflagging courtesy. 


The Functions 
These may be divided into five main 
categories: 
1. Reservations for admission 
2. Admission of patients 
3. Discharge arrangements 
4. Procedure in case of death 
5. Transfer of hospitalized patients 


Reservations 
The admitting office, in some hos- 
pitals, may handle requests for con- 
sultations and a complexity of other 
duties besides. This brief listing of 
some of the tasks entrusted to it, help 
us to see the breadth and diversity 
of the work to be done. 
Let us consider each one of these 
functions in more detail. In the first 
place reservations may be divided into 
three groups - routine, public as- 
sistance and emergency. Prior to the 
patient's arrival at the hospital, his 
doctor will have made the preliminary 
arrangements that ensure a bed reserv- 
ation. The patient's name is put on 
the waiting list along with his provi- 
sional diagnosis and the type of ac- 
commodation desired. This is the 
routine reservation. 
Those people who will require pub- 
lic assistance to finance their hospital- 
ization, if they are not medical emer- 
gencies are seen either in the outpatient 
clinic or by a staff doctor. Then their 
names are placed on a waiting list 
until the department controlling public 
assistance funds accepts the responsi- 
bility for their hospital expenses. If 
the patient's condition 'u!arrants im- 
mediate hospitalization, regardless of 
his financial status, the admitting of- 
fice win request authorization from 
the medical director for priority and 
the patient will be admitted immediate- 
ly or with the shortest possible delay. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



If admission is not urgent, the name 
of the prospective patient, the provi- 
sional diagnosis and the name of the 
attending doctor are added to the 
waiting list. Requests for reservations 
are then filIed in order of asking. The 
admitting officer forwards a letter to 
the patient informing him that his 
doctor has resen-ed a bed for him and 
enclosing a form to be filled out which 
wiU allow the patient to speed up the 
process of providing information con- 
cerning his identity, employment and 
financial means when he final1v arrives 
at the hospital. 
 
A. problem arises in connection with 
priority of admission. This is the ques- 
tion of social emergencies. For ex- 
ample: A mother must come into 
hospital. She can find someone to stay 
with her children at a specific date. 
Although her condition is not of an 
emergency nature, a request is placed 
with the medical director for approval 
of it. - 
The number of admissions is, of 
course, governed by the number of 
beds available. \Vhen a bed is freed 
through discharge, the head nurse no- 
tifies the admitting office. The waiting 
list is checked and the next patient is 
notified according to the type of ac- 
commodation desired: male or female, 
private or semiprivate, financial status 
and even the service. Sometimes a cer- 
tain number of beds are allotted to 
a specific service and only a patient 
on that service is to occupy one of 
these beds. However, the hospital beds 
belong to the hospital, not to the chief 
of a service or to a specific doctor. 
The medical director can authorize 
admission to a service other than the 
one which will prescribe treatment, if 
circumstances require it. 
I t has sometimes happened that a 
patient has had his discharge written, 
the admitting office has been notified 
and the next patient on the waiting 
list has been advised to report to the 
hospital whereupon. for some reason, 
the former decides that he can not 
leave. This may be the situation pre- 
sented by an out-of-town patient, 
brought to hospital by ambulance in 
his night clothes, given his discharge 
late in the day and whose relatives 
cannot be contacted to bring him his 
clothes. So there vou are with two 
patients and only ori'e bed. 


JANUARY. 1960. Vol. 56, No.1 


On the other hand, it may be a wo- 
man who has been discharged but, of 
her own accord, decides late in the 
afternoon that she really is not well 
enough to go home. In the meantime 
the new occupant for her bed has ar- 
rived. The former patient is not dis- 
charged and an average of two or 
three hours must be allowed before 
another room can be prepared for the 
new patient. 
These details may seem quite amus- 
ing at first but they are everyday 
occurrences in the admitting office of 
a big hospital. Often such situations 
are very irritating. They require a 
long series of telephone calls in an 
attempt to find a more or less satis- 
fying solution to these problems. 


Admission 
The second function of this depart- 
ment has to do with the actual admis- 
sion of the patient. On his arrival, 
the patient is identified and a muIti- 
plicate admission form is fined out. 
One copy is sent to the addressograph 
room to have a master plate made; 
another copy is sent to the accounts 
office. Copies are also sent to the 
records department and the inform- 
ation desk. 
\Vhen these formalities have been 
completed, an orderly takes the pa- 
tient to the particular floor or ward 
and delivers the admission slip to the 
head nurse. 
One thankless job in the admitting 
office is accepting the flood of tele- 
phone cans directed towards it from 
every corner of the hospital and from 
outside as well. There is the anxious 
patient inquiring if his doctor has 
really put his name on the waiting 
list: "l\Iy doctor told me that I could 
soon go into hospital and that was 
three weeks ago!" 
lost of the time 
these complaints are made politely. 
Unfortunately there are times when the 
language is coarse and even insulting 
to the person who answers. The staff 
must often use great restraint in avoid- 
ing the temptation to reprimand the 
ill-bred and badlv informed caller. 
They ha,-e to renlind themselves that 
they are talking to individuals soured 
by illness. 
Discharge 
The third function IS closely allied 


35 



to the secund. \Vhen the doctor, the 
resident or the intern has discharged 
a patient, the head nurse advises the 
admitting and the accounts office. The 
addressograph plate is sent down to 
the admitting office and the di:;charge 
procedure is a simple one after the 
accounts office has given its approval. 



rocedure at Death 
Unfortunately not al1 patients can 
be cured and so the admitting office 
must have some procedure to folIow 
in the event of a death. 
'\s soon as the 
doctor has certified a death, the ad- 
mitting office is notified and the chart 
is sent down. There the final diagnosis 
is entered after consultation with the 
attemling doctor and the cause of 
death is recorded on the death certifi- 
cate. The bod v is removed tu the 
morgue followi;lg preparation by the 
ward personnel. If the death is an un- 
expected one and members of the fa- 
mily have not been present, they must 
be notified either by the nurses on the 
wélrd or some other designated person. 
\Vhen the official certificate for de- 
mography has been fil1ed out, the chart 
goes to the medical director and the 
cause of death is entered in a special 
file. If there is any doubt as to the 
final diagnosis or cause of death, or if 
there is something of scientific signi- 
ficance in the circumstances leading 
to death, the attending doctor Or his 
intern wil1 ask for an autopsy. In some 
instances, it fal1s to the lot of the ad- 
mitting office to get in touch with the 
next of kin and request written per- 
mission for an autopsy. It is a difficult 
task to have to make such a request 
from people who are upset by the news 
of the death of a loved one. We must 
use tact, understanding and sympathy 
in our choice of words. The family 
are overcome by grief and the idea 
of an autopsy may seem both useless 
and repulsive. As soon as the autopsy 
has been completed, the funeral direc- 
tor is notified. 
Sometimes when death occurs with- 
in 24- hours of hospitalization or fol- 
lowing an accident, the law requires 
that the coroner perform the autopsy. 
However if the cause of death is ob- 
vious, the coroner may dispense with it. 


Transferring a Patient 
A patient may, for reasons of eco- 


36 


nomy, request transfer from his initial 
type of accommodation. Sometimes 
the accounts office may request the 
transfer because the patient is unable 
to pay his biBs or it may be a ruling 
of the :l\Iedical Board that, in the case 
of infection or of severe psychosis, 
the patient must be 111O\'ed to an iso- 
lation room. The attending doctor wiB 
ask for the transfer or the head of 
the accounts office may suggest it to the 
doctor. This change is noted on the 
chart and the admitting office is also 
nutified. Often difficulties arise through 
the lack of isolation rooms or other 
accommodation desired for transfer 
purposes. The admitting office has to 
juggle the bed list and try to find a 
solution to this problem. 


Other Functions 
Finally, the admitting office may 
also be on the receiving end of re- 
quests for consultation with another 
service or another doctor. As the re- 
quests for consultation come in, they 
must be stamped, date and time ,)f 
their arrival noted, and then they are 
distributed to the services or persons 
concerned. 
This brief description of the func- 
tions of the admitting office, although 
somewhat incomplete, win give some 
idea of the scope of work The respon- 
sibilities and the demands of the "vork 
make it anything but a 5'inecure. There 
is considerable detail and the slightest 
error must be avoided. The ca 1 m of 
rontine can he suddenly shattered hy a 
telephone can reporting an emergency 
and requesting the ambulance and the 
intern on duty. Or a patient may arrive 
unannounced, hag and baggage, for 
immediate hospitalization. 1 J e comes 
from a distant part of the province; 
his doctor has toItl him that he shonld 
have snrgery done and so with no 
warning- and without even an explana- 
tory letter from the doctor, he hoarded 
the first train for the city. It is up to 
the admitting officer to sort out this 
tangle. 
The patient can be sent back home 
again with the very good excuse 
that he was completely unannounced. 
However, after he has been seen by 
the doctor, the admitting officer may 
realize that he simply can not he sent 
home again. A place must he found 
for him somewhere, if only temporarily. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



The Nurse ilnd thr Ne" I'atient 


JULIA TRUDEAU 
To the nurse, admitting a new patient is one of the most routine dut-ies in her 
day. She tends to go through the procedure almost mechanically. 
That is why she needs to be reminded that for the patient, this is 
a crisis in his life. 


T HIS IS a familiar theme but one of 
prime importance in the develop- 
ment of the truly competent nurse. 
For those who are experienced in 
nursing, the opinions expressed here 
may contain nothing new. N everthe- 
less, let us review the different steps in 
the admission of a patient from the 
nurse's point of view. It may prove 
beneficial to some rtnd gi ve others a 
sense of satisfaction in a job well-done. 
The nurse's role will be considered 
from both the psychological and tech- 
nical points of view. 
In the life of the hospital, the admis- 
sion of patients is a daily occurrence 
and, unfortunately, a routine one. This 
same situation applies to the nurse's 
work. During her professional career 
she will admit an undetermined num- 
ber of patients. However, if this is an 
every-day event for the nurse, it is not 
so for the patient. As far as he is 
concerned, he is the only patient in the 
hospital and his admission is a major, 
if not particularly happy, experience in 
his life. Often it acts as a shock or a 
psychological trauma. This is where 
the nurse's role in helping him to 
adjust under the best possible condi..: 
tions and with the least stress becomes 
important. First impressions tend to 
remain and the nurse should put forth 
every effort to develop a favorable 
attitude in the patient towards his 
hospitalization. 
\\That should the nurse's attitude be 
towards each new patient? Let us look 
at the matter objectively. She should 
see each one as an individual present- 
ing a fresh field for action in physical, 
psychological and moral care. Her 
time, her knowledge, her ability should 
be expended upon each newcomer as 
if he were the first. She win receive 
her patient as he should be received - 


Miss Trudeau is assistant director of 
orientation for nurses at Notre Dame 
Hospital, Montreal. 


JANUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No. 1 


with the kindliness that alone is 
capable of inspiring confidence. Her 
expression, her words, and her ges- 
tures will convey calm reassurance. 
She will accept the fact that the patient 
has a right to her sympathy and her 
care. She should be compassionate and 
tactful in helping him adjust to his 
new state and surroundings and a\'oid 
causing him any unnecessary mental 
anguish. Remembering that this is a 
suffering human being, dependent 
upon hospital services, she will ob- 
serve him closely to determine his per- 
sonality and his needs in order to 
understand better his physical and 
mental reaction to his il1ness. She will 
view him within the setting of his 
social, familial and financial back- 
ground. 
Except under emergency or unusual 
circumstances, arrangements for ad- 
mission should be made 2-1- hours or 
more before the patient comes to hos- 
pital. The admission period should 
extend over another 24- hours to take 
into account all those memDers of the 
personnel who will be caring for the 
patient during his stay in hospital. 
This is an important and necessary 
step since it fosters a good adjustment 
to the patient's new environment and 
activities. Not onlv is he iII when he 
come into hospité
1. but he is away 
from familiar home surroundings. 
In saying that admission arrange- 
ments should precede the patient's 
arrival by 2-t- hours or more, we also 
assume that the hospital in question 
will send out a folder explaining what 
can be expected on admission. Certain 
necessary forms could be included and 
fil1ed out prior to admission, tIms 
avoiding irritating complications on 
arrival at the hospital. Classification of 
his illness and reception of the patient 
into hospital would be facilitated. This 
procedure will also heIp to avoid the 
necessity for transfer following hospi- 
talization. No patient eyer appreciates 


37 



a suddcn transfer from one service to 
another - and our aim is to keep him 
as happy as possible. 
The patient's arrival at the hospital 
is set for a specified hour. The admit- 
ting office should notify the department 
concerned far enough in advance to 
have the new patient received in the 

moothest manner possible. The head 
nurse must be warned of all new ar- 
ri,'als since she is directly responsible 
for the \velcome accorded each one. 
The reception of the new patient win 
be all the more cordial when she is 
forewarned and prepared. 
On the ward preparation includes 
inspection of the room for tidiness and 
cleanliness. The bed covers should be 
folded back, and the whole appearance 
of the room should. produce a pleasing 
impression. The observant nurse win 
see to such details as straightening the 
drapes, adjusting the window blinds, 
put
ing objects back in position. De- 
fective equipment should be restored 
and any other repairs should be car- 
ried out in advance. .\ squeaky bed. a 
noisy door, a dripping tap, a stuffy 
room - all these need to be remedied 
hefore the patient arri,'es. 
After being received in the admit- 
ting office, the patient is taken to his 
ward by an attendant who also brings 
the admission slips carrying the pa- 
tient's name, address etc. The head 
nurse, having been prepared of his 
arrival, gives the patient a friendly 
greeting and introduces him to the 
nurse who is to be responsible for his 
care - perhap5 the team leader - and 
she takes him to his bed. 
The patient is almost always accom- 
panied by relatives or friends who, 
quite naturally, want to go with him 
to his room. They should be shown 
every courtesy. They must be re- 
assured concerning the patient's care. 
Their anxiety must be relieved and 
their cooperation obtained. Either the 
nurse responsible for the patient or the 
head nurse will answer the questions 
asked by the relatives. Explanations 
must be clear to help them to under- 
stand the requirements of the hospital. 
By so doing, possible misunderstand- 
ings are averted, the patient is helped 
and the good name of the hospital is 
protected. 
The chart, name plate and identifi- 
cation band are brought to the ward 


38 


later. It would be very desirable to add 
the charts from previous admissions or 
from attendance at outpatient clinics 
immediateh' . 
After the patient's initial orientation 
to his environment, the nurse, assisted 
by the nurse's aide, helps him to get 
settled. She sees to the convenient 
arrangement of his personal effects. 
If he is not in a private room, she 
indicates the area in the ward that 
belongs to him specifically. If his 
clothing is to be kept in hospital, the 
nurse fins out the appropriate forms. 
After the patient or, if he is not able, 
one of his relatives has signed the 
form, it is attached to the chart. The 
clothing is labelled and locked away. 
Valuables, such as money and jewell- 
ry, are given to the relatives or to the 
head nurse. If the head nurse takes 
responsibility for them, the articles are 
placed in a special envelope with the 
patient's name, address and bed numher 
on the outside. The en,-elope is sealed 
in the owner's presence and then he 
signs it. The envelope is placecl in the 
hospital vau1t after having been coun- 
tersigned by a responsible men}ber of 
the business office staff who also gives 
a receipt to the bearer. The patient 
must be warned that the hospital takes 
no responsibility for valuables kept in 
his possession. 
The nurse must instruct the patient 
in hospital routine as part of the ad- 
justment process. This should be 
spread over the first 24-hour period. 
The patient should. be introduced to 
the other people who will be concerned 
with his care, including student nurses 
and nurses' aides. The nurse will 
explain to him that these people make 
up the team responsible for giving him 
all the care he may require in the most 
pleasant way possible. She must be 
ready to listen to what the patient has 
to say about his own special problems 
since it will help her to understand 
him hetter. One can often do more 
good by listening than bv talking. 
Hospital rules are clarified so that 
the patient may feel at ease. He is 
made to understand. that the rules are 
there to ensure smooth functioning of 
hospital activities. The patient must 
be familiarized with the physical set- 
up: the call-hell, intercommunication 
systems, lights, windows, the bed - if 
it is raised and lowered electrically, 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



he must be shown how to operate it, 
the hed screens, the position of the 
wash basin, bath and shower. This 
helps him to feel at home in the new 
environment which is an important 
factor in assuring good morale. 
If the patient is admitted just at 
mealtime or slightly after, find out if 
he has eaten and give him something 
if he has not and if it is permissible. 
It is ahvays better to ha,'e a doctor's 
order in this regard. The nurse must 
carry out certain steps in the patient's 
care before the doctor's arrival. The 
patient must undress and either get 
into bed or be comfortably seated. The 
nurse must check to see that he is 
clean and, if not, he should have a bath. 
If ambulatory, he must be weighed. 
His temperature is taken. In each in- 
stance an explanation must be given. 
Finally, the nurse should be sure that 
the patient is comfortable generally and 
that all necessary details have been 
attended to before she leaves him. 
The nurse's next duty is to give 
an account of her observations to the 
head nurse and to call the doctor and 
intern. The head nurse must check to 
see that she has sufficient personnel 
on hand to ensure that all new patients 
will receive treatment as prescribed. 
The chart, Kardex and requisition 
forms must be seen to next. 


During the first 2-t--hour period in 
hospital, every new patient has yarious 
treatments and examinations. It is 
most important that each one be ex- 
plained to the patient and that he 
should be giyen advance notice. This 
avoids a fresh surprise each time for 
the patient and prevents delays or 
blunders. A physical examination is 
the first requirement. The nurse must 
help the patient to understand the 
necessity for this and she must W111 
his cooperation. She assembles the 
equipment needed by the doctor and 
assists with the examination. 
The staff on each shift must be 
made aware of the new patient on the 
ward. The system of reporting must 
take into account the steps necessary 
to ensure continuity of treatment. Use 
of the' Kardex and conferences with 
the team leaders are methods of notify- 
ing each nurse of the new patient's 
arrival. The nurse is responsible for 
assigning auxiliary personnel duties in 
connection with the new arrival. 
If this pattern is followed, a super- 
ficial attitude is avoided. The patient 
quickly becomes aware of the sym- 
pathetic attitude towards him and the 
general serenity of the atmosphere. 
But we still have work to do before 
we will have attained the ideal in our 
admission procedure. 


Vegetable oils, commonly used in cooking 
and in salads, have come to the aid of diet- 
conscious teen-agers, who suffer from acne. 
Dr. \V. R. Hubler, Corpus Christi, Texas, 
has said that corn oil, used as a dietary 
supplement, prevented \veight loss and fatigue 
often associated with low fat diets - a 
frequent acne treatment. 
In one group there was remarkable im- 
provement in the skin and general condition 
of five patients. None of the patients be- 
came worse when corn oil was added to their 
diets. In another group of 180 patients 
studied, the acne condition seemed to sub- 
side more rapidly than in patients treated 
prior to the use of corn oil. It was neces- 
sary to resort to x-ray treatment in only 
five instances in order to produce clearing 
of their acne. 
Even patients who suffered from acne in 


JANUARY, 1960. Vol. 56. No. 1 


its worst form improved with remarkable 
rapidity with the use of corn oil. All acne 
patients treated by this doctor now are al- 
lowed to use corn oil freely in their diets. 
Seventy-five patients have also used an un- 
saturated corn oil oleomargarine on their 
bread without apparent deleterious effects. 
The Texas physician pointed out also that 
he had found that ingestion of corn oil did 
not influence the normally low cholesterol 
levels of the teen-agers in any way. 
- Archives of Dermatology, American 

fedical Association. 
* * * 
Death's no punishment: it is the sense, 
the pains and fears afore, that makes a 
death. - SIR JOHN SUCKLING 
* * * 
The vagabond, when rich, is called a 
tourist. - PAUL RICHARD 


39 



The Patient. comes to 1I0spitai 


DENISE FORTIN, B.Sc. ED. 


No nurse can truly empathize with the patient who is being admitted to the 
hospital for the first time. Why? She, at least is no stranger to 
a hospital - for the new patient it is an em,ironment unknown. 


T HE remarks which foHow are the 
results of observations made as a 
head nurse, and as a patient since I 
have had this experience on several 
occasions. To give greater objectiv- 
ity, the opinions volunteered by cer- 
tain persons who have been hospital- 
ized at one time or another in their 
lives, have been added. 
This is not intended to be a SCien- 
tific exposé concerning the psycho- 
logical reactions of the patient upon 
admission to hospita1. I simply ap- 
peal to your feminine intuition and 
natural understanding when J ask you 
to consider with me what the human 
heing has to go through when hospital- 
ization is necessarv. 
\ V e will find th
t there are as many 
different reactions as there are patients. 
:\Irs. Brown \vho arri\'es in hospital 
on her own two feet for a medical 
check-up, certainly wiII not have the 
Séune feeling about it as .Miss Kay 
who is brought to the ward by wheel- 
chair and in great pain, or 1\1r. \Vhite 
who left his home by ambulance. The 
chronically ill patient who comes into 
hospital periodicalIy will exhibit atti- 
tudes which may not appear in the 
person brought to hospital under emer- 
gency conditions. A11 of these catego- 
ries, if superficially different, have 
fundamental resemblances when we 
remember that they are all human 
heings. - 
As a first step let Us find out what 
the identifying characteristics of hu- 
man beings are; what factors relate 
one to another and draw men to- 
gether fundamentally, so that we may 
have a better understanding of the 
state of mind of the person who must 
be hospitalized. 
Every individual on earth IS pos- 


Miss Fortin is an instructor in the 
school of nursing, X otre Dame Hospital, 

f ontrea1. 


40 


sessed of a human nature, a nature 
at once equal and divided, equipped 
with powers requiring constant use. 
The powers of thought, of desire, of 
imagination, of feeling seek expres- 
sion continua11y. This manifestation 
can be easily influenced or changed 
by circumstances in one's life (ill- 
ness is one of these), through ex- 
posure to a new environment (for ex- 
ample, hospitalization), or through 
the behavior of those around one. 
If we admit that individuals possess 
essentially the same nature, the same 
psychological make-up, then we must 
also admit that inherent in their nature 
are certain hasic needs that must be 
met. \i\!hat are they? 
1. The need for security 
2. The need for appreciation, affec- 
tion, attention 
3. The need for growth 
Then can you dispute that the hu- 
man being as he really is tends toward 
one end-happiness? Having admitted 
that all indiyiduals, regardless of their 
differences, are fundamentally the 
same in nature because of their inher- 
ent needs and their common goal. it 
is much easier to appreciate what takes 
place in the heart, mind and soul of 
the person who has to be hospitalized. 
F rom the moment he comes into the 
hospital, the patient becomes prey to 
a nagging sense of insecurity. In the 
admitting office, he must face a bar- 
rage of questions \vhich no doubt has 
a purpose but does nothing to cheer 
the patient and, in my humble opinion, 
is not very gracious. I am perfectly 
aware that institutions must live but 
is it really necessary to embarrass peo- 
ple to death? I found this procedure 
difficult to accept but I have confidence 
that the efforts being put forward to 
improve the lot of patients in other 
respects wi1l lead "the powers that be" 
to devise a more acceptable and less 
traumatizing method for this aspect of 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



the admission procedure. 
Cpon leaving the admitting office, 
the patient is taken to his room. At 
some moment, he finds himself alone, 
facing the unknown and its. disquieting 
possibilities. He asks himself all sorts 
of questions. 
\Yhy did he come in anyway? 
\Vill he have to stay for long? 
\Yhat will they do to him? 
\Vhat will it cost? 
How will he be treated? 
\Vill they really be as interested in 
him as he has heard? 
\ViIl he be able to sleep? to eat? 
How will he get along? 
So many questions, so many an- 
swers that it is important for him to 
have! \\'ill he have a chance to ask 
about them? \Vith a quaking heart, 
aching head and an anxious mind, he 
waits apprehensively. Happily, he finds 
himself in a hospital with kindly nurses 
who attend to him as quickly as pos- 
sible, greet him smilingly, bid him 
welcome, and explain things to him so 
that he knows what to expect. \Vel- 
coming the new patient properly is so 
very important! The only welcome 
that can truly satisfy the new patient's 
need for security is, I believe, far 
beyond the rules of protocol outlined 
in our books on etiquette. It encom- 
passes that attitude towards the sick 
which is conducive to the necessary 
and comforting human contact. 
Have we not been struck by the 
effect on the patient of the endless 
stream of people who go in and out 
of his room so impersonally, especi- 
ally in the first 24 hours? Each time 
the door opens the patient is on the 
alert. Somebody comes in to take 
blood; somebody else brings in an 
examination tray with its mysterious 
contents. An intern in quest of an in- 
teresting "case" to round out his ex- 
perience as a budding clinician arrives 


on the scene. The dieti tian pays a visi t ; 
the nurse's aide brings in a glass of 
fruit juice (and the patient wonders 
if he should drink it); the nurse de- 
livers his meal tray; and a representa- 
tive from a television agency comes 
in to see if his services are required. 
Unless the appearance of each one of 
these various categories of personnel 
is explained and justified, win not all 
this coming and going simply serve to 
increase the patient's insecurity? 
Besides the new patient's need for 
security, \vhich it is so impe
ative 
to satisfy, is it not also true that the 
need for appreciation is similarly Im- 
peril1ed? 
Since the normal human being has 
as much need, if not more, of being 
respected, appreciated and loved as 
he has of eating and sleeping, do you 
not feel that the anonymity with which 
we tend to surround him during those 
first few hours in hospital must be 
distressing? And how about all the 
labels that we attach to him? They 
do nothing to personalize him. \Ve 
should never forget that the patient 
is a person with a name, a family, 
social status, with his o\\'n views on 
life and his own special character- 
istics. He has a personal value that 
must be recognized. If we want him 
to feel respected and liked from the 
beginning, we must look upon him as 
a man first and a patient last. If we 
notice that a patient seems to have a 
feeling of inferiority, everything pos- 
sible should be done at once to build 
up his confidence and self-respect. 
What other conclusion can we draw 
from this than the need to show 
greater consideration for the patient 
from the moment of his arrival so 
that we may see him in his true light 
and by the warmth of our manner les- 
sen the insecurity and anxiety that 
plague him. 


For truth itself has not the privilege to 
be spoken at all times and in all sorts. 
- MONTAIGNE 


* * * 


The rung of a ladder was never meant to 
rest upon, but only to hold a man's foot 


JANUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, NO.1 


long enough to enable him to put the other 
somewhat higher. 
- THO::\IAS HENRY HUXLEY 
* * * 


There is great ability in knowing how 
to conceal one's abiJity- L.-\ ROCHEFOGCAULD 


41 



":'-: 
,;. 

.... 
' ï 
';1> .. 
\r 


Þ-.. 
4' 


NURSING 
w 
 across the 
-- NATION 


PREPARED IN YOUR NATIONAL OFFICE, CANADIAN NURSES' ASSOCIATION, OTTAWA 


Happy New Year 


Agnes Campbell Neill ftlemorial 
A ward 
Through an educational award, the 
members of the Nursing Sisters' As- 
sociation of Canada are proud to honor 
the memory of lVIatron-in-Chief, AGNES 
CAMPBELL NEILL, ORE, RRC, LLD. 
A graduate of the Toronto General 
Hospital, Agnes Neill served for ten 
years in increasingly important super- 
yisory and teaching positions in her 
own hospital and school of nursing. 
latterly as junior assistant to the re- 
nowned Miss Jean I. Gunn, superin- 
tendent of nurses. 
As an international student at Bed- 
ford Col1ege in 1935-36, lVIiss Neill 
gained knowleclge of hospital admini- 
stration which was later reflected in 
her able organization of the Royal 
Canadian Army :Medical Corps nursing 
service abroad. From her enlistment 
in the first month of the war and sub- 
sequent assignment overseas as Cap- 
tain (:Matron) until her return to 
Canada five years later as Colonel 
(Matron-in-Chief), her record of ser- 
vice to her country and to her caIling 
"tells better than any words the story 
of Agnes Neill, the woman, the nurse, 
the officer." To these words every 
nursing sister whuse privilege it was 
to serve with her, would unquestion- 
ably wish to add "the friend." 
Returning to civilian life, her great 
heart for veteran justice natural1y drew 
her to a posting with the Department 
of Veterans Affairs. But veterans, doc- 
tors, nurses ami. friends everywhere 
vI.-ere all too soon to be saddened be- 
yond measure. for Agnes Neill died 
on the 5 t h of tIay, 1950. 
As a loving remembrance of a noble, 
happy person; as a symhol of her out- 


42 


standing professional leadership; as a 
continuation of her life's ,,,,"ork the 
first Agnes Campbel1 Neill I\ien;orial 
A ward wil1 be made at the time of 
the 30th Biennial 1Ieeting of the CN A 
being held in Halifax, June 19-24, 
1960. . 
The following information regard- 
ing this Award is presented for the 
benefit of those nurses who might 
wish to apply for this scholarship. 
A\VARD 
1. The amount of the A ward shall he 
$500. 
2. The A ward shall be given every 
two years to a suitable candidate 
who is planning to further her nurs- 
ing education through university 
study and who meets the require- 
ments set by the Nursing Sisters' 
Association. 
APPLICANTS 
1. Applicants for the A ward shall be 
nurses who are registered in a pro- 
vince in Canada. Preference shall 
be given to: 
(a) Former nursing sisters who have 
served in Her Majesty's Forces. 
(b) Relatives of nursing sisters or 
veterans. 
(c) Other veterans who have served 
in the Allied Forces. 
APPLICA TIONS 
1. Application forms may be obtained 
from the Canadian Nurses' Associa- 
tion, ï4 Stanley Avenue, Ottawa, 
Ontario. 
2. The processing of applications will 
be carried out by the Agnes Camp- 
bell Neill Memorial Award Com- 
mittee with the assistance of the 
CNA. 
3. The CN A will provide professional 
advice to the Nursing Sisters' As- 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



sociation or their representatives 
with regard to qualifications of 
applicants. 
..L All applicatiotls must be received 
at eN A H eadqrw,-ters tlot later thatl 
May 1st. 1960. 


H aU/ax Headlines 
PEARL STIVER, our general secre- 
tary visited Halifax in October to 
attend a meeting of the Sub-Commit- 
tee of the Committee on Legislation 
and By-Laws and to meet with mem- 
bers of the Arrangements Committee 
for the 30th Biennial :\leeting, June 
19-2-+, 1960. 
::\Iiss Stiver reports that conven- 
tion plans are well undenvay. AIl per- 
sons involved in planning, local CN A 
members, Halifax citizens and the 
R
ANS are enthusiastic in their en- 
deavor to make this meeting a 
memorable one. CN A members can be 
assured that the 30th Biennial meet- 
ing of the CNA wiIl fulfill their great- 
est expectations, program-wise and 
otherwise. 
Don't miss this opportunity to meet 
with old and new friends and to share 
with our ,Maritime nurses the results 
of their endeavors. A warm welcome 
awaits you. 


A elion and Reaction 
This was the theme of the RNAO 
FaIl Conference held at Honey Har- 
bour, Ontario, October 3-7, 1959. This 
conference was designed to improve 
the ability of nurses to work together 
and with others in identifying and 
solving problems. About 150 nurses 
attended, representing hospital, public 
health and industrial nursing fields. 
LILLIAN CAMPION, our Nursing Sec- 
retary, was priviledged to attend as 
"Group Trainer." :ì\1iss Campion 
shares with Us her impressions of 
this conference. 
::\IRs. LYDIA HALL, director of Loeb 
X ursing Centre Project, lVlontefiore 
Hospital, Bronx, New York and DR. 
ROBERT CROOK, assistant professor, 
Queen's ColIege, K ew York ( they 
soon became known as Lydia and Bob) 
led the conference. :\1rs. HaIl spoke on 
.. Society Health Needs" and in her 
second talk she gave her concepts of 
nursing. This she described as a pro- 
cess going on between the patient and 
the nurse. This process has three 


JANUARY, 1960. Vol. 56. No.1 


interwoven aspects: intimate Lodih' 
care, medical care and therapcut(c 
use of self. She emphasized that 
nurses must help the patient par- 
ticipate in stating his prohlem and 
work with him in meeting this prob- 
lem. There is a need for individuals 
to verbalize their feelings and nurses 
should help the patient develop an 
undertanding of his emotions and to 
mature physicalIy and emotionally. 
There was much in her talks to stim- 
ulate discussion and provoke thought. 
The content provided numerous topics 
for group discussion. 
:Miss Campion tells us it was a most 
valuable experience to work with Dr. 
Crook, an expert in group techniques, 
in the trainer's role and to observe 
him put his theories of group work 
into practice as he so skilfu1ly worked 
with large and small groups. 
The role of a trainer was a ne\\" 
experience to many of the nurses at- 
tending the conference. A "group 
trainer" is not a group leader. Rather, 
his function is to observe the group 
process and to intervene ,vhen the 
group seems to be in difficulty. The 
group trainer may intervene when a 
group is unable to identify a problem, 
establish a common purpose or ,,,"hen 
group antagonisms develop. He helps 
the group look at what is happening 
and understand some of the underlying 
emotions affecting group behavior. 
"AlI work and no play makes Jack 
a du1l boy." Planners for Honey Har- 
bour conferences believe wholeheart- 
edly in this maxim. The daily pro- 
gram consisted of general sessions, 
smaIl group discussions and recreation- 
al periods. Sometimes sessions were 
held in the e\'ening permitting the 
nurses to enjoy the falI beauty and 
splendor of Ontario's 
Iuskoka clistrict 
in the afternoon sunshine. 
Planned recreational activities in- 
cluded a tOUr of the harbor and part 
of Georgian Bay by launch, picnic 
lunch on Beausoleil Island, a barbecue 
supper and an eyening dance. YIany 
nurses enjoyed walks through the 
countryside and swimming. 
AIl good things must come to an 
end. Miss Campion returned to Ottawa 
by car via Algonquin Park which 
was ab
aze with beautiful fa11 colors 
- a lovely finale to a most stimulating 
week. 


43 



Pel/ow of 1FHO on Study Tour 
:Miss ALISON CATHIE, instructor at 
the New Zealand Nurses' Post Grad- 
uate School and the recipient of a 
\YHO Scholarship is at present com- 
pleting a study tour in Canada. 
She has visited nursing education 
centres in four provinces. lV1iss Cathie 
is mainly interested in the integration 
o! nursing education into nursing ser- 
VIce. 


VON House, November 1959 
\TON IIuuse, Ottawa, was the scene 
of great activity last November when 
35 yisiting nurses, representing Cana- 
da from east to west, attended the bien- 
nial conference for regional and dis- 
trict di rectors sponsored by the Vic- 
torian Order of :r\urses for Canada. 
The theme was Leadership and In- 
terpersonal Relations. :Mr. JOH
 KIDD, 
executive director, Canadian Citizen- 
ship Council, Ottawa, was conference 
director, ably assisted by Dr. ALEx- 
A
DER LAIDLAw, national secretary, 
Cooperative Union of Canada; 1\lr. 
JOlIN HARcorRT, director. Planning 
and Development Branch, Civil Ser- 
vice Commission; 1\1r. \V ALTER HER- 
BFRT, director, Canada Foundation and 


secretary, Canadian Association of 
Adult Education; Dr. F. R. \TV AKE, 
professor of psychology, Carleton 
University, Ottawa and ,Miss CHRIS- 
TINE LIVINGSTO
, Director-in-Chief. 
Victorian Order of Nurses for Canada. 
After identifying the reason for their 
presence the group sought to identify 
their problems. Inspiring addresses 
were giyen on subjects relating to pro- 
fessional and personal growth, super- 
vision, counsel1ing and guidance, the 
Victorian Order nurse and her puhlics 
and, that eyer-present monster, deci- 
sion-making. 
Group discu
sions folIowed the main 
addresses and each group presented 
their reports to the general session. 
Discussion leaders were Miss PHYLLIS 
BURNS, director of \Velfare Services, 
Canadian \Velfare Council, and lVliss 
LILLIAN CA:\JI'ION, nursing secretary, 
CNA. 
An \TON personnel across Canada 
wilI benefit from this conference a
 
the directors share with them the 
wealth of knowledge gained during 
the sessions. The ans,yer to Miss 
Livingston's question "\Vhere do we 
go from here ?" wilI be forthcoming 
in improved nursing service. 


This is a shoe tester for operating rooms 
that instantly signals the static-charge con- 
ducti\'ity of footwear. A person steps onto 
the instrument's two metal plates located 
close to the floor. If the shoes are satisfac- 
tory, a light on the unit shines. But if the 
comhined resistance of both shoes and body 
is more than 1,000,000 ohms the light re- 


4 


Ç"";' 


} 
,
 



 


((Lite-Rite" Shoe Tester 


44 


mains off. In that case the shoes must be 
cleaned thoroughly and tested again. 
The device, called the "Lite-Rite" Shoe 
Tester, is equipped with test buttons to 
show that the unit is in working order and 
is properly calibrated. For further infor- 
mation write to: National Cylinder Gas Div- 
ision of Chemetron Corporation, 840 North 
Michigan Avenue, Chicago 11, Illinois." 
* * * 
Aspirin may be dangerous for the pa- 
tient who has a peptic ulcer. Acute gastric . 
hemorrhage has been known to occur usually 
as a result of acute gastric erosion, even if 
the patient has an associated duodenal ulcer. 
A suluble form of aspirin is probably safer 
if the patient has to receive the drug. 
* * * 
.\ doctor who was listening to a woman's 
ailments and taking down all the pertinent 
facts, asked her age. Even after repetition 
of the question there was complete silence. 
"Gh come now," he finally said impatiently, 
"just make a wild guess." 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Nursing Profiles 


The appointment of Peggy Nuttall as 
editor designate of ;Vursillg Timcs has been 
announced by the Council of the Royal Col- 
lege of X ursing, London, England. She will 
replace l\larjorie n'engf'r who, unfortunate- 
ly, has had to resign her editorship for 
health reasons. 
:\1 iss Nuttall began her professiunal career 
by taking training in physiotherapy at the 
London Hospital. She subsequently held 
posts at several London institutions as a 
practising physiotherapist and as a teacher. 
Later, nursing attracted her and she entered 
51. Thomas' Hospital, from which she 
graduated with distinction in 1955 as winner 
of the Gold :\Iedal. lEss Nuttall also re- 
ceived the 
Iaternity Prize from the East 
End Maternity Hospital where she took 
her midwifery training. Following comple- 
tion of her professional preparation, she was 
appointed as a charge nurse at the Royal 
\\T aterloo Hospital and later became senior 
night assistant at S1. Thomas' Hospital. In 
1958 she came to the staff of Nursing Times 
as assistant editor. 


t 


'. 


PEGGY NPTTALL 


It is with pleasure that we e'\.tend warm 
good wishes to Miss Nuttall in her work 
with a professional journal that is weIl- 
known to Canadian nurses. 


It is with great regret that the vresident 
anù board of management of the Victorian 
Order of Xurses for Canada have announced 
the retirement of 1\1. Christine Livingston. 
The nurses who staff the YON units across 


JANUARY. 1960. Vol. 56. NO.1 


',," 


...
.. 


\ 


. 


(Paul Horsdal Ltd.) 
11. CHRISTINE LIYINGSTON 


the country, friends, colleagues and acquain- 
tances will echo this emotion with even 
greater feeling. Miss Livingston has been 
director in chief of the Order since 1949, 
having previously served as a staff nurse in 
:\Iontreal and in various other capacities 
including assistant superintendent and super- 
\,isor with natiunal office. In all she has 
serwd the Order fur 27 years. 
Upon graduation from Hamilton General 
Hospital, :\Iiss Livingston went to the Uni- 
versity of Toronto to study public health 
nursing. After obtaining her certificate, she 
returned to the social service department of 
H.G.H_ and subsequently joined the health 
department of the City of Hamilton. Later 
she attended Columbia Cniversity where she 
ubtained her B.S. degree, majoring in ad- 
ministration and supervision in public health 
nursing. In 1952 she was awarded the 
Coronation 
Iedal in recognition of her 
servIces. 
Her professional connections have been 
many and varied. She is an officer-sister 
of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem; a 
Fellow of the American Public Health As- 
sociation; a member of the Canadian Red 
Cross Advisory Nursing Committee, St. 
John Ambulance Advisory l\;ursing Commit- 


45 



tee, National Committee on Aging and the 
executive council of the Canadian Public 
Health Association. As one of our Cana- 
dian leaders in nursing, her touch will con- 
tinue to be felt through the work of organ- 
izations such as these. 
Regrettable as her retirement from active 
nursing is, her desire to have the opportun- 
ity to enj oy her homc more fully, to indulge 
in the personal pleasures set aside so often 
to meet professional demands, is most unùer- 
standable. \Ye wish for her a full and happy 
life in the years ahead. 


.
 
\
 


" 
 .-- 


i., 


j 


^f'i< _4 
.
" 

^f't 
/Jo', ,...' 

 


... 1 
..... ...... , 
w- . 
 


{ 
I .'7;"'" 



 ." 


::. 


(Nat. Defelice Photo, Canada) 
1\IAJOR 1\1. E. DEWAR 


"Iargaret E. Dewar was recently ap- 
pointed for duty on the staff of the Surgeon 
General, Canadian Forces :\Iedical Services. 
Maj or Dewar is a graduate of the Toronto 
General Hospital. In 1939 she joined the 
Royal Canadian Army 
redical Corps and 
served in England with No. 15 Canadian 
General Hospital. Follo\\"ing her return to 
Canada, she served as matron of military 
hospitals in Toronto, Kingston, Montreal 
and Calgary. She was awarded the Royal 
Red Cross in recognition of her services. 


Edna E. Andrews recently retired from 
the Canadian Army after almost 18 years of 
service. Major Andrews graduated from the 
Saskatoon City Hospital in 1931 and joined 
the RCAMC in 1941. She went overseas 
in the following year and subsequently 
served in Canadian general hospitals in the 
United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Holland 
and Germany. In 1945 she was made an 
associate of the Royal Red Cross. 


46 


-...
. 


.#" 

 


.. ,.. 
'''
 



:'.'\o 
. 
f> ..... .,' 


{" 


." 


';" >< ' : .. ' t 
- , 


, > 


;. 


.;, \. 


(Nat. Defence Photo, Canada) 
,MAJOR E. E. AKDRE\\"S 


Following her retum to Canada in 1946 
she serveù as matron of military hospitals 
at Calgary, \Vhitehorse and Toronto. In 
1950 she became 
latron-in-Chief, RCA
IC 
- the position from which she has an- 
nounced her retirement. 



 


JENNIE IVES 


The Ontario Hospital Services Commission 
has announceù the appointment of Jennie 
Evelyn Ives to the nursing consultant staff. 
Until accepting this position, Miss I yes had 
been Nursing Service Secretary \\-it!: the 
Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



She is a graduate of Belleville General 
Hospital and has ùone postgraduate study at 
the Cniversity of Toronto and at Columbia 
University where she receiyed her B.S. 
degree, in 1957. Prior to her, appointment 
to the RN AO staff, 
Iiss I ves had served 
on the faculties of Collingwood General 
Hospital, :\fcKelIar Hospital, Fort \ViIliam 
and Toronto General Hospital. In 1943 she 
became assistant director of nurses at T.G.H. 
and retained this post until 1957. Her back- 
ground of professional experience and her 
administrative ability wiIl be valuable assets 
in her new field of work. 



 


..,. 


'- 


. 


(Ashley & Crippen) 
BLANCHE DUNCANSON 


This year the Ontario Hospital Services 
Commission will establish the Nightingale 
School of Nursing- - a pioneer proj ect of 
the organization. Directing the activities of 
the new school will be BlanclU" (l\lcPhe- 
dran) Duncanson, a graduate of Victoria 
Hospital, London, Onto and of the Univer- 
sity of \ Vestern Ontario where she obtained 
her B.Sc.N. degree. 
Mrs. Duncanson is widely experienced in 
the field of nursing education. The present 
program at Toronto \Vestern Hospital 
School of Nursing was developed under her 
guidance during the years 1949-58. More 
recently she has conducted a survey among 
schools of nursing in the province of Mani- 
toba; directed a study of registration exam- 
inations on behalf of the Registered Nurses' 
Association of Ontario; conducted institutes 


in the provinces of Nova Scotia and Quebec 
relative to the Pilot Project and one in 
nursing arts at the Uninrsity of New 
Brunswick to assist nursing instructors to 
incorporate principles of nursing through- 
out the curriculum. 
Her acknowledged skiII as an administra- 
tor and as an educator assures the new 
school of expert guidance and leadership. 
The congratulations and good wishes of 
friends and colleagues are extended to her. 
Grace Patterson has been appointed di- 
rector of nursing for The Toronto \Vestern 
Hospital. She is a graduate of the school of 
nursing of this same hospital and since 1950 
has been associate director, nursing services. 
During \Vorld \Var II lIiss Patterson 
served overseas with the RCA
fC and when 
war ended, was principal matron with the 
rank of major in charge of No. 12 Canadian 
General Hospital in France. She was twice 
decorated with the Royal Red Cross in 
tribute to her outstanding military service. 
After her return to Canada Miss Patterson 
studied hospital administration at the Uni- 
versity of Toronto and later completed re- 
quirements for her Bachelor of Science de- 
gree in nursing at Columbia University. 



 "
 


. ."". 



 


\ , 


(Le Ro)' Toll) 
GRACE PATTERSON 


Her rich background of experience, her 
administrative ability, her complete familiar- 
ity with the aims and obj ecti ves of this 
hospital and its school ensure capable and 
devoted guidance of nursing activities. 


JANUARY. 1960. Vol. 56. No.1 


Good, the more communicated, more abundant grows. - JOHN MILTON 


47 



.r""'
r' ^ 



 


" 
'. , 



 


'- 


-\ " 


," 


..
 


,,
 


.... )...' 


"'",' T 


.... '< 
" 



 _.x 




atient goal: 


eautiful fingernails 
ohysician Rx : 
Knox Gelatine 


3rittle fingernails are a real source of distress to women so afflicted. That's 
vhy it's important to be able to provide more than psychological support 
or such patients. 
(nox Gelatine restores normal nail strength in approximately 80 per cent 
If patients with brittle laminating fingernails. This fact has been confirmed 
>y four independent clinical studies involving 122 subjects. Dosage is one 
o three envelopes of Knox Gelatine per day and improvement usually 
legins within 30 days. 
)ne point needs special emphasis. Research has established that the entire 
'nvelope of Knox Gelatine (120 grains) must be taken in a single dose to 
>rovide the dynamic effects necessary to correct the brittle nail defect. 

onsequently, fractional or divided doses are contraindicated. If you 
vould iike to examine the substantiating studies just use the coupon below. 


----------------------------------------------- 



 
---- 


KNOX GELATINE (CANADA) LIMITED 
Professional Service Department 
140 St, Paul St. West, Montreal, Quebec. 
Dept. (0-16 
please send reprints of the following articles: 
c.. 1. Rosenberg, S., Oster. K.A., Kallos, A. and Burroughs, W.: A. M.A. 
Arch. Dermat. 76:330. September 1957. 
C 2. Schwimmer. M. and Mulinos, M.G.: Antibiot. Med. & Clin. Therapy 
4:403, July 1957. 
[.3. Rosenberg, S. and Oster, K.A.: Conn. State Med. J. 19:171. March 
1955. 
4. Tyson, T.L: J. Invest. Dermat. 14:323, May 1950. 
Your Name and Address 


-
 
iNQ)f 
UllFUVO..O 

,
 
GELATINE 

 


C 1959 Knox Gelatine, Inc. 



Talk of Jlany Things 


HELEK L. BOLGER, B.S. 


.--l slwlma-ry of the confercnce of executive secretaries and registrars held m 
September, 1959. 


P ROFESSIONAL STAFF MEMBERS of the 
ten provincial nurses' associations 
and National Office, Canadian Nurses' 
Association, assembled at 1\IcGi11 Uni- 
versity, J'vlontreal, Quebec, for an insti- 
tute during the \\"eek of September 
14-19, 1959. 1\Iiss 1\1argaret Kerr, 
executive director and editor of The 
Canadian Nurse was the chairman for 
all sessions except those held on Thurs- 
day, September 17 when Sister 1\Iary 
Felicitas, Director of Nursing, St. 
:\Iary's Hospital, ,Montreal, and chair- 
man uf the national Committee on 
::"J ursing Service officiated. 
Attention was focused on the re- 

ponsibility of nurses' associations for 
leadership in the fo11owing areas: 
Research in nursing. 
Direction of employment relations for 
nurses. 
Facilitation of interprovincial and 
international registration of nurses. 
The first two days consisted of 
lecture-discussion periods on employ- 
ment relations under the direction of 
!\1iss Frances Goodall, C.B.E., S.R.N., 
who is chairman, staff side for the 
Nurses' and 1\Iidwives' \Vhitley Coun- 
cil, Great Britain. The moderator for 
this session was lVlrs. lVlary F. Strong, 
nursing consultant, Personnel Rela- 
tions, Registered Nurses' Association 
of Ontario. One day was devoted to a 
discussion of the understanding of 
human relationships, the knowledge of 
conditions under which people work, 
relationships between various types of 
staff, and between these and manage- 
ment. 
:Miss Goodall pointed up quite for- 
cibly that nurses' associations should 
take responsibility for the direction of 
employment relations for nurses and 
provide arbitration facilities for their 
members. She stated quite emphatical- 
ly that she did not approve of nurses 


)'frs. Bolger is executive secretary of 
the Association of Nurses of Prince 
Edwarù Island, Charlottetown, P.E.I. 


50 


joining labor unions because they are 
then a party to strikes which upset the 
community where they work. As pro- 
fessional people we do not want or 
need to strike; we can use other 
measures if we have a proper channel 
of communication with management. 
That channel should properly be under 
the direction of nurses' organizations. 
For the past few years, nurses in Great 
Britain have conducted national nurses' 
conferences to which they invited doc- 
tors, hospital and agency adminis- 
trators. The majority in attendance 
were nurses, but all were in a position 
to promote improvement in employ- 
ment relations for nurses. 
On the second day, Miss Goodall 
gave detailed information on the back- 
ground, constitution, arbitration, con- 
ciliation and disciplinary measures of 
vVhitley Councils. "The name Whitley 
and the pattern of organization of these 
Councils stems from World War I," 
rvIiss Goodall said. The name honors 
1\lr. J. J-I. \Vhitley, a former speaker 
of the House of Commons. After the 
First \Var it was realized that labor 
relations needed a complete reorgani- 
zation and a special committee in the 
I louse of Commons was appointed to 
study the question. The terms of refer- 
ence were: to make and consider sug- 
gestions for permanent improvement 
between labor and management, and to 
recommend means of improving indus- 
trial relations for the future as we11 as 
to review these recommendations from 
time to time. The study of this Com- 
mittee resulted in five steps: 
1. The formation, in well organized 
industries, of Joint Industrial Councils. 
2. The appointment of Joint Works 
Committees composed of management 
and staff. 
3. The establishment of statutory regu- 
lation of wages in badly organized in- 
dustries. 
4. The establishment of Court:. of 
Arbitration. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



5. The authorization of the Minister 
of Labor to hold enquiries regarding 
disputes. 
\Vhen the I\ ational Health Services 
Act was passed in 1948 the 
Iinister 
of Labor was empowered to provide 
methods of payment of members of 
National Health Services. At this time 
nurses gave inspiration in giving direc- 
tion to the provision of such methods, 
because the vocation of nursing had 
been exploited tremendously. 
After many meetings of representa- 
tives from many of the health profes- 
sions, it was agreed to haye \\'hitley 
Councils deal with the problems of 
management and staff under the N a- 
tional Health Services Act. The Coun- 
cils were set up under a Royal Charter 
with definite provision that they did 
not operate as trade unions. 
The functions of these Counci1.s were 
stated as: 
1. To secure the greatest possible 
measure of cooperation between the au- 
thorities responsible for the nation's 
health and the general body of persons 
engaged in health services, with a view 
to the greatest efficiency of the services 
and the well-being of those èngaged in 
the services. 
2. To provide machinery for consid- 
eration of remuneration and conditions 
of work of persons within their orbit 
under the National Health Services Act. 
The Whitley Council, organized on 
a national basis, is made up of a General 
Council and nine functional Councils 
composed of representatives from or- 
ganizations engaged in health services. 
Each Council has representation from 
management and staff (labor). The 
organizations represent the fo11owing 
health personnel: administrators, cleri- 
cal workers, anci11ary workers, dental 
personnel, doctors, nurses and mid- 
wives, opticians, pharmacists, and other 
professional and technical workers. 
Each functional Council has represen- 
tation from management and staff. 
There is a consultative group for each 
functional Council which works hard 
at getting agreement. ] oint staff- 
consultative measures are employed 
continuously. 
\Vhitley Councils may be set up on 
county, regional, community or hospital 
levels and their establishment is urged 
through good publicity. On request, 
groups wi11 receive assistance in or- 


JANUARY. 1960. Vol. 56. No.1 


ganizing from the national level. Such 
Councils haye been set up all over 
Great Britain. Through them a great 
many knotty problems are being soh-ed. 
and satisfactory working conditions 
are being established for health per- 
sonne1. l\liss Gooc1a11 suggested that it 
is not advisable to establish a \Vhitley 
Council in smal1 units where the hos- 
pital is under one hundred beds or 
where the number of personnel in an 
agency is under one hundred. 
As a first step to being organized as 
a bargaining agent, :l\Iiss Gooda11 said, 
It is necessary to learn thoroughly the 
history of labor relations in one's own 
country, the labor laws and social his- 
tory of hospitals and schools of nursing. 
It may be necessary to revise existing 
nurse legislation to become empowered 
to negotiate regarding labor relations. . 
\Ye must remember that unions deal 
with matters on a material basis, but the 
professions deal with human elements. 
\Ve deal in the eternal verities of nurs- 
ing; vocation, patient and human ap- 
proach, with the ultimate goals of 
satisfactory service to the public and a 
happy and satisfying life for nurses. 
Nurses therefore need to be good nurses; 
they should be good members of their 
profession as well as good citizens. 
On September 16, a symposium un 
"Nurse Registration" was conducted 
by l\Iiss Frances :\lcQuarrie, registrar, 
RNABC; :Miss Grace 
Iotta, registrar, 
SRX A; and 1\Iiss :\1 uriel Archibald, 
executi\'e secretary, NBARN. Out of 
the discussions on registration, the fol- 
lowing recommendations were adopted 
by the members present. The registrars 
from each province were asked to 
present these recommendations to the 
executives of their respective nurse 
associations and report the reaction of 
the same in February 1960 at the 
Registrar's Conference. 
Registration of Cmzadiml _Vurses hy 
C crtificatioll 
\\"HERKA.S, In each province there 
is an authorized body responsible for: 
(a) approving schools of nursing 
(b) conducting examinations to deter- 
mine the competency for the practice 
of nursing 
(c) maintaining a register of regis- 
tered nurses, and 
\YHEREAS, The integrity of the 
nursing profession is dependent upon 
mutual confidence in the standards of 


51 



each provincial registered nurses' as- 
sociation, it is 
Reco1l111/cndcd, That the academic and 
professional educational Qualifications of 
graduates from Canadian Schools of 
Kursing who apply for inter-provincial 
registration be considered acceptable 
upon submission of proof of : 
(a) identity 
(b) fluency in English or French, if 
required 
(c) initial registration by a provincial 
registered nurses' association. 
Registration of N O1t-Calladian Nurses 
\VHEREAS, Great difficulty has been 
experienced in evaluating the Qualifica- 
tions ( determining equivalencies) of 
nurses from other countries in respect 
to: 
(a) general academic education 
(b) basic nursing preparation 
(c) procurement and interpretation of 
individual nursing records, and 
WHEREAS, Standards of nursing 
care in Canada are dependent upon the 
proficiency of all persons admitted to the 
profession and provincial registered 
nurses' associations are held responsible 
(usually hy provincial statute) for 
evaluating the proficiency of registered 
nurses, it is 
Recom1l1C1lded, That 
1. Applicants for registration who are 
not graduates of a Canadian school of 
nursing he required to: 
( a) provide proof of identity 
(b) provide proof of fluency 111 Eng- 
lish or French, if required 
(c) provide proof of certification for 
nursing 
(d) provirle a statement of efficiency 
in nursing employment in Canada for a 
period of not less than one month 
( e) Qualify for and pass the regis- 
tration examination of the province. 
2. Applicants for registration, who are 
not graduates of a Canadian scho01 of 
nursing be 110t required to write the 
provincial registration examination if 
the applicant can present evidence of 
(a) success in the registration ex- 
amination of another province in Canada 
(b) success in the N.L.N,S.B.T.P. 
examination for professional nurses. 
The last two days of the meeting 
were concerned with research and 
nursing. All the guest speakers for this 
part of the Institute have made nota- 
ble contributions in research, each in 
his or her own right. They were Miss 


52 


Virginia Henderson, R.N., M.A., re- 
search associate, Yale University; Dr. 
David Solomon, associate professor of 
Sociology, 1IcGil1 University; and Dr. 
Heinz Lehmann, associate professor of 
Psychiatry, l\IcGill University. 
Miss Henderson, who was intro- 
duced by l\1iss Suzanne Giroux, offi- 
cial visitor to the French schools of 
nursing, Quebec, reminded us that 
research is not new in nursing. Since 
1909 there have heen some sporadic 
studies, but it was not until 1930 that 
evident interest was shown in applying 
the scientific method to nursing prob- 
lems. This approach was adopted in a 
sincere effort to improve nursing ser- 
vice, nursing education and adminis- 
trative procedures related to nursing 
service. The major emphasis at that 
time \Vas placed on nursing education 
because there were so many problems 
stemming from the fact that nursing 
education programs were based in ser- 
vice agencies. l\Iiss Henderson said 
It has been with the greatest effort 
that we have taken our schools out of 
service agencies and into educational 
institutions . . . The development of the 
scientific method in dealing with nursing 
problems has paralleled the development 
of collegiate nursing education programs. 
Without this we would not have much, 
if any, investigation by nurses . . . Be- 
cause nursing is an applied science, as is 
medicine, we borrow the sciences and 
our study is bound to be a composite of 
the sciences of many fields. Therefore 
we will have a different concept of re- 
search on the one hand from groups of 
workers whose work is based on re- 
search and on the other hanrl from 
groups whose work itself is research . . . 
It is no disgrace or disadvantage to get 
help to study problems. This will be a 
great strength in the future - the 
working together of research teams in 
the solution of problems We wiIl need 
the chemists, the physiologist, the 
physicist, the sociologist and the psych- 
ologist. 
An interesting definition which l'Iiss 
Henderson gave for research was "A 
structural effort to solve a problem." 
A good part of the time she spent with 
us was given to the practical approach 
to handling a problem in research. She 
outlined the basic steps for solving a 
problem and discussed each in detail: 
1. Statement of problem. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



22 
NEW' 
BABY 
FOODS 
by 
GERBER' 


Ðï{ L
 
@ .'. 
V
 rD 
0:\ O . -II 
'2J, .
-t< 
* jl 


FOR GREATER MENU VARIETY 


Now. . . 22 new Gerber varieties to stimulate 
infant appetite interest. The fruits and des- 
serts are made from choice fruit, selected 
for natural sweetness and fia vour. The 
breakfast items combine cereal, egg yolks 
and ham or bacon for a good assortment of 
nutrients. Like all Gerber Baby Foods, 
they're specially processed for maximum 
retention of food values. 
Made the Gerber way by specialists devoted 
exclusively to the preparation of quality 
baby foods. 


rð
 


 


BABIES ARE OUR BUSINESS... OUR ONLJ' BUSINESS! 
Gerber Baby Foods 
Niagara Falls, Canada 


Gel'bE>[ 
.. Ci 
v . 


JANUARY. 1960. Vol. 56, No.1 


, SPECIAL FRUIT 
. COMBINATIONS 
, FRUIT-BASED 
. DESSERTS 
CEREAL-BASED 
. BREAKFAST & DINNER 
COMBINATIONS 


STRAINED & JUNIOR 
Bananas wIth Applesauce 
Apple Peach 
Apple Raspberry 
Aprlcot.Pmeapple 
Dessert 
Peach Dessert 
Cereal. Egg Yolks and 
Bacon Breakfast 
Ham Omelette Dmner 
Bacon Omelette Dinner 
Peas and Carrots 
FruIt Salad 
STRAINED 
Bananas wIth PIneapple 
Banana Dessert 


58 



2. Review of the literature for identi- 
lì.cation of similar wor;
, 
3. Possible breakdowns or restatement 
of the prohlem. 
4. Determination of method or design 
of the investigation, (Statement of as- 
sumptions) 
S. Collection of data, conduct of ex- 
periments, usually including a further 
study of the literature. 
6. Recording of data, 
7. Evaluation of data. 
8. Report of findings. 
It was heartening to learn from :Miss 
Henderson how much assistance the 
libraries are giving to research workers 
and how much is being done by uni- 
\"ersities and libraries to meet their 
needs. 
Dr. Lehmann spoke of the impor- 
tance of a research attitude and de- 
scribed the typical research personality 
as one who has "courage, tenacity and 
a high frustration tolerance." He said 
that one must be "tolerant to himself 
as wen as tolerant to attitudes and 
facts." He is such a master of the 
techniques of research that he made it 
an sound quite simple and entirely fas- 
cinating. In his outline of methods of 
approach to the solving of a problem, 
he described some interesting research 
that is being done in psycho-pharma- 
cology, a specific study of "The psy- 
chological effects of wearing colored 
glasses" and a very mundane study 
that he and a student of nursing did on 
the problem of eliminating odors in the 
room of a patient with an open car- 
cinomatous lesion. 
Dr. Solomon stressed the need for 
formal training in research me
hods. 
He answered the question "Can any- 
one do research? by asking another, 
"Can anyone do nursing?" He re- 
minded the nurses that there are a lot 
of current problems that will have to 
be solved administratively. He cau- 
tioned the group not to go beyond their 


depth in attempting to do research amI 
to secure assistance of specialists where 
this is needed. "There is a place on 
research teams for nurses with special 
preparation to assist with re
earch 
projects." Dr. Solomon implied that in 
the future this may we11 be the area 
where nurses can make their most 
valuable contributions to research. 
Howcyer, this ,,'i11 not happen until 
man v more nurses avail themselves of 
adv
nced study. Discussion fo11owed 
here on the n
ed for financial assist- 
ance for nursing education, because of 
the great need for research in nursing 
and the lack of prepared people to do it. 
As one \\"ho has had only elemen- 
tary courses in sociology at school, I 
was particularly impressed with the 
topics for research Dr. Solomon sug- 
gested as 1inks between sociology and 
nursing such as: 
The anti-therapeutic effect of ex- 
pecting a patient to perform in a cer- 
tain way in a hospita1. 
A study of hostility fee1ings exhibited 
by nurses to obstetric patients. 
A study of the effect on the head 
nurse of employing a \vard secre<-ary. 
:ßlany master's theses in the past 
have been centred on curriculum studies 
and the solving of nursing service 
problems. The above topics presented 
a completely new picture. It \vould 
seem that the days of racking one's 
brain for a master's degree thesis pro- 
ject are over, at least for a while. Not 
quite an the problems in nursing have 
been solved! 
At the outset of the conference, we1- 
comes were extended by Dr. Rae Chit- 
tick, Director, 1\1cGi11 School for Grad- 
uate Nurses and l\Iiss f\Iargaret 
\Vheeler, president, Association of 
X urses of the Province of Quebec. The 
nurses were entertained at teas during 
the wcek by the School for Graduate 
X urses and by the Association of 
:-.J urses of the Province of Quebec. 


According to the American Uedical As- 
'iociation a vaccine which \\ ill prevent from 
60 to 70 per cent of all common colds will 
probahly be available within the next 19 
months. The researcher believes that a vac- 
cine can be developed against an acceptable 
proportion of the common cold. 
- H calfh, Sept.-Oct., 1959 


54 


The not-so-young lady made her first in- 
vestment in common stock. A short time 
afterwards her broker called her in some 
satisfaction to say he had just heard that 
Procter and Gamble were going to split. 
"\Vhat a shame" was the lady's reaction 
"they've been together so long." 
The Canadian Docfor 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



-...-. 


,

 .;,../" " 



 


. 
1 
--- 
 


'''\
 ,<" 
þ 


. .. 


., 
 
'" ' 


- 


j '.
 
I .,. _../ _ 


Her mother might help, but 
SHE'D RATHER TALK TO 
YOU ABOUT PIMPLES 


Onl} two people easily available to the 
adolescent can offer advice with assurance 
that it will be gratefully acceptcd. One is the 
mother and the other is the nurse in school, 
doctor's ollicc, or elsewhere. . \ctualIy, the 
nurse, because of her professional stature 
and knmdedge, can help where a parent 
often fails. 


There is now a clinically-prO\'ed medica- 
tion for pimples* which you can recommend 
with confidence... CLE.\RASIL 
fedication. 
Many nurses do in fact suggest CLK \RASIL 
-as a reccnt survey of readers of UN, .1 
Journal for Nurses, indicates. 
CLEARASIL combines sulphur and 
resorcinol in a new, scientific, oil-absorbing 
base. It works \\.jth a gentle, penetrating, 
drying action. And it's antiseptic, to stop 


bacteria that can cause and spread pimples. 
Skin-coloured, too hides pimples while 
it works. 


Each package of CLK\R.\SIL contains an 
authoritative, helpful leaflet on general skin 
hygiene and li\'ing habits. CLEARr\SIL is 
guaranteed to help clear skin fast or money 
back. 69
 or $ I. 19 at all drug counters. 
For FREE. PROFESSION.\L SA
fPLE 
of CLEARASIL and copy of clinical report, 
write CLEARASIL, Dept. N5, 429 St. Jean 
Baptiste St., 'Nfontreal. (Expires 1\l3r. I, 1960) 


.Original clinical reports in our files. 


CANADA'S LARGEST-SELLING PIMPLE MEDICATION... 
BECAUSE IT REALLY WORKS 


JANUARY, 1960. Vol. 56. No.1 


59-15Rl 


55 



Convention Pel'sonality 


1960 - a biennial year for the Canadian 
Nurses' Association and preparations are 
far advanced for the General lIeeting in 
Halifax. Beginning with this issue some 
of the persons who are contributing or will 
contribute to the success of this event will 
be introduced to the readers. Unfortunately, 
space will not permit individual tributes to 
the many nurses working quietly, efficiently 
and determinedly behind the scenes as 
members of committees or subcommittees. 


t/:; 


" " 

" 


(PattI Horsdal) 
1\1. ELIZABETH REED 


They are the unsung heroines of every 


1 


convention, the driving shaft of the whole 
mechanism of convention organization. Our 
tribute to them is our acknowledgement of 
the fact that without their work, there 
would be no General Meeting. 
The first of our convention personalities 
is Mary Elizabeth Reed, the chairman of 
the Program Committee. As assistant director 
in chief of the Victorian Order of Nurses 
for Canada, she is a familiar figure to Cana- 
dian nurses. She is a graduate of the Gen- 
eral Public Hospital, Saint John, N.B. 
(now Saint John General HospitaI), holds 
her certificate in public health nursing from 
McGill University and her B.S. degree in 
administration and supervision in the same 
specialty from Columbia University. 

1iss Reed joined the VON shortly after 
her graduation and with the exception of 
her military service during World War II, 
the connection has remained unbroken. The 
years 1942-46 were spent mostly in military 
hospitals in Canada, England and North- 
west Europe. For part of that time she 
served in the office of the Matron-in-Chief 
at Canadian 
filitary Headquarters, London, 
England. In 1945 she was made an asso- 
ciate of the Royal Red Cross in recognition 
of her military services. 
Her professional activities include her 
duties as chairman, Public Health Nursing 
Section, Canadian Public Health Associa- 
tion; chairman, Agnes C. Neill Memorial 
A ward Committee, Nursing Sisters' Asso- 
ciation of Canada and membership on the 
finance committee of the RNAO. Her ef- 
forts on behalf of the program committee 
for this Biennial Meeting will reflect the 
calm etlìciency characteristic of ber. 


Schizophrenia may involve an error 111 
metabolism, an errur that may be responsible 
in turn for the production of excess amounts 
of some toxic substance or substances in 
schizophrenic patients. 
.\ study was undertaken at the Depart- 
ment of Neurological Res
arch, Cniversity 
of British Columbia Facu!ty of 
reùicine to 
test this possibility. The method used \\ as 
the evaluation of the physiological propertics 
of urine extracts from schizophrenics and 
normal subjects. 
.As a first step, the O\'er-all effecb of 


56 


these unne extracts on the behavior and 
spontaneous electrical activity of the brain 
were studied in cats and monkeys. 
Urine extracts were prepared from samples 
of a gruup of 20 acute schizophrenic pa- 
tients at the Provincial Mental Hospital; 
members of the departmental staff served 
as controls. Further studies are being con- 
ducted to determine whether the differences 
observed in the over-all effects following 
inj ections of the schizophrenic and normal 
urine extracts are quantitative or qualita- 
tive. - Ilospital Progre.u, October, 1959 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



TABLETS 
the wonder 
combination .
 
for 
RELIEF 
IN HALF 
THE TIME 


",>>-" 


'"" 


Acetylsalicylic acid. . . . . .. .3V2 gr. 
Phenacetin ............... 2V2 gr. 
Caffeine Citrate . . . . . . . . . .. V2 gr. 
Available in Handy Tubes of 12 
Economy Sizes of 40 and 100 
é 
B.3'IIOMt&Co. 
MONTREAL, CANADA 


'" 


I 


JANUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No. 1 


57 



WHE 
EVEN 
STUBBORN 
HOSPITAL 
I · HYLOCOCOI 
RESPO 0 


THE ANTI II Ie I 
 APT TO BE 


CHLOROMYCETI 


. 


In an investigation 1 of staphylococcus carriers among hospital patients, in vitro 
studies showed that more than 85 per cent of 337 staphylococcal strains were sen- 
sitive to CHLOROJ\IYCETIN. In those patients who carried strains resistant to 
CHLOROMYCETIN, <<... resistance was lost entirely after 3 months... ."1 
Heports from other investigators 2 - 10 have repeatedly confirmed the efficacy of 
CHLOROMYCETIN against a wide variety of present-day pathogens. One worker 
states: <<Resistance to chloramphenicol occurs infrequently, except in cases which have 
been intensively treated with the antibiotic:'2 


CHLOROMYCETIN (chloramphenicol, Parke-Davis) is avaiIable in various forms, including 
Kapseals" of 250 mg., in bottles of 16 and 100. 
CHLOROMYCETIN is a potent therapeutic agent and, because certain blood dyscrasias have 
been associated with its administration, it should not be used indiscriminately or for minor 
infections. Furthermore, as with certain other drugs, adequate blood studies should be made 
when the patient requires prolonged or intermittent therapy. 


(1) Goslings, ,v. R., and Büchli, K.: Arch. Int. Med. 102:691, 1958. (2) Flippin, H. F.: Am. Pract. & Digest Treat. 
10:39, 1959. (3) Borchart, K. A.: Antibiotics and Chemother. 8:564, 1958. (4) Fischer, H. G.: Deutsche med. 
Wchnschr. 84:257, 1959. (5) Holloway. \v. J., & Scott, E. G.: Delaware M. ]. 30:17
, 1958. (6) Suter, L. S., & 
Ulrich, E. w.: Antibiotics & Chemother, 9:38, 1959. (7) 
iarkham, N. P., & Shott, H. C.: New Zealand M. ]. 57:55, 
1958. (8) Ditmore, D. C., & Lind, H. E.: Am. ]. Gastroenterol. 28:378, 1957. (9) Schneicrson, S. S.: ]. Mt. Sinai Hosp. 
New York 25:52. 1958. (0) Godfrey. 
1. E., & Smith, I. M.: ].A.M.A. 166: 1197 >- 1958. *1 ,.,. or. rln Un I. 




 


\ 


IN VITRO SENSITIVITY OF 337 STRAINS OF PATHOGENIC STAPHYLOCOCCI (ISOLATED FROM 
HOSPITAL PATIENTS) TO CHLOROMYCETIN AND TO THREE OTHER ANTIBIOTICSt 


CHLOROMYCETJN 85.2% 


ANTIBIOTIC A 63.2% 


ANTIBIOTIC B 48.4% 


ANTIBIOTIC C 33.5% 


o 20 40 
tADAPTED FROM GOSLINGS & BÜCHLI.1 


60 


80 


100 


(. .. ., 
Q"'
. <! 
1..1 I
 
 . 


DAVI
. MONTREAL. P.O. 



General Paralysis 


]OH,:\' GIBSON, 
1.n., Cu. g., D.P.).l. 


Although syphilis may be thought of by some nurses as a disease of the past, 
tertiary syphilis is found today ill those who 'lvere infected 10-15 
years ago. One of its forms is general paralysis of the insane which 
now can lzave a very favorable prognosis. 


G ENERAL paralysis uf the insane 
(G.P.I.) IS a chronic syphilitic in- 
fection of the brain and meninges, 
characterized by progressiye dementia 
and paralysis. It is one of the forms of 
tertiary syphilis and occurs about 10 
to 15 years after the primary infection, 
most commonly between the ages of 30 
and 50. It occurs in onk a few of the 
people infected with syphilis - prob- 
ably in less than five per cent - an 
incidence suggesting that a special type 
of Treponema pallida is responsible. 
I t is much more common among men 
than women. It may be combined \yith 
tabes dorsalis in a disease cal1ed tabo- 
paresis. It can occur as a congenital 
condition in a congenital syphilitic. 
The disease is now much less common 
than it used to be, probably as a re- 
sult of more effective methods of treat- 
ing syphilis in its early stages. 
The onset of the disease may be in- 
sidious extending over several months 
or dramatical1y sudden, appearing in 
a few days. The course of the disease 
can be described in thíee phases: an 
early phase, a middle phase and a late 
phase. 


Early Phase 
In this stage the patient begins to 
show evidence of developing dementia 
associated with neurological changes. 
Characteristically, the dementia shows 
itself in a change of the personality for 
the worse, The affected person becomes 
careless and inattentive, makes foolish 
decisions, cannot concentrate, is easily 
tired, cannot express his thoughts clear- 
ly and is obviously not the man he was. 
In mood he may be euphoric or de- 
pressed, easily moved to laughter or 


Dr. Gibson is a psychiatrist at St. 
Lawrence's Hospital. Catcrham, Surrey, 
England. This is the fifth of a series of 
articles on psychiatric subjects. 


60 


tu tears. An admirable account of the 
progress of the disease is given in Steeg- 
muller's life of de Maupassant who 
died of it. The patient may have head- 
aches; his fingers become tremulous; 
he cannot pronounce words correctly. 
The tone of his muscles becomes re- 
duced, the reduction showing in his face 
by a loss of the normal folds, His ten- 
don reflexes are commonly exaggerated. 
His pupils become unequal and show the 
.\rgyll Robertson abnormality of loss 
of reaction to light without loss of re- 
action to accommodation. He may be- 
gin to have epileptic seizures. 


.lVliddle Phase 
In the middle phase of the illness the 
dementia progresses further to gross 
personality changes, a severe loss of 
memory, crass errors in judgment and 
loss of normal control. Progressive de- 
mentia without mood change is common. 
About one patient in five is grossly 
euphoric and exhibits ddusions of enor- 
mous wealth, cleverness or power: he 
is a millionaire, he has mountains of 
gold, he is the strongest man in the 
world, he has invented the most mar- 
vellous machines. A few are depressed, 
anxious and tearful. Some may alter- 
nate between euphoria and depression. 
Delusions of persecution may develop. 
Speech becomes even more disordered 
and more epileptic attacks may occur. 
Signs of paralysis become increasingly 
obvious. The patient cannot walk a 
straight line or stand on one leg. He 
develops a severe tremor of hands, lips 
and tongue. He may develop a paresis. 


Late Phase 
In this final phase the patient be- 
comes markedly demented and incapable 
of rational thought and speech. Emacia- 
tion, physical weakness and muscular 
paralysis are severe. He becomes bed- 
ridden, cannot control his sphincters, 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



is very likely to develop bedsores. Event- 
ually he dies. 
The outlook for the untreated disease 
is always bad. Death ensues within two 
Or three years. In some patients a spon- 
taneous remission may check the pro- 
gress of the disease for some months, 
but relapse is almost always inevitable. 
\\Ïth modern methods of treatment the 
late phase hardly ever occurs. 
The diagnosis of the disease is made 
on the basis of a history of syphilis, 
the development of dementia, char- 
acteristic changes in pupils and re- 
Hexes. a positiye \Vasserman reaction 
of the blood, characteristic and diag- 
nostic changes in the cerebrospinal fluid 
in which the \ V assenllan reaction is 
positiye, the number of cells increased, 
the amount of protein and globulin in- 
creased, and the Lange curve shows 
the paretic type, e.g. 55543210000. 
Taboparesis shows characteristics 
of both general paralysis and tabes 
dorsalis. It runs a much more chronic 
course than general paralysis and lasts 
for years. The dementia is commonly 
of the simple kind. The signs and 
symptoms of tabes include: 
lightning pains - sudden attacks of 
severe pain in the legs or other parts 
of the body; visceral crises in which 
a cute pain and disorder of function 
occur in organs such as the stomach, 
rectum and bladder; ata),.ia with the 
feet lifted too high in walking and 
slapped down; blindness due to optic 
atrophy; loss of sphincter control; loss 
of tendon reflexes; irregular pupils; 
perforating ulcers of the feet and Char- 
cot's joints, that is joints which are 
painlessly enlarged and disorganized. 
Congenital General Paralysis is an 
uncommon development of congenital 
syphili
. Symptoms deyelop in adoles- 


cence and are similar to those develop- 
ing in the adult variety. The grosser 
euphoria and depressi\'c form
 do not 
often occur. The typical picture is that 
of a gradual1y progressing dementia. 


Treat111ent 
The prognosis for patients with gen- 
eral paralysis of the insane has changed 
dramatically. This was accomplished 
first by the discO\'ery of malaria treat- 
ment and more recently through the 
use of peniciI1in, \vhich is no\\' the 
treatment of choice. It is very impor- 
tant that treatment should begin as 
early as possible and before irreparable 
demcntia has heen produced. 
Penicil1in should be gi\ en first. 
After giving smal1 doses for one day 
to detect unusual responses, it is given 
daily in doses of 60,000-1 mil1ion units 
until 12 mi11ion units ha\'e been re- 
ceived. This course m3.Y be enough to 
create a cure and abolish symptoms. 
Progress may be checked hy examin- 
ation of the cerebrospinal fluirl, espe- 
ciallv the ce11 count which, in a cured 
case: should return to norma1. The 
cerebrospinal fluid should be examined 
at six-month intervals for one year 
and then once a year for five years. 
If there is any relapse the course of 
penicil1in may be repeated. 
l\Ialaria treatment is as effective 
as penicillin but it is much more dif- 
ficut to perform and has an element 
of danger. The patient is given an in- 
tramuscular injection of 3 cc. of blood 
infected with the organism of tertian 
malaria and is allowed to have eight 
bouts of fever of at least 103 0 F. The 
malaria is then controllecl by admini- 
stration of an antimalarial drug such 
as quinine sulphate. Attacks of malaria 
do not recur after this treatment. 


Standill'diZf'd 
1ln'mS (01' jddl'essogl'aphs 


Physicians' Record Company, publishers 
of Hospital and Medical records, now have 
a complete series of standardized record 
forms available for use with addressograph 
machines. A "Portfolio of Standardized 
Record Forms for all Hospitals using 
1Iechanical Addressing Equipment" will be 


JANUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No.1 


sent on request to: The Physician's Record 
Company, 3000 S. Ridgeland A venue, Ber- 
wyn, Illinois. 


* * * 
A wrong doer is often he that has left some- 
thing undone, not always he that has done 
something. - TERn'LLIAN 


61 



Infantile Eczema 


ELLEN JOHNSON 


Fe'lu patients exhibit the utter misery of the one 'uJith the extensive, angry, itchy 
eruption of eczema. Treatment is so often a practical application of 
the old adage: "If at first YOlt don't succeed ." Fortunately, this 
method is frequently successful. 


.t LTHOUGH medical science has come 
11 a long way since the invention of 
the stethoscope or the discovery of in- 
sulin, there are still many hills un- 
climbed and many phases which lend a 
chal1enging, stimulating aura to the 
profession. \Vhat factors in the tissue 
suddenly cause a normalIy healthy 
person to produce new growths, or 
what constitutional factors suddenly 
cause a bounding, healthy child to 
become coyered with angry skin erup- 
tions? Of an the puzzling diseases that 
have been troubling pediatricians for 
years, eczema is prohahly one of the 
most dramatic and most interesting. 
Eczema is a relatively common con- 
dition of infancy and childhood, often 
characterized by a reaction of the skin 
which in most cases has an anergic 
basis. It causes a great deal of discom- 
fort to the child, and produces much 
anxiety in the parents. In severe cases, 
the entire skin surface may be invol- 
\red, but the most frequent locations 
are: the cheeks, the scalp, and the 
folds of the skin - behind the ears, 
in the neck, axil1ae, and groins. The 
disease often commences ,vith a red- 
dening and itchiness of the cheeks, 
then spreads to other parts of the body. 
Although eczema is a relati,'ely com- 
mon condition, its appearance usuaI1y 
provokes numerous problems, many of 
which may be peculiar to that indivi- 
dual alone. This necessitates a deep 
understanding of the child's needs emo- 
tional1y as they relate to this particu- 
lar disease. 
In order to gain an adequate know- 
ledge of a child's emotional and 
physical background, observation of 
the parent-child relationship is essen- 


Miss Johnson is a senior student at 
Sarnia General Hospital, Sarnia, On- 
tario. 


62 


tial, coupled with personal interviews. 
Unfortunately, in many hospitals the 
restrictions on visiting on pediatric 
wards make adequate parental contact 
almost impossible. Our knowledge of 
a child's home environment must be 
developed chiefly through keen obser- 
vation of the child, telephone conversa- 
tions with the parents and information 
gathered from charts. 
\Vhen Daniel's parents. brought 
their small, very in, nine-month-old 
into our children's ward, his condition 
was enough to arouse a rather illogical 
though thoroughly understandable 
opinion of the parents in the minds 
of the nurses. The screaming, red- 
skinned, revolting-appearing baby had 
made his debut into the field of allergic 
diseases irrespective of nurses' opinions 
or the seemingly ineffective parental 
care he had received. His mother ap- 
peared to be a slightly overwhelmed, 
and rather frightened person of aver- 
age economic status. She said that the 
disease had progressed so rapidly that 
before she had a chance to adjust to 
her child's changing condition, she 
suddenly realized that he was seriously 
ill and should be hospitalized. Later, 
we learned that about one month prior 
to his admission to hospital, Danny had 
been moyed from a bedroom that he 
had previously occupied with his pa- 
rents, to one that was freshly papered 
and painted. \ "hen questioned about 
Danny's response to this move, his 
mother said that she had not noticed 
any apparent physiological or psycho- 
logical reaction. 
About two weeks later the baby 
developed dry, red, scaly eczema on 
the buttocks that spread to the ex- 
tremities and finally to the body trunk. 
The condition seemed to become 
worse after the child had worn a new 
nylon play-suit. Although Danny had 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



. . , 
',
 . )'-', "1'.I,! ..,'
.... 
 
 


::
 . 
..
 


t' 



..' 


'1' 
\,; 

\: 
- 
 
c' 
, ;
 

 
'1 


, ' 


.t. 
I' 
. 



 
<,
 

 ' 
II, 

. 
, , 
F' 
'-.', 


): 
\ 


. , 
\
 




. 


t. 



 : 

. 
, " 
.\ 
'. 
 


PR 


.,:, 
'
 

,. 
I.:, 



' 
 


)
 


" 
4: , 

 
 ,"'\., - \......:, '\:j. :' - ...
.: .' . .- . 
,_ .. _" ,".. . ...." r . 


JANUARY, 1960. Vol. 56. NO.1 



.- - ',' 


*Trade Mark 



I\.... "... 
.
' ........ 
 ..' 


..".:
 t., 
\. 
.., 
," 
r 
:,t- 
" 
; 
it.. 
. 
 
1 ' 
't 

 
, . 
. ( 
, 
11 
., 
-..l 
:

 
, 
,
 
, . 
'; 

 

 \
 
1 ' 
,,
 
,
 
'. 


. " 


PTIC* BALLS 


.\' 
t' 


',
 ) 
'[' 


. 


. 


. 


I 
'
' 
. :
 
\'
i 
,
 


I 
"'1 


MADE IN CANADA 


 


. t 


,
 


..... ': 


." to u .:
4I

 ;:'
..:. 1,' ..'" 


, 
-. t. .,..-,'" 
. .. . 
""'I:' 


, 'I 

\ 
, is 
. \ 
,
l 
Co' 


63 



had no previously known a11ergies, 
the mother realized that an al1ergic 
condition was present in this sudden 
skin condition. She said that she had 
had se\'eral bouts of mild skin reac- 
tions when she was a child. 
On consulting a doctor the mother 
was told to try eliminating a great 
many foods such as vegetables and 
meats. During this time, not knowing 
what she could safely give her child, 
she fed him a great many fruits, to 
many of which by skin tests later he 
developed a positive reaction. Upon 
admission to hospital, Danny's severe- 
ly eczematous condition presented us 
with four major nursing care problems 
namely: diet, identification of al1ergic 
factors, skin care, and emotional care. 


Diet 
To patients suffering from eczema, 
the identification and elimination of 
the a11ergic factors, and the establish- 
ment of a proper diet are the gateways 
to success or failure, especial1y during 
childhuod. Danny presented a prob- 
lem in this regard even on a diet 
restricted to Mulsoy and rice cerea1. 
For about a week his skin showed 
very little improvement. Mulsoy for- 
mula is made of water and a powder 
of a soy bean base. It is a fairly vis- 
cous formula, so was quite easily tol- 
erated by the child at first. This was 
supplemented with rice cereal, which 
is light, easily tolerated, and seems 
to be responsible for few anergic re- 
actions. Danny did not gain weight on 
this diet, so it was obvious that he 
would have to be given other foods, 
especially as he eventuaI1y started to 
vomit his Mulsoy feedings. He could 
tolerate smaI1 amounts given frequent- 
ly and could drink this from a cup. 
After Danny's skin started to im- 
prove a little, it was decided he could 
be placed on an elimination diet, in 
which only one new food is added to 
the diet at a time. After a new food 
has been given, the skin is watched 
careful1y for two or three days for 
signs of a reaction. If no change oc- 
curs or if the skin seems to be im- 
proving, it is safe to continue giving 
this food and another new food may 
then be added. If, however, the skin 
becomes rough and reddened or in 
other ways shows an unfavorable re- 
action to the new food, the child is 


64 


considered al1ergic to that food and it 
is automatical1y omitted from the diet. 
Using such a sy
tem it is necessary 
that each person caring for the patierÎt 
is ful1y aware of what foods are per- 
mitted. A careful list of the foods to 
which Danny had been satisfactorily 
introduced was made out and posted i
1 
order to prevent mistakes. 


Allergic Factors 
\Vith the fulfillment of the dietary 
needs, Danny's skin improved to such 
a degree that it was possible to do 
skin tests of 16 different foods. In a 
skin test, a solution containing pro- 
tein from the allergen is injected sub- 
cutaneously. A careful observation for 
elevation or redness of the area is 
made a fe\\' minutes later. The nurse's 
responsihility is first to prepare the 
child as much as possible beforehand. 
\Vith a nine-month-old child, this is 
rather difficult, but the presence of 
someone with whom he was familiar 
seemed to help. The nurse should also 
gently restrain the child with her hands 
using as Ii ttle force as possible. I t is 
her responsibility to write down a list 
of the al1ergens tried, in the order and 
formation in which they were injected. 
The first skin test was rather un- 
successful as his skin was stilI too 
reddened. A later one was tried which 
proved much more successful and cor- 
roborated some of the facts which we 
had learned from his elimination diet. 
We could then use the results of the 
skin test as a basis upon which to huild 
Our basic diet. 
Before Danny was discharged we 
tried to teach his mother a few sim- 
ple principles for eczematous children 
\\'hich could be easily carried out at 
home. \Ve ga\'e her a list of the foods 
to which Dannv's skin seemed to be 
negative, indicáting which foods had 
already been tried and could safely 
he continued. \Ve encouraged her to 
try new foods, but impressed upon 
her that onlv one new food could be 
tried at a tillle. \Ye tried to make her 
as familiar with Danny's diet as pos- 
sible, in order to prevent frustration 
on her part which could result in es- 
tablishing poor feeding habits for Dan- 
ny. Final1y, we told her that if 
 red- 
ness or irritation did occur, she should 
consider the foods which he had eaten 
the day hefore and eliminate any 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



NEW! Swift's Balanced Meat Dinners-IN GLASS 


, 


, 


.>\ 


, .., S /////;"i 


:::::.. 


" .. 
 Swift's À Sf 
. po f pi"" ! 
SEE STRAINU 
FOR BASIE> 


.............. 


-- 


So pure and fresh in sparkling glass, Swift's new Meat Dinners for 
Babies are a carefully balanced combination of Swift's lean, 100% 
meat, vegetables and a little cereal. Like Swift's well-known 100 % 
Meats for Babies, they're prepared from only the very finest ingredi- 
ents. The leanest, freshest meats. , . the youngest, freshest vegetables 
-all trimmed, cooked, and pureed with the greatest care-make 
Swift's Meat Dinners nutritious, easy to digest. 
Swift's new Meat Dinners provide another fine way to include the 
important values of meat in the infant diet. You can recommend 
Swift's Meat Dinners for Babies with confidence. 5 varieties: Beef, 
Chicken, Ham, Veal and Lamb. (Most are also available in chopped 
form for Juniors.) 


OTHER MEATS FOR BABIES FROM SWIFT . . . 
Beef. Lamb · Pork · Veal · Chicken · S . E 
Chicken & Veal · Ham · Liver. Liver & WI t 
Bacon · Beef Heart . Pork with Apple- 
sauce . Ham with Raisin Sauce . Lamb 
with Mint flavour · Egg Yolks · Egg 
Yolks & Bacon, "h" Seu-e f'tHn 
.t?e11h 


JANUARY. 1960. Vol. 56. 
o. 1 65 



doubtful ones. If the condition persist- 
ed she should, of course, notify the 
doctor. 


Care of the Skin 
The second, seemingly formidable 
problem, was care of the skin. The 
most important factor was the appli- 
cation of medications. Before any- 
thing was applied the skin was cleansed 
with a heavy, white. soothing, emol- 
lient liquid, the main ingredients of 
which were lanolin and olive oil. A 
small amount of the preparation was 
absorbed during application and the 
remainder, which contained debris en- 
crustation and sloughed tissue was 
patted off, using a piece of scorched 
linen to prevent friction. After ap- 
plying the preparation, Danny's skin 
was more soft and pliable. \Ve then 
applied a thick, dark gray, tar-like 
paste made of a water-miscible base 
with zinc oxide and titanium dioxide 
as the two main ingredients. This 
not only provided a protective layer 
over the eczema, but also removed 
some of the dry, scaly, sloughed tissue 
from his skin. His cheeks were per- 
sistently very reddened and hardened, 
so a smooth white cream containing- 
polyethylene glycol and propylene gly- 
col was applied to them. This cream, 
which suppresses anergic dermatoses 
and skin reactions and decreases pru- 
ritus, made his cheeks smoother and 
softer. Danny's groins and genital 
areas were very slippery and red. 
Lassar's paste, which contains a zinc 
base anò is heavier and more tenuous, 
was applied to these areas. This paste 
causes the cells to contract making the 
skin harder and less slippery. 
After using the glycol preparation 
on Danny's cheeks for some time, it 
was discovered that they were healing 
up faster than the skin on the rest of 
his body. Accordingly, the doctor or- 
dered the glycol preparation to be ap- 
plied to his entire body. This prepara- 
tion is applied very sparingly and 
only after the skin is first cleansed 
with the lanolin. Using this treatment 
the skin cleared up to such an extent 
that only the area around his external 
genitalia remained hardened, elevated, 
and reddened. Scrapings were taken 
from the area, and tested for fungi, 
but the results were negative. Event- 
ually, with use of a controlled diet, 


66 


proper cleansing, and the application 
of the glycol preparation, this area, 
too, cleared up. 
Scorched linen is especially effective 
in conditions such as Danny's because 
an the lint is removed in a hot oven 
and provides a soft, non-irritating 
covering for the tender eczematous 
skin. Danny's bed was made up using 
the same kind of linen so that even 
the bed clothes could do little to ir- 
ritate his sensitive skin. \Vhen giving 
him his skin treatments, especially 
during the acute stages of the disease, 
it was usua11y better to expose only 
smalI areas of the skin at a time. Be- 
cause his skin was very itchy, he could 
usually manage to scratch it or rub 
it in some way, in spite of our ef- 
forts, if large areas were exposed at 
one time. Even a very sma11 scratch 
would bleerl and make his skin even 
more itchy and irrihble. After the 
skin started to improve, at least half 
of his body could be exposed at one 
time. 
A stockinette mask with eyes, nose, 
and mouth cut out, was pulled over his 
head to protect his cheeks from the 
bed linen. Danny loved to sit up in 
a high chair for part of the morning 
each day. It was not necessary for 
him to have the stockinette on at this 
time. 
Unfortunately, Danny's condition 
\vas such that it was necessary to re- 
strain him with elbow splints. These 
were put on over the dressings and 
were removed twice a day for short 
periods. They could be removed only 
under supervision lest Danny should 
find some way to scratch himself. They 
were padded at both ends to prevent 
irritation of the skin from pressure. 
After all the linen dressings were ap- 
plied and the splints put in place, 
stockinettes were pulled over arms and 
legs, and pinned to the diaper. The 
principle of using splints is to anow 
the child plenty of movement from the 
shoulder joint and yet prevent pur- 
poseful movements of the elbow joint. 
On discharge, some teaching of skin 
care was necessary in order to extend 
the doctor's plan of treatment. To 
cleanse the skin, it was necessary to 
point out a few facts to the mother. 
Danny could not have either tub or 
shower baths until permission was 
given by the doctor. A very gentle 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



He's happy!... be's on S -AI-A! 


-, 
" i ! 
.' - 
I 

 f 
, 


'" . 


s - ..'1 - A provides sound infant nutrition 


s - 
1 - A protein is in physiologic proportion. The infant fed S -11 - A 
receives a daily protein intake comparable to that of the breast-fed infant. 
S - 11 - A fat is high in essential fatty acids. S - M - A supplies 20 calories 
per ounce, the same as human milk. 
S - M - A provides physiological carbohydrate in the form of lactose in an 
amount (7%) closely adjusted to the average quantity in human milk. 
S -11 - A supplies vitamins and minerals in amounts adequate to meet 
the recognized needs of health and growth. 


Costs less tha11 a peflll)' all ounce 


[
dI 


S-M- 


. 


REG. TRADE MARK 
WAlKERVlllE. ONTARIO 


16 oz. tins. 


JANGARY, 1960. Vol. 56 No. 1 


67 



sponging with tepid water using no 
soap seemed best. \Ye tried to empha- 
size the fact that his skin should be 
patted dryas rubbing ,,"ouId very eas- 
ily irritate it. The mother was giyen 
a tube of a cortisone preparation to 
use at times \vhen areas 
eel1led to be 
becoming eczematous again. 


Emotional Behavior 
That Dannv's disease v\"as c1oseh. 
linked to his -emotional behavior w;.., 
evident almost from the beginning. 
At first he seemed to be like any other 
very iII little hoy. He was irritable. 
took his feedings only with persuasion. 
and cried violenth' when disturbed 
for any reasun. 
 \fter the more acute 
phase of his disease was passecl, Dan- 
ny stil1 produced evidence of emotional 
upset. He made shrill, irritable crying 
noises yery frequently, often when 
apparently quite happy. Sometimes he 
would sit in one position for quite a 
while and seemed irritable and hyper- 
sensitive to any unusual stimulus. Dan- 
ny needed some one person to cuddle 
him and form a rather close, personal 
relationship with him. His condition 
alone must have caused the very height 
of frustration without having the feel- 
ing of heing rejected by those who 
cared for him added to it. 
\1though a 
nurse often feels guilty because of the 
repulsive effect a child such as Danny 
has upon her, such feelings are natural. 
By regarding the situation in this light 
and thus bringing about a deeper un- 
derstanding of herself and her relation- 
ship to the child, the nurse can gi\'e 
him bt'tter and more satisfactory care. 
Aside from personal relatio
ships, 
Danny's frustration could have other 
outlets. Some of it could be lessened 
by remO\'ing his splints as often as 
possible and hy taking off his face 
mask for a period each day. Sitting 
in a doorway in a high-chair seemed 
to Iwovide a maximum of enjoyment 
for him, so \\'e tried to \vork this pleas- 
ure into his plan of care at least three 
times a day. He was a very playful 
little ho? so ,,'e prm'ided him with 
several bright. noisy toys. 
Before he \\'as dischargerl, possible 
emotional problems \vere reviewed 
with the parents. Danny \vas an only 
child so the attitude of the parents to- 
wards him in comparison with other 


(;R 


members of the family did not present 
d. problem. However, he seemed to be 

l1ch a sensitiye child that overprotec- 
tion or e\'en a slight amount of rejec- 
tion could ,,'arp his character. Talking 
in a matter-ot-fact, kindly way to the 
parents helped them accept and un- 
derstand. 
Danny's gro\\.th ancl cle\'elopmcnt 
seemed slightly ad\'éU1ced for his age. 
The anterior fontanel appeared to be 
closing. lIe drank from a cup without 
much spil1ing. 1 Ie \\'as partially toilet- 
trained on admission, but during his 
il1ness, he regre
sed to the point where 
he was usual1v incontinent. The linen 
wrappings anéI the general frustration 
from his condition may have been 
partly responsible for this. Danny 
crawled around his hed well, and to- 
wards the end of his hospitalization, 
started making attempts to pu1I him- 
self to his feet. Like most nine-month- 
olds, he feared strange things or peo- 
ple. For example, he cried violently 
when placed on the scales or when a 
strange person entered the room. This 
apprehension may have been a product 
of his disease, to some extent, because 
as his condition improved, his fears 
became less and less evident. He loved 
to watch any movement in the room, 
especial1y another baby being bathed. 
He would laugh merrily if a baby made 
gurgling noises. Danny could handle 
large toys quite wen \\ ith his hands. 
He could grasp a toy Or rattle, and 

hake it expertly. 
\Vhile caring for Dann)', our many 
chal1enging problems and onf fight for 
progress instil1ed in my mind a know- 
ledge of the disease which will un- 
doubtedly prove of infinite value to me 
in the future. 


References 
1. Krause, 11. V. X ntrition and 
Diet Therapy. 2nd ed. Phila: \". B. 
Saunders Co. 1957. 
2. Rattner, Herbert. Dermatology: 
a Textbook for Nurses. Phila: \"1. B. 
Saunders Co. 1953. 
3. Sellew, G. and Pepper, M. Nurs- 
ing of Children. 7th ed. Phila: W. B. 
Saunders Co. 1953. 
4. \Vright, H. N. and Montag, M. 
Textbook of Pharmacology and Thera- 
peutics. 7th ed. Phila: \V_ B. Saunders 
Co. 1959. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Ilissionary X UI'SP 


MABEL ]OHKSOK 


Combining the positions of director of IlltJsing, nursing instructor and operatÙl!J 
room supervisor for a 40-bed hospital would frighten most of us. 
These, however, are some of the responsibilities of a C anadiall 
nurse in Portuguese 
V est .1frica. 


I T was Christmas Eve, 19jï. \\-e had 
just finished a lovely e\'ening \\-ith 
one of our missionary families when a 
message from the hospital arri\'ed. 
Amelia Baptista was in labor. In a few 
hours I had the joy of delivering her 
of t\vins - both breech presentations. 
Relati\"e
 l1sual1y crowd into the wait- 
ing room or corridor and what rejoic- 
ing, clapping and dancing goes on when 
a little one - or e\'en twins are born! 


-.:: , 
 

,;.; ... 
; l 


, ,) 
.. ... 


}'
 ',!<<

,
 
,..- (... 

,
:,.. ,
' 
""\ . - - 
-' ",:
 
I 
 .. 
 
. 
"\ 
.:::i\" 
;.... >- t: 
 \:. 
- .' 
 
i 1": Ii 
... ',.: ".. .
 ... 
 
. ...,...... 


y 


\ 


t 


. " 


1
 
J' 


, 


Catota 111 emorial Hospital 


How different this scene was some 
25 years ago when missionaries first 
arrived at the Catota 
Iission Station, 
in Angola, Portuguese \ Y est Africa. No 
hospital, no nurses. only _\frican mid- 
wives working in villages in unsanitary 
surroundings, with resultant high mor- 
tality rates. The Africans of that area 
are animists and live in fear of evil 
spirits. If twins were born, surely 
one possessed an evil spirit. so both 
would be buried alive. \Yhat a trans- 
formation has becn wrought! Amelia 
has been a keen Christian for vears 
and now twins bring joy instead of fear 
to her and to manv others. 
Early in 19'+8,"' Dr. and 11rs. A. C. 
Henderson of Toronto arrived at Cato- 
ta. They began building a 30-bed n05- 


Miss Johnson is at Catota 
remorial 
Hospital. Angola, Portuguese \\- est 
Africa, 


JANUARY, 1960. VoL 56. No 1 


pital SO Dr. Henderson's medical skin 
was laid aside part of each day in or- 
der to supenrise the building program 
which included the making of burnt 
brick, roof tile, hauling rock, sand etc. 
In November, 1948, I arrived, after 
spending a year studying the Portu- 
guese language in Lisbon, PortugaL 
:\1 v first five months at Catota were 
spent mainly in learning Nyemba, one 
of the African languages of that area. 
I also spent some time in our smal1 
three-ruomed dispensary and every day 
we watched the progress in the CO:l- 
struction of our new hospita1. 
] n 19-1-9 the operating room and a 
few other rooms were completed 
o we 
transferred our equipment from the 
clinic to Our new huspital. Patienb 
\\'ere flocking in for treatment - badly 
burned cases, malaria, relapsing feyer, 
pneumonia, tropical ulcers, elephantia- 

is, schistosomiasis, ameba, anquilos- 
tome, tenia, etc. They aU needed treat- 
ment. Surgical cases also came pouring 
in and in a few weeks about 40 patients 
with thyroids. some medium, maIH 
huge, ca
ne to ask if the doctor couldn;t 
help them. Noone 
eemed afraid of 
surgery. To them the surgeon's knife 
could work miracles. 
\Ye worked hard getting our oper- 
ating room ready, sewing laparotol1l
 
sheets, drapes, gowns, etc.; washing 
scrubbing and sterilizing. \Ve had no 
stove to begin \\-ith, so the African 
masons made an outdoor stove of brick 
with a round drum coyer for the to\,. 
If we fed it sufficient dry wood we 
managed to get our sterilizing done! 
] low we appreciated our "real" stm e 
\\.hen it arriyed from Cape Town. 
Soon our doctor was doing an kinds 
of 5urgery - hernias, hydroceles, re- 
1110\Tal of huge abdominal tumors, thy- 
roidectomies. hysterectomies, excision 
of breast lipomas (one weighed almost 
12 lbs.), cataracts and e\'en spinal 


69 



fusions. All this with only one doctor 
and two nurses! 


': 


" 


Hyperthyroidism 
F rom the beginning we realized the 
necessity of training African nursing 
assistants. Our first two students, Ed- 
wardo Jacob and Herculano Chico, 
graduated in 1952 and since then over 
20 students have completed the three- 
year course and have received their 
diplomas. All our students receive a 
three-month laboratory training. After 
nurses' graduation, Mr. Edwardo Jacob 
took postgraduate work and is now 
in charge of our laboratory. He is 
very capable and helps in our teaching 
program. Nurses also have three 
mon ths in the pharmacy and some time 
at our leprosarium where we have over 
100 patients. Mr. Herculano Chico 
is now in charge of the operating room 
and is a very conscientious worker, 
Our medical work was growing so 
quickly that our hospital with its five 
rooms for clinic was soon too small 
so we began building a new outpatient 
department. This was completed last 
year. \ìVe now have room for about 
40 beds in the hospital. \Ve have about 
125 to 150 patients who come daily 
for consultation or treatment and our 
prenatal clinic has about 30 in atten- 
dance every Friday. A few years ago 
only the ones who were having dif- 
ficultv came. \Ve will soon need a 
maternity hospital but that may take 
a long while to materialize as we re- 
ceive no grants for our work. It is 
maintained by the free wilI gifts of 


70 


churches and folks in the homeland 
who realize the value of such work. 
In 1953 Dr. and 1vlrs. Henderson 
and their two children \vent home on 
furlough and were unable to return 
for health reasons. Dr. Regina Pearson 
was with us for three years and is now 
in charge of the large leprosarium at 
Cavango in Angola. We were without 
a doctor for about two years. Our 
nearest mission hospital with a doctor 
was at Dondi, about 175 miles away. 
Even though \ve were without a doc- 
tor patients kept flocking in as before. 
vVe treated a number who had been 
mauled by leopards and lions. One was 
carried by stretcher for three days 
and by the time he arrived we could 
smell the gas gangrene even before 
the wounds were uncovered. He re- 
sponded well to treatment. He came to 
greet us at camp last year, and to 
thank us again for help received. 



 0"" ... 
, .t<t' 


1 
. 


,Go, 


.:., "A<;' 

 ..
 
- 
 
 


Miss Johnson and Native Nurses 


One day a five-year-old lad was 
brought in with "bloody diarrhea and 
abdominal pain." There was no ev- 
idence of diarrhea when he was admit- 
ted but his spasmodic pain continued 
and on palpating his abdomen we found 
he had a small moveable "growth." 
After pouring over medical books 
we diagnosed "intussusception." \\1 e 
would have to take him to Dondi im- 
mediately. We began our journey over 
rough roads early in the morning 
and after a few car difficulties along 
the way, finally arrived at 7 :00 P.M. 
I gave the anesthetic, the mission doc- 
tor operated, assisted by his nurse. 
The invaginated bowel was dealt with 
and circulation brought back to the 
reddened area. The boy's life had been 
saved and the parents were grateful 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



to all for his speedy recO\'ery. 
These 1\\ u "doctorless" years \\"ere 
busy, full of interest and \'aried ex- 
perrences. However, the responsibili- 
ties \\"ere heavy and we were \"ery glad 
last vear when Dr. Lois Roberts from 
Calitornia arrived just before I left 
for furlough and home. 
I returned to Angola last autumn 
and am looking forward to teaching a 
new group of students. to supervising 
our -J.O-bed hospital and operating 
room. The only other missionarv nurse 
left for furlou
gh when I retu;ned so 


, 


A simple new "breathing tube" for artifi- 
cial respiration has been announced by 
Johnson & Johnson Company. Called Resu- 
sitube, the device is said to be far more 
effective than any manual method of arti- 
ficial respiration now in use. It is based on 
the technique of mouth-to-mouth breathing. 
Its uses include: victims of drowning, elec- 
tric shock, smoke or gas inhalation, drug or 
chemical poisoning, cardiac arrest, brain in- 
jury and shock from blood loss. It is a pocket- 
sized, S-shaped tube of translucent white 
plastic. One end acts as a mouthpiece for the 
rescuer who is stationed at the victim's 
head. The other end, inserted over the 
victim's tongue to its base, provides the 
breathing tube. The rescuer's hands are free 
to keep the patient's head tilted back and his 
chin upward. This is vitally important in 
maintaining an open airway since the pas- 


JANUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No. 1 


there were responsibilities in the out- 
patient department and leprosarium. 
However our graduates ha \'e taken 
over a great deal of responsibility; 
without them we could not carryon. 
It is a joy to see them as concerned 
about the spiritual needs of their pa- 
tients, as they are about their physical 
needs. \ Ve seek to minister to the pa- 
tient in his every need of body, soul 
and spirit. Healed bodies, lifted spirits 
and transformed lives make us feel that 
tl
is work is worthy of all we haye to 
grve. 


, 


\, 
\ 


sageway is blocked when the patient's head 
is bent forward. The device is fitted with a 
flange to prevent air leakage. 
Mouth-to-mouth (or expired air-resusci- 
tation) has been widely tested and is now an 
approved life-saving procedure. The Resusi- 
tube makes mouth-to-mouth breathing easier, 
more effective and more acceptable by elimi- 
nating the need for direct oral contact with 
the victim. In both controlled studies and 
actual emergencies, it has proven more 
efficient in maintaining an open airway and 
providing pulmonary ventilation, and less 
fatiguing to the rescuer than manual 
methods. 


The tube comes in two sizes, one for 
adults and children over 3 years; the other 
for younger children and infants. The retail 
price is $1.50 for each size. 


71 



Jln Æemoriam 


Muriel (Young) Aiken, who graduated 
from The Toronto Western Hospital (form- 
erly Grace Hospital) in 1930, died on June 
26, 1959. She had engaged in private nurs- 
ing for several years prior to her death. 
* * * 
Adeline (Racicot) Cloutier, a grad- 
uate of the St. Charles Hospital, St. Hy- 
acinthe, Quebec, in 1929, died at Sorel, 
Quebec on September 19, 1959. 
* * * 
Rachel Drouin, who graduated in 1944 
from the St. Vincent de Paul Hospital, 
Sherbrooke, Quebec, died in September, 1959. 
* * * 
Claire (Noël) Ducharme, a graduate 
of the St. Vincent de Paul Hospital, Sher- 
brooke, Quebec, in 1942, died in September, 
1959. 


* * * 
Catherine Graham, who graduated from 
the Victoria General Hospital, Halifax, 1n 
1895, died in that city on September 30, 
1959. She was a charter and life member 
of the RNANS and had served overseas 
in World \Var 1. After the war she joined 
the staff of the Department of Health and 
Welfare of the City of Halifax, where she 
served until sne retired in 1953. 
* * * 
Marjorie Jean (Kirker) Jarrett, a 
graduate of tne Cornwall General Hospital, 
Cornwall, Ontario in 1951. died on July 3. 
1959. She had been living in Rockford, Mi- 
chigan and was employed in institutional 
nursing. 


* * * 


Catherine (Page) Smith, who graduated 
from The Toronto \Vestern Hospital. in 
1931, died on July 11. 1959, at Soldiers' 
Hospital, Orillia, Ontario. Following several 
years in institutional nursing, Mrs. Smith 
was the industrial nurse at Standard Brands 
Company Toronto until her marriage. 


Jane Broadfoot l\IacLelland, a grad- 
uate of Soldiers' Hospital, Orillia, Ontario, 
in 1922, died on November 1, 1959. She had 
been engaged in private nursing. 
* * * 
Alexina Marchessault, who graduated 
from the Hotel Dieu Hospital, Montreal in 
1918 died in October, 1959. She spent five 
years in the nursing services of Metropoli- 
tan Life Insurance Company, following 
which she joined the teaching staff of the 
School of Public Health of tne University 
of Montreal. From 1934 to 1940 Miss Mar- 
chessault was director of this school. Lat- 
terly, she was employed in the Division for 
the Handicapped, of the Unemployment In- 
surance Office in Montreal. 
* * * 
Jessie Bell Monkman, who graduated 
from Lamont Public Hospital, Alberta, in 
1918, died in Toronto, October 7, 1959. 
She had been engaged in private nursing in 
Toronto. 


* * * 
Daisy Evelyn l\lunnings, a graduate of 
the Hamilton General Hospital in 1934, died 
recently. She had been engaged in occu- 
pational health nursing. 
* * * 
Sister Jeanne Phaneuf, a 1921 graduate 
of the Hotel Dieu Hospital, lIontl-eal, died 
in that city in November, 1959. 
* * * 
Florence Tait, who graduated from the 
Cornwall General Hospital, in 1938, died 
suddenly on August 13, 1959. Since 1952 
she had been on the staff of Women's Col- 
lege Hospital, Toronto. 
* * * 
(lUrs.) l\laureen E. \\'atson, died re- 
cently in Ontario. She graduated from St. 
Paul's Hospital. Vancouver, in 1954, and 
had been engaged in institutional nursing. 


The sense of humor is the just balance 
of all the faculties of man, the best secur- 
ity against the pride of knowledge and the 
conceits of the imagination, the strongest 
inducement to submit with a wise and pious 
patience to the vicissitudes of human ex- 
istance. - RICHARD :!\1. MIL
ES 
* * * 
The whole art of teaching is only the art 
of awakening the natural curiosity of young 
minds for the purpose of satisfying it after- 
wards. - ANATOLE FRANCE 


72 


Words are like leaves; and where they 
most abound, much fruit of sense beneath is 
rarely found. 


- POPE 


* * * 
The highest possible stage in moral cul- 
ture is when we recognize that we ought to 
control our thoughts. - CHARLES DARWIN 
* * * 
It is futile to expect a hungry and squalid 
population to be anything but violent and 
gross. - JOSEPH PRIESTLEY 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



-...-", 


POSEY PATIENT SUPPORT 


The Posey Patient Support was designed to 
fill a long-felt need. It is used on wheel- 
chairs or conventional chairs. It is possible 
to get a bed-patient up into a chair with 
safety and with no fear of danger. Gene- 
rously designed to accommodate practically 
all size patients and all types of chairs. 
Available in small, medium and large sizes 
in two models. Standard Model, Cat. No. 
PP-753, $6.75 each. Adjustable shoulder 
strap model, Cat. No. PP-154, $7.50 each, 


" 


A
I 
"", - 


. .
 


t, 


_,1 \' I / 
:'\- 
- 'l 
- ! 
 '\.
_1 r' _..
 /} 


Patent Pending 


J. T. POSEY COMPANY · 2727 E. FOOTHILL BLVD., PASADENA, CALIF. 


FIVE OF E((
HT 


Thuugh the 
hortage oi nurse;; IS a re- 
current prohlem in many areas, one iamily 
has made a notable contribution toward 
meeting this demand. 
Irs. \Vorrell and 
the late R. \\". L. \Vorrell. formerly a 
conductor on the Canadian :x a tional Rai 1- 
ways, had eight daughters. Between 193j 
and 1932 five of these young women grad- 
uated from school!' of nursing. Robina. Jean 
and Beatrice chosc the Soldier'" Memorial 
Hospital in their home tü\\n ui Campbell- 
ton. :x B.: Elsie ,,-ent to the Civic Hospital 
in Ottawa: Rachel. the youngest. enrolled 


,tJo. 
\ 


t 


ROBIK A 


JEAX 


JAXL\RY. 1960. Yo!. 36. Xo. 1. 


at Royal Yictoria Hospital. 
I()ntreal. 
Two of the sisters are still acti\-e pro- 
fessionally though all five have married. 
Robina, 
lrs. R. Day, is on the staff of the 
Outpatient Department at the Reddy 
Iem- 
orial Hospital, Montreal. Rachel, 
Irs. R. 
\V. Fitzgerald, is on the staff of Yictoria 
Hospital. London, Onto Elsie, 
lrs. J. L. K. 

Iarais, is residing now in Cape Town, South 
Africa. Beatrice, Mrs. S. C. Douglass Ii\.cs 
in EI Paso. Texas. Jean. 
Irs. A.. B. Love- 
lace of Lennox\"ille, Que. completes this 
family of nurses. 


--
 


-" 
... 


.. /- 



 


\:- 
.... 


.. 


, 


DL\TRICE 


ELI
E 


RACII EL 


ï3 



Phasr II to be fjaullcbrd 


Since June, 1959, the Canadian Nurses' 
Association has published its official nurs- 
ing journal in two languages. Despite a few 
inevitable problems that accompanied the 
translation of editorial material from either 
language to the other, the new issue L'Infir- 
11lièrc Calladicnnc, has been well received. 
Genuine satisfaction with the J ollrnal in 
their native language has been expressed by 
countless subscribers. 
Phase I in this developing program covered 
the publication of an essentially identical 
cditorial content. Phase II provides for the 
translation of all thc ad'i.'crtisc11Icnts that are 
included in the section of the J oltr1wl headed 
"Employment Opportunities." In addition, 
postgraduate courses given either in hospi- 
tals or in universities will also appear in 
both English and French. A new scale of 
rates for these dual-language advertisements 
has been approved by the Journal Board on 
behalf of the Canadian Nurses' Association. 
These new rates become effective with the 
February, 1960 issue. AU organizations 
utilizing the J Oltrlwl for advertising purposes 


during the past two years were notified last 
N O\'ember of the beginning of Phase II. 
The rates for line advertisements (classi- 
fied) will be as follows: 
Canada and Bermuda 
Three lines or less -$7.50 
Each additional line - $1.50 
United States and other foreign countries 
Three lines or less - $10.00 
Each additional line - $3.00 
The rates for professional display adver- 
tisements that are placed with the Journal 
directly by an organization are available on 
request. No discounts or commissions are 
allowed on these insertions. 
All professional advertisements placed 
through or by an advertising agency will be 
charged at the commercial advertising rates 
appearing on the Jour/wI Rate Card No.8. 
Fifteen per cent agency commission and 2 
per cent discount for payment within 30 days 
of the date of invoice are allowed on these 
insertions. 
All translation costs will be borne by the 
Jour/wI. 


IlItr'lliational Prdiat'liu Study Tour 


This tour was sponsored by the National 
Council of Nurses of Great Britain and 
Northern Ireland and the Association of 
British Pediatric N utses. The course was 
held in London, May 3-11, 1959. Seventy-six 
participants attended and the group included 
nurses from Australia, Canada, Denmark, 
Finland, Eire, Germany, Great Britain, 
Holland, Sweden, Switzerland, Northern 
Ireland and the United States. 
Three Canadian nurses were present - 
Rosemary Prince, Saskatchewan, Dorothy 
Richards, Ontario, and Phyllis Lyttle, Nova 
Scotia. Miss Prince and Miss Richards 
are graduates of the School of Nursing, 
University of Toronto, and had been work- 
ing in one of the London, Eng. hospitals 
for several months. 
The course proved to be most interesting 
and worth while. Some of the lectures in- 
cluded: family responsibilities; care of child- 
ren outside of hospital; pediatrics today 
and the pediatric nurse; care of children 
in hospital; new diseases; early diagnosis 
and treatment of cerebral palsy. In addi- 


74 


tion we visited hospitals, pediatric units, 
health units, day nurseries, etc. 
One afternoon we were privileged to visit 
either the Royal College of Nursing, the 
National Council of Nurses, or the Inter- 
national Council of N urses. 
1iss Bridges, 
of the International Council of Kurses, was 
extremely interested in having us as her 
guests. Included in the general itinerary 
was a tour of London and a trip to Cam- 
bridge. 
On our last night in London we were 
guests at a dinner in the Dorchester Hotel. 
Our hosts were the directors of Cow and 
Gate, Ltd. Each group had a leader who 
knew London, thus we did not have too 
many difficulties on the buses or tubes. Miss 
Rowe, of the National Council of Nurses of 
Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and 
Miss Lane, of the Association of British 
Pediatric Nurses, \\ere extremely kind and 
helpful. 


PHYLLIS J. LYTTLE, R.N., 
SIlPerintelldcnt of Nurses, 
Dcpt. of Public H ca/th. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 





 
etdeeu-4 


Tht" Care of the Patient in Surgery in- 
cluding Techniques by Edythe Louise 
Alexander R.N., B.S., 1LA. 840 pages, 
555 iIlustr
tions. C. V. Mosby Company, 
St. Louis, Mo. 1958. Price $12.75. 
Re'lliewed by l.fr. RalPh Co01l1.bs, Oper- 
ating Room Supervisor, University of Al- 
berta Hospital, Edmonton, Alta. 
This is a comprehensive text covering 
every phase of operating room nursing from 
planning a new operating suite to instructing 
those peep Ie who are to work within the 
suite_ The author has made every effort to 
assist the nursing members of the surgical 
team to provide and maintain a safe environ- 
ment for the surgical patient. 
The first section of the text discusses 
the new operating room, what it should be 
like and what it should contain. Basic prin- 
ciples of asepsis are well discussed in con- 
cluding the section. This portion of the 
book is of considerable value. 
The concluding chapters give a compre- 
hensive coverage to the surgical specialties. 
Each chapter begins with a review of the 
anatomy and physiology that is essential to 
the understanding of that particular type of 
surgery. This is complemented by a discus- 
sion of the basic instruments commonly used 
by that service, the operative position or 
positions used and a step-by-step account of 
some of the more common operations. 
This book is well written, concise and 
thought-provoking. All those interested in 
broadening their nursing experience in the 
operating room wiII find it of great value. 
Every hospital library should contain a copy. 


Education for Xursing Service Adminis- 
tration by 
Iary Kelly :Mullane, R.N., 
Ph,D. 242 pages. \Y. K. Kellogg Found- 
ation, Battle Creek, )'Iichigan_ 1959. 
RC'i'ic'i('cd by .Hiss Doroth}, Hibbert, Ulli- 
'l.'crsity Hospital School of Nursing, Sas- 
katoon, Sask. 
In this book Dr. :Mullane skilfully sum- 
marizes the accomplishments of 14 univer- 
sities in developing and conducting programs 
in nursing service administration on both 
the Bachelor's and the :\Iaster's level of 
education. These programs were sponsored 
by the \V. K. Kellogg Foundation over a 
five-year period, 1951-56. This book was 
also sponsored by the Foundation reflecting 
their philosophy of their obligation to eval- 


JANUARY, 1960. Vol. 56. No. 1 


after ITlastectoITlY 



 .- 


.,
 -,.. 


\ 


.... , 


A mastectomy patient wearing IDE:'iTicAL FORM 


your patient's most 
important 
 
back-to-normal step 
IDENTICAL@ FORM 
The importance of treatiNg the 
hole 
patient is nowhere more graphIcally 
illustrated than in the successful re- 
habilitation of the mastectomy patient. 
With the post-operative fitting of 
IDENTICAL FOR:\I - the life-like breast 
pros
hesis - women look natural and 
feel better immediately. Made of soft 
skin-like plastic, IDENTICAL FORM con- 
tains a flowing gel that simulates the 
natural movement and weight of the 
normal breast. With IDENTICAL FORM 
your patient won't experience the dis- 
comfiture of static, dragging weight or 
"ridin<Y-up". Normal contour, comfort 
b . d 
and confidence are maintame even 
when she wears an evening gown or 
bathing suit. 
You 'II find our new boc!det "Total Care 
of Your Mastectomy Patient" invalu- 
able as a guide for all the physiological 
needs of your mastectomy patient. 
Available in 24 sizes. Expertly fitted by authorized 
dealers and adaptable to any brassiere. Patented 
U.S.A. & foreign countries. 

--------------
 
I IDE "'TICAL FORM, INC. eEl 
I 17 West 60th St., New York 23, N. Y. I 
Please send professional literature and list I 
I of authorized dealers. 
I ................................. RN : 
I Address..................... . . . . . . . . I 
I Ci ty . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . Prov . . . . . . . . . . . J 
L____________ 


75 



uate and report the results oi the program" 
that they sponsor. 
The administration. facuIty, students, cur- 
ricula and research are each described in 
sufficient detail to provide an excellent guide 
for the de\'elopment of similar programs. 
For example, the objectives of educational 
programs in nursing service administration 
are outlined; the desirable qualification
 
for faculty are listed: the learning exper- 
iences and the content of various courses are 
discussed; samples of questionnaires used to 
evaluate programs are included. In the final 
chapter the author raises penetrating ques- 
tions for consideration in CUl-riculum plan- 
ning. On what basis should we determine 
the length of field work desirable? \\'hat 
\\.ill be the impact on nursing service in our 
general hospitals of having psychiatric units. 
and of giving pmgTessive patient care? "'hat 
should nursing service administrators he 
taught ahout o\'el-all ho"pital administra- 
tion ? 
The authOl' i..; to be commended for the 
readability of this report. She has com- 
piled pertinent information about the various 
programs in a skilful1 manner and in a style 
that will make enjoyahle reading for nurs.?s 
interested in curriculum de\'elopment in the 
profession; a valuahle guide for university 
faculties in developing similar programs and 
an important reference for graduate nur
e 
educational programs. 


Pharmacology and Therapeutics by Ha- 
rold N. \Vright, M.S., Ph.D. and 'Mildred 
Montag, Ed.D., R.N. 497 pages. \V. B. 
Saunders Company, \Vest \Vashington 
Square, Philaòelphia, 7th ed. 1959, Price 
$5.00. 
RC'l!ic'H'cd by .l! iss Dorothy 11' ood. 111- 
structor, Grace I1ospital, 1Villllipc!}. Jlall. 
The authors had three main objectives in 
mind for this extl'emely readahle and practi- 
cal textbook. 
L To attempt to bring us abreast of 
recent advances in pharmacology and thera- 
peutics. 
2, To expand materia! concerning acid- 
hase and electrolyte balance by a discussion 
of clinical acidosis and alkalosis and the 
parenteral t1se of the various solutions of 
electrolytes. 
3. To òiscuss. for example. related 
drugs in connection with the care of tI-le 
cardiac and hypertensive patient. 
The text should be \'aluable to the stu- 
dent at all levels of her educational ex- 
perience. The first two or three units deal 
with the ha"ic material found in earlier 


í6 


editions a" well as in most other te'\ts: 
terminology, drug standards, sources, types 
uf drug preparations, The arithmetic review 
and calculation of amounts of drug has been 
reorganized and restored instead of being 
published separately as in the last two edi- 
tions. The Canadian as well as Amel'ican 
drug legislation is discussed very \\ ell. 
Illustrative material in the form of dia- 
grams and tables should add greatly to the 
student's understanding, especially in par- 
ticular areas such as "Drugs affecting the 
acid-base and water balance of the body." 
Bibliographies are to be found at the con- 
clusion of each chapter. They have been 
revised and hrought up-to-date. Included are 
references to several professional nursing 
journals. The journals chosen would he 
available in most schools of nursing. 
.\fter the basic material has heen dis- 
cussed the authors relate drugs in the ca re 
of patienb suffering from various disorders, 
The patient-centered approach and the nur-;e- 
patient relationships are emphasi/.C"d through- 
out. In discussing patients suffering from 
cardiovascular and hypertensive symptoms, 
there is a concise summary of normal phy- 
siology and then a comparison of the nor- 
mal with the abnormal. Drugs al-e discuo.;- 
sed in relatiou to this, The usual infor- 
mation concerning source, therapeutic useful- 
ness. acti(JIl, administration and dosage, t()'xic 
effects is gi\'en for each ch-ug. The drugs 
most commonly used as part of the treat- 
ment ior these patients as well as some 
newel- preparations, are discussed: Digitalis 
and related preparations, qninidine, pronestyl, 
nitrites. rauwolfia, Diuril. anticoagulants. 
The physical and mental comfort of the pa- 
tient is discussed in relation to sotne drugs, 
particularly digitalis, The student is thus 
made aware of the part that nursing" care 
plays in drug administration. 
The questions at the conclusion of each 
section make the student aware of her re- 
sponsihilities in the aòministration of druRs, 
and of the function of the drug as a means 
of therapy for the individual patient. 
This text appears to discuss the prin- 
ciples of pharmacology without going into 
tou great detail. The student should find the 
hook readahle, practical, and as up-to-date 
as possible. The instructor should find it 
valuable in guiding her students in the study 
of pharmacology. 


Applied Anatomy for 
urses by E. J. 
Bocock. S.R.
., S.C.::\L D.N. and R. 
Wheeler Haines. M.B., D.Sc., F.L.S. 326 
page
. The ::\Iacmillan Company of Cana- 


THE CAXADIAN 
URSE 



da Limited, íO Bond Street, Torunto. 2nd 
ed. 1959. Price $3.00. 
RC'i.'ic'Wed b:y Sister Clare J/arie, Director. 
.Vllrsillg Educatioll, St. J/artlw's H osþ;tal, 
A 11 tigon ish, .\-.S. 
This book treats anatomy from a regional 
point of view, unlike the usual exposition 
of systemic anatomy found in most text
. 
It is written in a very concise style, un- 
cluttered by too much detail but adequate 
enough to give a clear understanding of the 
subj ect matter. The content is presented in 
a very vivid manner, especially planned to 
stimulate the process of association. Thi
 
factor, supplemented by excellent diagrams 
makes the text a valuable teaching ai.:1. 
The sections dealing with muscles. both 
from a diagrammatic and explanatory puint 
of vie\\, are exceptionally well done_ \ - a- 
rious items stand out because of the manner 
in which they are elaborated upon, for exam- 
ple, the explanation of why arteriosclerosi
 
is more prevalent in blood vessels of the 
brain than anywhere else in the body: the 
mechanism of the coronary sinus: the phe- 
nomenon of the closing of the foramen 
ova Ie. 
Extraneous material appears here and 
there but the inclusion of it is explained 
by the authors when they say that they 
"make no apology for presenting a great 
variety of interesting facts, for only the 
student can select those she requires." Since 
it presupposes that the reader has a hasic 
knowledge of anatomy, this book would 
seem to serve its most useful purpose as 
a reference text. both for instructors and 
students. 


Physiolog'y and Anatomy by Esther 
1. 
Greisheimer, B.S.Ed., M.A., Ph.D., 
LD. 
868 pages. J. B. Lippincott Company, 4865 
\Vestern Ave., 
Iontrea1. 7th ed_ 1959. 
Price $6.00. (Yideograf edition). 
Re'l,icwcd bj' Sr. Capt. Ethel KolliJ/, Di- 
rector of Educatioll, Grace H ospita/, l1ïll- 
nipeg. 
The seventh edition of this text was first 
published in 1957. Although the context b 
unchanged, there has been a slight revision 
to allow for the inclusion of a "Videograf" 
section. This is composed of eight plates of 
transparent diagrams in color. They show 
body parts in relation to each other as the 
Videograf leaves are superimposed upon one 
another. The layers of the body may be seen 
from the anterior on the front of the plate 
and the posterior on the back. This is a 
worthwhile addition to the book and shoul,1 
prove of considerable value. 


JANUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, :'oJo. 1 


PRACTICAL APPROACH 
TO MICROBIOLOGY 
FOR NURSES 
By Lida S. \Vhite and Sr. Sigrid L. 
Nelson, both of Lankenau Hospital, 
Philadelphia, Pa. A book of labora- 
tory exercises for beginning students. 
127 pages, 1959. $4.00, 


UROLOGICAL NURSING 
MANUAL 
By Alfred H. Rossomando. Mercy 
Hospital, N ampa, Idaho, and Florence 

1. Miles, Boise Junior College, Boise, 
Idaho. A manual for student nurse.. 
112 pages, 27 figures, 1959. $3.75. 


THE RYERSON PRESS 
299 QUEEN STREET WEST, TORONTO 2-B 


OVERSEAS EDUCATION LEAGUE 
LILIAN WATSON TRAVEL SERVICE 
50th ANNIVERSARY TOURS- 
191 0 - 1960 
SAILINGS 
from Montreal: June 28, July 5 
from Britain: August 19, 26 
All Canadian Pacific Empresses 
BY AIR 
from Canada-July 1, 2 
from Britain-Aug. 25, 26, 27, 28, 29 


TOURS-in Britain, 
including ocean, from _$685.00 
land portion only, from ,$245.00 
Continental tours, 
from london, from $130.00 
Our own special 
Continental Tour, 
including Oberammergau _$575.00 
Independent travel at all times 
There is no charge for our services 
R. Fletcher, B.A., LL.D., Miss Lilian Watson 
President Travel Diredor 
642 SOMERSET BUILDING 
WINNIPEG 1 MANITOBA 
Approved lATA AGENTS 


77 



WE ARE SPECIALISTS IN THE SALE OF 


NURSING HOMES 
AND 
PRIVATE HOSPITALS 
ALL OVER ONTARIO 
LARGE AND SMALL 
FULLY FURNISHED AND IN OPERATION 
FROM $7,000 DOWN 
TERMS ARRANGED 


YOUR ENQUIRIES INVITED 
WALTER ENSKAT REALTY LTD. 
Business Brokers 
42 Sterling Street, Hamilton, Ontario 
Phone JA 2-0178, anytime 


KINGSTON 
GENERAL HOSPITAL 


REGISTERED NURSES 


required for the 


requires 


GENERAL STAFF 


GENERAL DUTY NURSES 


of the 


with special preparation & expe- 
rience in psychiatric nursing, for 
duty in new unit presently under 
construction. 


OPERATING ROOM 


Salary range $270 - $305 


Salary: $260 to $290. 


commensurate with experience 
and qualifications. 


For details relating to hours, 
vacations & benefits, apply to: 


Apply 


DIRECTOR OF NURSING, 
KINGSTON GENERAL HOSPITAL, 
KINGSTON, ONTARIO. 


DIRECTOR OF NURSING 
McKELLAR GENERAL HOSPITAL 
FORT WILLIAM, ONTARIO 


78 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Employment Opportunities 


Am'ERTISING RATES - $5.00 for 3 lillcs or lcss; $1.00 for each additional line. 
U.S.A. & Foreign - $ï.50 for 3 lilies or less; $1.50 for cach additionallinc. 
Closing date for copy and ca
cellations: Six weelu prior to date of publication. AIl letters 
should be addressed to: The Canadian Nurse Journal, 1522 Sherbrooke St. "V., Montreal 
25, Quebec. 


ALBERTA 
General Duty Nurses (2-immediately) for 21-bed hospital. $250 per mo, plus room, board 
Or laundry, 4-wk. vacation with pay after I-yr. service, Increments of $5.00 every 6-mo" 
sick time accumulative 111z days per mo. Matrons position will be vacant next June. 
Anyone interested apply: E. A. Richardson, Matron, Municipal Hospital. Berwyn, Alberta. 
Graduate Nurses for General Duty in new 30-bed hospital 90-mi. from Calgary on 
Trans Canada Highway. 44-hr. wk., generous personnel policies. For particulars apply 
to: The Matron, Municipal Hospital, Bassano, Alberta. 
General Staff Nurses (immediately) for new modern hospital of 243-beds, 37-bassinettes. 
School of nursing has a present enrollment of 58 students. Temporary residence avail- 
able in new nurses' home, 40-hr. wk" with liberal personnel policies. Apply to: Director 
of Nursing, Municipal Hospital. Medicine Hat, Alberta, 
Public Health Nurse (Qualified) for rural Health Unit in Alberta. Salary range from 
$3,180 - $3,660 with annual increment of $120, transportation is provided on duty, provi- 
sion made for sick leave .& holidays, pension plan is available. Apply to: Dr, K. A. 
Barrett, Medical Officer of Health, Minburn-Vermilion Health Unit, Vermilion, Alberta. 
BRITISH COLUMBIA 
Operating Room Supervisor for modern 154-bed General Hospital. Please reply stating 
age, qualifications Or experience. Salary based on above. General Duty Nurses, basic 
salary $285. Generous personnel policies, nurses' residence. Apply to: Director of Nurses, 
Trail- Tadanac Hospital, Trail, British Columbia. 
Nursing Supervisor (B.C. Registered) for new 26-bed General Hospital opening January 
1960, Starting salary $335 per mo. Consideration given in deciding salary to past expe- 
rience Or postgraduate courses. Full maintenance $48 per mo, in new modern nurses' 
home, Scenic location, excellent working conditions, friendly surroundings, for full 
particulars write: C, F. Collins, Secretary, Golden .Or District General Hospital, Golden, 
British Columbia. 
Registered Nurses (3) for 30-bed hospital. Starting salary $270 per mo. with $10 yearly 
increment. Past service recognized for salary purposes. Board Or room $40, 111z day sick 
leave per mo, 40-hr. wk. 11 statutory holidays & 28 days vacation after l-yr. service. Com- 
fortable nurses' residence next door to hospital. Rotating shifts. Please apply to: The 
Matron, Community Hospital. Grand Forks, British Columbia. 
Registered Nurses (3) for 30-bed hospital in Central. B.G. on the Jasper-Prince Rupert 
Highway, 70-mi. from Prince George Salary $290 per mo" 10 legal days with pay per 
year; 111z-days sick leave per mo" 28-days vacation after l-yr. Laundering of uniforms 
by hospital; modern nurses' residence $50 per mo. Kindly apply giving qualifications & 
references to: Sister Superior, St. John Hospital, Vanderhoof, British Columbia. 
Registered Nurses for new 64-bed Children's Hospital located by the sea in Victoria, 
British Columbia. 40-hr. wk. 28-days vacation after 12-mo. service. Salary $275 gross, 
uniforms laundered, welfare plan available. For further particulars, apply stating age & 
qualifications to: Director of Nursing, Queen Alexandra Solarium for Crippled Children, 
P.O. Box 600, Victoria, British Columbia. 
General Duty Nurses for small active hospital. Salary $250 for unregistered, $260 
registered with yearly increments. Nurses' home available. For further particulars write, 
The Administrator, Lady Minto Hospital, Ashcroft, British Columbia. 
General Duty Nurses - O.R. Nurses with postgraduate or equivalent for 146-bed General 
Hospital. Personnel policies in accordance with B.G.R.N,A. Rooms available in nurses' 
residence. Nurses Aides - with vocational training. Salary $167-$190 per mo. We do not 
have a residence for our Nurses Aides, Apply to: Director of Nursing, General Hospital, 
Chilliwack, British Columbia. 
General Duty Nurses for 200-bed General Hospital with School of Nursing. Salary 
$275-$327. Pre-planned shift rotation, B.G. registration essential. 4-wk. vacation after 
l-yr. Apply: Director of Nursing, Royal Inland Hospital, Kamloops, British Columbia. 
General Duty Nurses: starting salary $288 if 2 yr, experience, $275-$330 in 4 yr. Non 
registered $260. Maintenance $50, 10 statutory holidays, 4-wk. annual vacation. lliz day 
sick leave per mo, very active town, world famous Cariboo cattle country, annual 
stampede. Apply: Director of Nursing, War Memorial Hospital, Williams Lake, British 
Columbia. 


JANUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No. 1 


79 



General Duty Nurses for llO-bed General Hospital located in British Columbia's beauti- 
ful Northwest. Salary $283 per mo. with $10 increments for 3 years. Modern residence 
facilities available. For complete information apply to: Director of Nursing, General 
Hospital. Prince Rupe"
, Drinsh Columbia. 
General Duty cS: Operating Room Nurses for 434-bed hospital with training school; 40-hr. 
wk" statutory holidays. Salary $280-$336. Credit for past experience Or postgraduate 
preparation; annual increments; cumulative sick leave; 28-days annual vacation. B.G 
registration required. Apply: Director of Nursing, Royal Columbian Hospital, New 
Westminster, British Columbia. 
Graduate Nurses for 70-bed acute General Hospital on Pacific Coast. Starting salary 
$275 with regular increases. Board Or room $25 per mo., 5-day wk., 28 days vacation plus 
10 statutory holidays. Apply: Matron, St. George's Hospital. Alert Bay, British Columbia. 
Graduate Nurses for general duty (2) for 27-bed Community Hospital. Salary: $280 per 
mo. with 3 annual increments of $10 per mo. Room, board Or laundry $40, 28-days vaca- 
tion after l-yr. service. Graduate complement 6. Apply: Matron, Siocan Community 
Hospital, New Denver British Columbia. 
MANITOBA 
Supervisors cS: General Duty Nurses (Female) for Clearwater Lake Hospital, The Pas, 
Manitoba Or Manitoba Sanatorium, Ninette Salary range $265 - $295 depending on 
qualifications Or appointment. Effective January 1st salaries will be revised upwards. 
3-wk. vacation, 40-hr. wk. 10 statutory holidays, group insurance plan. Interesting nu.s.- 
ing with white, Indian Or Eskimo patients both in general Or tuberculous wards. Apply: 
Director of Nursing Services, Sanatorium Board of Manitoba, 668 Bannatyne Ave. Win- 
nipeg, Manitoba. 
Matron for Rossburn Hospital. salary $350 per mo. plus usual increases, new living 
quarters, T.V. Or nice rooms. Also interested in regular duty R.N. Write for personnel 
policies if interested, Rossburn Medical Nursing Unit, Rossburn, Manitoba. 
Registered Nurses (for general floor duty)_ Salary $290 per mo. less $25 for full mam- 
tenance, yearly increments, 44-hr. wk. For further information apply to: John Hiscock, 
Secretary-Treasurer, Baldur Medical Nursing Unit, Baldur, Manitoba, _ 
Registered Nurse (I-Immediately) for II-bed hospital. Salary: $300 per mo. with 
increments, less $25 per mo. full maintenance, living quarters in hospital. Please apply 
to: Birch River Hospital Unit, Birch River, Manitoba. 
Registered Nurses (2) for 16-bed hospital. Salary $300 per mo. gross, $45 per mo. deducted 
for board Or room. 40-hr. wk. with 4 annual increments of $10.00, 3-wk. vacation with 
pay after I full year employment, 4-wk. after 2 full years, Sick leave one day for each full 
month of employment plus 1 day for each full 6-mo. employment cumulative to 30 days. 
Living quarters in hospital. Apply to: Matron or A, G Laughlin, Secretary, Wilson Memorial 
Hospital, Melita , Manitoba. 
General Duty Nurses (3) for new 85-bed hospital. Good salary Or generous personnel 
policies. Apply: Director of Nursing, Portage Hospital District # 18, Portage La Prairie, 
Manitoba. 
Licensed Practical Nurses (2) for 10-bed rural hospital. Highest salary paid Or other 
valuable benefits. For full particulars contact, The Secretary-Treasurer, Box 235, Fisher 
Branch, Manitoba. 


NEW BRUNSWICK 
Registered Nurses for modern 25-bed hospital. Starting gross salary $240 per mo with 
increases at 6-mo Or I-year, 3-wk. vacation first year Or 4-wk. thereafter, 8 statutory 
holidays per yr. Apply: Mrs. M. A. Robertson, Superintendent, Tobique Valley Hospital, 
Plaster Rock, New Brunswick, 


NOV A SCOTIA 
Registered Nurses for Floor Duty (Immediately) 40-hr. wk. Nova Scotia R.N.A. salary 
scale, Apply to: Superintendent of Nursing, Western Kings Memorial Hospital. Berwick, 
Nova Sc:>tia, 
General Duty Nurses (4)-O p9ra ti ng Room Nurse (1 ) for well equipped modern 20 =bed 
hospital on scenic Eastern Shore of Nova Scotia's mainland. Salary in accordance with 
scale set by R.N.A.N.S. Contact: Superintendent, Eastern Shore Memorial Hospital, Sheet 
Harbour, N ova Scotia. 
General Duty Nurses for modern 35-bed hospital situated on beautiful South Shore. Good 
personnel policies. Excellent living quarters. Apply Superintendent, Fishermen's Memor- 
ial Hospital, Lunenburg, Nova Scotia. 
General Staff Nurses for 400-bed Medical Or Surgical Sanatorium, fully approved student 
affiliation Or postgraduate program. Full maintenance. Recreational facilities. Vacation 
with pay. Sick benefits after l-yr. Blue Cross coverage. Attractive salary; 40-hr. wk, For 
further particulars apply Supt. of Nurse s , Nova Scotia Sanatorium, Kentville, N.S. 
ONT ARlO 
Director of Nursing (with postgraduate training in teaching Or administration) for modern 
140-bed hospital with school of nursing. Apartment Or cafeteria available. Apply stating 
qualifications Or salary expected to: A. G. Middlemiss, Administrator, Plummer Memorial 
Public Hospital. Sault Ste. Marie Ontario. 


80 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



NURSING WITH INDIAN AND 
NORTHERN HEALTH SERVICES 


? 

 
+ . HOSPITAlS 
+ + + NURSING STATIONS 
+ 
. + 
. 
 .. OTHER HEALTH CENTRES 
. 
+ .. + 
... 


... 
í 
. 


. . 
.\... 


. . . . ++:. . 
+.. "'.... . . . + 
.... ...... ... .. .... 
... ... . +. . j 


..... . + +.+ . 
t+ ..... 
+ + i.. 
. +. 
... 


OPPORTUNITIES 
REGISTERED HOSPITAL NURSES, PUBLIC HEALTH NURSES, 
AND CERTIFIED AUXILIARY NURSES 


for Hospital Positions and Public Health Positions in Outpost Nursing 
Stations, Health Centres and Field Positions in the Provinces, Eastern Arctic 
Northwest Territories and the Yukon Territory. 


SALARIES 


11) Public Health Nursing Supervisors: up to $5,460 depending upon 
qualifications and location. 
ç (. 
 (2) Directors of Nursing in Hospitals: up to $5,400 depending upon 
'
} qualifications and location, 

. 


 (3) Public Health Staff Nurses: up to $4,050 per year depending upon 
qualifications and location. 


''?'- 


--:
:

 


(4) Hospital Staff Nurses: up to $3,750 per year depending upon 
qualifications and location. 


IS) Certified Nursing Assistants or Licensed Practical Nurses: up to 
$200 per month depending upon qualifìcations and location. 
. Room, Board and Laundry in residence at reasonable rates. 
Statutory holidays. Three week's annual leave with pay. Generous sick 
leave credits. Hospital-Medical and superannuation plans available. 
. Special pay and leave allowances fo.r those posted to isolated areas. 


For interesting challenging, satisfying work apply to - Indian and 
Northern Health Services at one of the following addresses: 


(1) Regional Superintendent, 4824 Fraser Street, Vancouver, B.C. 
(2) Regional Superintendent, 11412-128th Street, Edmonton, Alberta. 
(3) Regional Superintendent, 735 Motherwell Building, Regina, Saskatchewan. 
(4) Regional Superintendent, 803-9 Confederation life Building, 457 Main Street, Winnipeg, 
Manitoba. 
(5) Regional Superintendent, 4th Floor, Booth Building, 165 Sparks Street, Ottawa, Ontario. 
(6) Zone Supervisor of Nursing, Box 493, North Bay, Ontario. 
(7) Zone Superintendent of Indian Health Services, P.O. Box 430, Upper Town, 3 Buade Street, 
Quebec 4, P.Q. 
(or) Chief, Personnel Division, 
Department of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa, Ontario. 


JANUARY, 1960. Vol. 56. No.1 


81 



DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING. required by City of Ottawa, Health Department. 
Should possess University degree with major in Administration and Supervision in Public 
Health Nursing and have experience in all aspects of Public Health Nursing services. 
Duties include planning, coordinating of Public Health Nursing services and supervision 
of nursing staff. Existing salary range $5,310 to $6,270 with annual increments of $240. 
Good personnel policies with full fringe benefits. For further information apply to 
Dr. R. A. Kennedy, Medical Officer of Health, City Hall, III Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario. 
Assistant Superintendent for 73-bed General Hospital with planned expansion. Regis- 
tered Nurse with postgraduate training and/or experience in supervision desired. 
Salary depending upon qualifications & experience. For further particulars contact: 
Superintendent, General Hospital, Kenora, Ontario. 
Head Nurse (Evening) Salary $300, 5-day wk., 28 days vacation. Apply: Director of 
Nursing, Huntsville District Memorial Hospital, Huntsville, Ontario. 
Head Nurse for very Modern Maternity Department. Postgraduate course preferred, 
but experience would be considered. Good personnel policies. Apply: Director of 
Nursing, Greater Niagara General Hospital, Niagara Falls, Ontario. 
Head Nurses (2) for Medical Units - previous supervisory experience essential, good 
personnel policies. Apply to: Director of Nursing, The Doctors Hospital, 45 Brunswick 
A venue, Toronto, Ontario. 
Head Nurse for Operating Room (Experienced) for 382-Bed hospital, excellent salary 6: 
full fringe benefits. Apply in writing stating qualifications to: Assistant Administrator, 
Hotel-Dieu of St. Joseph Hospital, Windsor, Ontario. 
Registered Nurse as Superintendent (Immediately) for 30-bed hospital, stating previous 
experience & salary expected. Furnished 3 room apartment provided. Apply to: Secre- 
tary, Englehart & District Hospital Board, Box 609, Englehart, Ontario. 
Registered Nurses for Canadian Army. Officer status. Salary starts $275 - 6-mo. $375 - 
3-yr. $409. Regular Staff duties & opportunities for specialization; 30 day leave per year 
with pay, free medical & dental care; full pay when hospitalized; excellent pension 
plan for career officers, retirement 45-49. Opportunities for travel. For particulars apply: 
Army Headquarters, (D Man M2) Ottawa, Ontario. 
Registered Nurses (Toronto Area) for 30-bed hospital for chronic illnesses. Salary $12 
per day;-5-day wk.; 3-wk. vacation per year. Apply: 1. Mackie, Director of Nursing, The 
Villa Private Hospital, Box 490, Thornhill, Ontario. 
Registered Nurse for 20-bed psychiatric limit. Apply: Director of Nursing, Women's 
College Hospital, Toronto 5, Ontario. 
Registered Nurses for Nursing Unit .& Operating Room in 86-bed General Hospital. Good 
salary & personnel policies. Apply: Administrator, Trenton Memorial Hospital, Trenton, 
Ontario. 
Registered Nurses for expanding General Hospital, Medical, Surgical, Operating Room & 
Obstetrical services, at Ajax on Highway 401, 20-mi. east of Toronto, hourly bus service to 
hospital. R.N.A.O. salary schedule, increments every 6-mo., sick & vacation time after 
6-mo., 371/z-hr. work wk., pension plan pending, living in accommodation. Apply to: Director 
of Nursing, Ajax & Pickering General Hospital, Ajax, Ontario. Nurses from Europe & United 
Kingdom apply to: Canadian Department of Labor, 61 Green Street, London, W.l, England. 
Registered Nurses .& Certified Nursing Assistants for 160-bed hospital. Starting salary 
$255 & $180 respectively with regular annual increments for both. Excellent personnel 
policies & residence accommodation available. Assistance with transportation can be 
arranged. Apply: Superintendent, Kirkland -& District Hospital, Kirkland Lake, Ontario. 
Registered Nurses .& Certified Nursing Assistants for 26-bed hospital. R.N. salary $290- 
$335. 28-day vacation after I-yr. C.N.A. salary $210-$240, 2-wk. vacation after I-yr., 3-wk. 
after 2-yr. Credit for past experience $5.00 increment every 6-mo. 44-hr. wk., 8 statutory 
holidays. Room & board residence $28.50 per mo. I-day sick leave per mo. Apply to: 
Mrs. G. Gordon, Superintendent, District Memorial Hospital, Box 37, Nipigon, Ontario. 
Registered Nurses for Surgical Floor in 163-bed Sanatorium. Excellent personnel poli- 
cies. Residence accommodation available. Apply: Director of Nursing, Sudbury & 
Algoma Sanatorium, P.O. Box 40, Sudbury, Ontario. 
Registered Nurses for General Duty in modern 18-bed. Private Hospital in iron mmmg 
town. 180-mi. north of Sault Ste Marie, Ontario. Excellent accommodation & personnel 
policies. Starting salary $268 minimum to $303 maximum for experience, less $20 per 
mo. maintenance. Transportation allowance after 6-mo. service. Operating Room Nurse. 
starting salary $288 minimum with postgraduate course, $323 maximum with 3-yr. ex- 
perience or more. Apply: Superintendent, Miss O. Keswick, Lady Dunn Hospital, 
Jamestown, Ontario. 
Registered Nurses for General Duty in all departments - in
l
ding operati
g room, 
premature & newborn nursery. Good salary & personnel polIcIes. Apply: DIrector of 
Nursing, Victoria Hospital, London, Ontario. 
Registered Nurses (2) for General Duty in modern 90-bed hospit
:Il, salary: 
?55 per mo. 
3 annual increments accumulative sick leave. Excellent recreatIOnal facIlItIes m town 
near cities & resort
. Room & meals at reasonable rates. Apply: Director of Nursing, 
Dufferin Area Hospital, Orangeville, Ontario. 


82 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



TORONTO GENERAL HOSPITAL 


requires 


NURSING STAFF 


Variety of Opportunities, Valuable Experience in this large teaching 
centre. Attractive Personnel Policies. Five Day Week. The Toronto General 
Hospital has opened its new building which contains centralized Operating 
Rooms; Recovery Rooms; Surgical Supply Service; Obstetrics and Gynecology; 
Neurology and Neurosurgery; Admitting and Emergency; Rehabilitation and 
Physical Medicine; Urology and Ophthalmology. 


For information write to: 


Director of Nursing, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto 2, Ontario. 


PEDIATRIC SUPERVISOR 


for 20-bed Pediatric Unit 


DUTIES TO INCLUDE ADMINISTRATION OF THE UNIT AS WEll 
AS TEACHING OF STUDENT NURSES. ESPECIAllY ATTRACTIVE 
SALARY OFFERED. 


For details apply to: Director of Nursing 


GENERAL HOSPITAL, CORNWALL, ONTARIO. 


JANUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No. 1 


83 



Registered Nurses for General Duty (Vacancies in Medicine, Surgery, Pediatrics, CfDS- 
tetrics, Operating Room, Psychiatry) Modern Hospital beautifully located on Lake 
Ramsay, operated by The Sisters of St. Joseph approved School of Nursing. Apply: 
Director of Nursing, Sudbury General Hospital of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Paris 
Street, Sudbury, Ontario. 
Registered Nurses for General Staff & Operating Room in modern hospital (opened in 
1956). Situated in the Nickel Capital of the world, pop. 50,000. Salary: $270 per mo. with 
annual merit increments, plus annual bonus plan, 40-hr. wk. Recognition for experience. 
Good per-sonnel policies. Assistance with transportation can be arranged. Apply Director 
of Nursing, Memorial Hospit al. Sudbury, Ontario. 
Registered General Duty Nurses for modern hospital, building expansion under way 
increasing to 1 
O-beds this year. Starting salary $250 per mo., $215 for Graduates. 40-hr. 
wk., group life, accident & sickness insurance free to employees. Opportunities for 
advancement, pleasant community. Apply: Director of Nursing, Leamington District 
Memorial Hospital. Leamington, Ontario. 
Registered General Duty Nurses (4) Certified Nursing Assistants (2) replacements for 
ones who have been married. For lOS-bed hospital in a town of 15,000 population. 
Gross salary ranges from $210-$240 with annual increments. 3-wk vacation, 7 statutory 
holidays, Blue Cross medical/surgical participation, 14-day sick leave, no night duty. 
except in Obstetrical Dept 8-mi. from Camp Petawawa, 2-hr. from Ottawa & 4-hr. from 
Montreal with excellent train & bus service. Active, interesting community social life in 
the heart of the beautiful Ottawa Valley. Active Ski, Curling & Golf Clubs, also the 
home of the famous Pembroke Lumber Kings Hockey Team, 2 Theatres & a "Drive-In", 
Forward application to: The Director of Nursing, The Cottage Hospital, Pembroke, 
Ontario. 
General Duty Nurses for an accredited 64-bed hospital. Starting salary: $250-$260, Good 
personnel policies with sick leave benefits, holidays & paid vacations. Apply Director of 
Nursing, Douglas Memorial Hospital, Fort Erie, Ontario, 
General Duty Nurses for 100-bed hospital, up-to-date facilities in a beautiful location 
on the shore of Lake Erie. Salary $267 per mo. with recognition for P.G. courses, 40-hr 
wk. effective January 1, 1960. Residence available. Apply: Director of Nursing, General 
Hospital. Port Colborne, Ontario. 
General Duty Nurses (all departments) for 350-bed General Hospital, gross starting 
salary $255 per mo., 40-hr. wk. Apply to: Director of Nursing, The Doctors Hospital, 45 
Brunswick Ave., Toronto, Ontario. 
General Duty Nurses for all departments. New 250-bed hospital opening early in 1960 in 
the Niagara Peninsula. 5-day wk. with 3-wk. annual vacation. Residence accommodation 
available. Apply: Director of Nursing, Welland County General Hospital. Welland, 
Ontario. 
General Duty Nurses Male & Female & Certified Nursing Assistants (Immediately) for 
86-bed hospital. 40-hr. wk., 8 statutory holiday;s & other employee benefits. Collingwood 
is situated on Georgian Bay & is noted as a vacationland with 7-mi. sand beach along 
with great skiing on the Blue Mountains in winter. For further informatioN apply: 
Director of Nursing Services, General & Marine Hospital, Collingwood, Ontario. 
General Duty Nurses Excellent salary scales & personnel policies. Apply to: Director of 
Nurses, Parry Sound General Hospital. Parry Sound, Ontario. 
McKellar General Hospital. Fort William. Ontario has openings in all departments for 
General Staff Nurses. Basic salary $270 per mo., 40-hr. wk. Good personnel policies for 
other benefits. Residence accommodation available. Apply to: The Director of Nursing. 
General Staff Nurses (4) for convalescent area of 10-beds. Must rotate on aU shifts, 
8-hr. 5-day wk., good personnel policies, pension policy in effect., 3-wk. annual vacation, 
8 statutory holidays. Salary open at present. Apply: Director of Nursing, General Hospi- 
tal. Stratford, Ontario. 
Public Health Nurse (Qualified) Position open in a completely generalized program. 
Salary range, pension plan & other personnel policies given on request. Applicant 
must have car. Apply to: Dr. W. H. Cross, Muskoka District Health Unit, Bracebridge, 
Ontario. 
Public Health Nurse (qualified for generalized program) RN.A.O. salary schedule in effect. 
ADply to: Director of Nursing, Fort William & District Health Unit, 900 Arthur Street, Fort 
WilJiam. Ontario. 
Public Hcalth Nurse (Qualified) for generalized program in Etobicoke Township (sub- 
urb of Toronto). Minimum salary $3,570, starting salary based on experience. Car 
allowance $670 per annum. 4-wk. vacation after I-yr. Pension Plan, P.S.I. & Blue Cross 
benefits Apply: Director of Public Health Nursing, Township of Etobicoke, 550 Burn- 
hamthorpe Rd., Etobicoke, Ontario. 
Registered General Duty Nurses & Certified Nursing Assistants, Operating Room 
u.rse 
for 100-bed General Hospital in attractive town on Lake Huron Good personnel pol1cles. 
Apply to: The Director of Nursing Alexandra Marine & General Hospital. Goderich, Ont. 


84 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



SUBURBAN TORONTO 
GRADUATE NURSES & CERTIFIED NURSING ASSISTANTS 


Are invited to enquire reo: employment opportunities in a well staffed new 
125 bed hospital in suburban west Toronto. General duty salary range: 
$255-$305 per mo. Certified Nursing Assistants $190-$210 per mo. 5 day 
week. Residence accommodation optional. Personnel manual forwarded on 
request, Enquire to: 
DIRECTOR OF NURSING, HUMBER MEMORIAL HOSPITAL, 200 CHURCH STREET, WESTON, 
TO
ONTO 15, ONTARIO - CH 4-5551 


REGISTERED NURSES 
FOR THE OPERATING ROOM, OBSTETRICAL AND MEDICAL 
SURGICAL UNITS OF A 3S0-BED GENERAL HOSPITAL 


Gross salary $260 - $290 per month if registered in Ontario. 
Differential of $10 for evening and night duty. 
40-hour week. Sick leave cumulative to 30 days, 
3 weeks vacation and eight statutory holidays, 


Apply: 
DIRECTOR OF NURSING SERVICES, 
METROPOLITAN GENERAL HOSPITAL, WINDSOR, ONTARIO 


GENERAL DUTY NURSES 
FOR ALL DEPARTMENTS 


Gross salary $276 monthly ($127 bi-weekly) with annual increment $10 
monthly ($4.60 bi-weekly) for three years, if registered in Ontario; $256 
monthly ($117.80 bi-weekly) until registered, Rotating periods of duty, 40-hr. 
per wk., 8 statutory holidays, 14-days vacation & 1 2 working days leave for 
illness with pay after 1-yr. Pension plan available, Ontario Hospital Insurance 
with Blue Cross supplemental & Physicians' Services Incorporated, partial 
payment by hospital. 
APPL Y 
DIRECTOR OF NURSING, GENERAL HOSPITAL, OSHAWA, ONTARIO. 


THE PETERBOROUGH CIVIC HOSPITAL 


REQUIRES 
NURSES FOR GENERAL DUTY IN All SERVICES. 


For further information write: 


THE DIRECTOR OF NURSING 
PETERBOROUGH CIVIC HOSPITAL, PETERBOROUGH, ONTARIO 


JANUARY, 1960. Vol. 56. NO.1 


85 



Operating Room Nurses for general operating room work which includes cardiovascular 
neurosur<;1ery, genito-u:inary. & ?rthope
ic surgery. Good salary & personnel policies. 
Apply: Director of Nursmg, VictOria HospItal, London, Ontario. 
Operating Room Staff .Nurses for modern well equipped department, gross starting sala- 
ry $2
5 per mo., ro
atmg hours of duty. Apply to: The Director of Nursing, The Doctors 
HospItal, 45 Brunswick Ave., Toronto, Ontario. 
QUEBEC 
Assistant Head Nurses; Afternoon Supervisor excellent personnel policies. Apply Direc- 
tor, Shriners' Hospital for Crippled Children, 1529 Cedar A venue, Montreal. Quebec. 
Registered Nurses for modern 60-bed General Hospital, 40-mi. south of Montreal. Salary 
$260 per mo. in effect by February 1960, 5 semi-annual increases; monthly bonus for 
permanent evening & night shifts, 44-hr. wk., 4-wk. vacation. Board & accommodation 
available in new motel-style nurses' residence. Apply: Superintendent, Barrie Memor- 
ial Hospital, Ormstown, Quebec. 
Registered Nurses & Trained Nursing Assistants for hospital specializing in Chest 
Diseases (in the Montreal area). Excellent personnel policies, working conditions & 
accommodation in the Nurses' Home. Reply to: Box 1000, Ste. Agathe des Monts, Quebec. 
Registered General Duty Nurses for 28-bed General Hospital in Huntingdon, Quebec, 
45-mi. from centre of Montreal with excellent bus service. Gross salary $235 with full 
maintenance in nurses' home at $35; 3 increases at 6-mo. intervals to $250; 44-hr. wk., 
8-hr. rotating shifts; I-mo. annual vacation; 7 statutory holidays: 2-wk. sick leave, Blue 
Cross paid. Apply: Mrs. D. Hawley, R.N., Huntingdon County Hospital, Huntingdon, Que. 
BERMUDA 
Chief Dietitian for 140-bed hospital. Training school affiliated with Montreal hospitals. 
Fare paid. For particulars write Matron, King Edward VII Memorial Hospital, Bermuda. 
Registered Nurses for Operating Room with operating room postgraduate courses and/or 
experience, for 140-bed hospital. Travel allowance paid. For particulars, write Matron, 
King Edward VII Memorial Hospital, Bermuda. 
SASKATCHEWAN 
Supervisor (Teaching) to implement program for auxiliary personnel in accredited 144- 
bed hospital, 74-bed new wing recently opened. Gross salary $300 for Saskatchewan 
registration, $280 for non-Saskatchewan registration. Apply to: Superintendent of Nurses, 
Victoria Union Hospital, Prince Albert, Saskatchewan. 
Operating Room Supervisor for 177-bed hospital to commence duty January or February, 
1960, in preparation for taking over the duties of Supervisor in May, 1960. Postgraduate 
in O.R. technique preferable but not essential. Good personnel policies. For full parti- 
culars please apply to: The Director of Nursing, Swift Current Union Hospital, Swift 
Current, Saskatchewan. 
Registered Nurses (2) Certified Nursing Assistants. Salary $280-310 & $180-$210 respec- 
tively, 40-hr. wk., 11/z-days sick leave per mo., 3-wk. paid vacation, transportation allow- 
ance, direct applications to: B. L. Ellis, Secretary, Union Hospital, Coronach, Saskat- 
chewan. 
Registered Nurses for new 18-bed hospital with new nurses' residence opening May 
1960. We have 4 Doctors on our Medical Staff also Canadian Mental Health Services & 
Canadian Arthritis & Rheumatism Services. 30 days annual vacation, this includes 
statutory holidays. Starting salary $260 per mo. which shall be increased in January 
1960. Apply: John Uhryn-AdministratoT, Union Hospital, Davidson, Saskatchewan. 
Graduate Nurses for General Duty in accredited 144-bed hospital, 74-bed new wing 
recently opened. Gross salary effective January I, 1960 $270 or $250 according to regis- 
tration. 40-hr. wk., 3-wk. annual vacation, 8 statutory holidays, accumulative sick leave. 
Pension plan available. Apply to: Superintendent of Nurses, Victoria Union Hospital. 
Prince Albert, Saskatchewan. 
U.S.A. 
Registered Nurses for modern 191-bed JCAH fully accredited General Hospital, expand- 
ing to 374-beds by 1960. Located on beautiful San Francisco Peninsula, 20-min. drive 
from the heart of the city. Openings in all services. Excellent personnel policies. Many 
extra benefits & opportunities for advancement. Top salaries. Apply: Personnel Director, 
Peninsula Hospital, 1783 El Camino Real. Burlingame, California. 
Registered Nurses (California) for progressive ultra-modern 200-bed hospital (near 
Beverly Hills), ir.. medical surgical units & operating room. Starting salary $330 per 
mo. with 6-mo. increase & yearly increases thereafter; 5-day, 40-hr. wk., 8 paid holidays 
annually, paid vacation, paid sick leave, free hospitalization & life insurance, plus 
unemployment & disability insurance. Opportunities for advancement & in-service 
education program. Work in a friendly efficient atmosphere possessing many new time 
& effort saving devices. Off-duty time may be spent in the sun & social activities of 
"Southern California Living". Apply Director of Personnel. Mount Sinai Hospital. 8720 
Beverly Blvd., Los Angeles 48, California. 
Registered Nurses General Duty for 230-be
 .approved t
aching hospital. resort .city. 
Salary $330 plus $22.50 shift differential. prOVISIon f?r hc;>usmg allowance. Apply: DIrec- 
tor of Nursing, Cottage Hospital, Santa Barbara, Cahforma. 


86 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



-- WAN TED -- 
SUPERINTENDENT OF NURSING 


DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL SERVICES 
JORDAN MEMORIAL SANATORIUM 
THE GLADES, N.B. 


QUALIFICATIONS: Graduation from a recognized school of nursing, pre- 
ferably postgraduate study in Tuberculosis Nursing and/or 
in nursing administration. Registration as a Nurse in the 
Province of New Brunswick or a province of Canada. 
Several years of supervisory nursing experience. 
DUTIES: The duties of this class involve complex and administrative 
responsibility performed in directing the nursing and 
related services in a Tuberculosis hospital. 
SALARY: $3,480 - $4,200 per annum; Annual Increment - $180. 
Salary commensurate with education and experience. 
Full Civil Service benefits including three weeks' annual vacation with pay, sick leave benefits, 
superannuation and retiring leave. Other perquisites available. 


APPLY: 


CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION 
P.O. BOX 1 ass 
FREDERICTON, N.B. 


JEWISH GENERAL HOSPITAL 
MONTREAL, QUEBEC 


NURSING OPPORTUNITIES 


Completion of expansion program makes available attractive 
positions for Registered Nurses in administration and general duty 
and also for Certified Nursing Assistants. Excellent personnel 
policies. Salary in accordance with the Association of Nurses of the 
Province of Quebec recommendations and commensurate with 
experience and education. limited number of bursaries available 
for post-basic study after one year's service. Residence accommo- 
da
ion in very pleasant surroundings. Within 50 miles of Laurentian 
holiday and ski resorts. For further information, please write: 


DIRECTOR OF NURSING, 
JEWISH GENERAL HOSPITAL 
3755 COTE ST. CATHERINE ROAD 
MONTREAL, QUEBEC 


JANUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No. 1 


87 



General Duty Nurses for lOO-bed County Hospital, accredited JCAH. San Joaquin Valley, 
40-hr. wk., liberal sick leave, 3-wk. annual vacation, 12 annual holidays. Starting salary 
open, range $314-$392, plus $10 shift differential. Rooms in modern nurses' home at $10 
per mo. Write, wire or phone: Superintendent of Nurses, County General Hospital, 
Tulare, California. 
Staff Nurses 600-bed general & tuberculosis teaching institution in central valley City. 
Accredited State & Junior Colleges in immediate vicinity, liberal personnel policies. Full 
maintenance available. Write - Director of Nursing Service, Fresno County General 
Hospital, Fresno 2, California. 
Staff Nurses (all departments) Head Nurse positions (several) Come to sunny California, 
450-bed Queen of Angels Hospital, excellent working conditions, starting salary $330 for 
Staff Nurses - $380 for Head Nurses - plus PM & Night premiums - merits increase 
program, vacations, sick pay etc. Apply: Personnel Director, 2301 Bellevue A venue, Los 
Angeles 26, California. 
Staff Nurses for 300-bed General Hospital. Attractive personnel policies plus differential 
for specialties, afternoon & night duty. Opportunities for advanced education. Apply to: 
Director of Nursing Service, Kaiser Foundation Hospital, Oakland II, California. 
General Staff Nurses (Grow & develop with us) new 400-bed hospital under construction. 
Fully approved. Intern-resident program. Developing teaching center. Starting salary 
$330 per mo., $15 per mo. merit increases at 6, 12, 24 & 36-mo. 40-hr. wk., 2-wk. paid 
vacation, paid sick leave to 30 days; 7 paid holidays. One of Southern California's most 
outstanding locations. Apply: Director of Personnel, Seaside Memorial Hospital, 1401 
Chestnut Avenue, Long Beach 13, California. 
General Duty Nurses for 50-bed General Hospital located in college town in mount- 
ainous portion of Colorado, Salary $300 per mo. with periodic increases. Fringe bene- 
fits include meals, uniform laundry, sick leave & vacation. Registration requires 3-mo. 
training in Psychiatry & Pediatrics on a segregated service. Contact: Superintendent, 
Community Hospital, Alamosa, Colorado. 
Registered General Duty Nurses for 154-bed General Hospital with expansion program 
under way. Along the shores of Lake Michigan, 25 mi. from Chicago. Salary: $365 for 
days, $395 for evenings, $385 for nights,S day wk. Good personnel policies. Apply Per- 
sonnel Director, Hi
hland Park Hospital Foundation, 718 Glenview Ave., Highland Park, Ill. 
General Duty Nurses for 320-bed General Hospital. Only a few blocks from Lake 
Michigan Beach & Lincoln Perk; near Chicago Loop. Hospital accredited by J.C.A.H. & 
school of nursin
 accredited by N.L.N. Apartments available close to hospital. Liberal 
personnel policies. Must be eligible for Ill. registration; Glpenings on an shifts. Write: 
Direct<!JT of Nursing, Augustana Hospital, 411 W. Dickens Ave., Chicago 14, Illinois. 
Operating Room Nurses (Days & P.M.) 154-bed General Hospital located in beautiful 
residential suburb along the north shore of Lake MichigGIn just north of Chicago. Modern 
ranch style nurses' homes with attractively furnished private bedrooms. 40-hr. wk. 
Salary: $390 days, $420 evenings, other employee benefits. Contact: Personnel Director, 
Highland Park Hospital Foundation, Highland Park, Illinois. 
Registered Nurses for fully accredited 291-bed hospital with 
n services, starting salary 
$330-$360 per mo., including ICU. Retirement plan paid, insurance & other fringe benefits. 
Write: Personnel Director, Washoe Medical Center, Reno, Nevada. 
Registered Nurses (free transportation) Spend your winter in the Sunny Southwest, in 
New Mexico - "The Land of Enchantment". Vacancies for staff duty in Medicine, 
Surgery, Obstetrics, Pediatrics & Operating Room. Starting salaries $300 per mo., $15 
differential evenings & nights. Free transportation via 1st Class Air to Albuquerque & 
return in exchange for l-yr. employment contract. Apartment available at $17 per mo., 
excellent job benefits, no shift rotation. Write or call: Director of Nursing, Presbyterian 
Hospital Center, 1012 Gold Avenue, S.E., Albuquerque, New Mexico, Phone CHapel 
3-5611. 
Graduate Nurses (Staff Ór Operating Room) for S8-bed modern accredited General Hos- 
pital. Liberal personnel policies, college town 30,000, 85% sunshine belt, altitude 3,860. 
Dry, mild, all year climate. Apply: Director of Nurses, Memorial General HospitaL Las 
Cruces, New Mexico. 
Registered Nurses (Scenic Oregon, vacation playground, skiing, sWImming, boating & 
cultural events) for 295-bed teaching unit on campus of University of Oregon medical 
school. Salary to start: $339. Pay differential for nights .& evenings. Liberal policy for 
advancement, vacations, sick leave, holidays. Apply: Multnomah Hospital, Portland I, 
Oregon. 
Staff Nurses (all services) for University of Texas Medical Branch, teaching hospital 
(air conditioned). Good personnel policies. Base salary, rotation: $290 per mo. Evenings 
or nights $304 per mO. Apply: Director Nursing Service, University of Texas Medical 
Branch Galveston, Texas. 


BRITISH COLUMBIA 
Fully Trained Nurses (2) Trained Practical Nurses (2) for 60-bed United Church Mission 
Hospital in northern British Columbia. Opportunity for Christian service. Apply: Medical 
Superintendent. Wrinch Memorial Hospital, Hazelton, British Columbia. 


88 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



THE WINNIPEG 
GENERAL 
HOSPITAL 


is recruiting 


GENERAL DUTY NURSES 
FOR ALL SERVICES 


Please send applications direct to: 


THE DIRECTOR OF NURSING, 
THE WINNIPEG GENERAL 
HOSPITAL, 
WINNIPEG 3, MANITOBA 


Are you a 
General State Registered Nurse? 


Do you enjoy 
Nursing 
which brings you into 
Closer Contact 
with your 
Patients 
and their families? 
Are you interested in 
Research, Medical Advancement 
& Rehabilitation? 


Have you some or no experience in 
Neurological & Neurosurgical 
Nursing? 


Do you want a 
Short Term Appointment 
in a unique & useful sphere? 
Have you also read the advertisement 
under Postgraduate Nursing Education? 


Then write, giving particulars 
of your training, to:- 
Matron, 
THE NATIONAL HOSPITAL 
QUEEN SQUARE, 
lONDON W.C.l., ENGLAND 


JANUARY, 1960. Vol. 56. :"lo. 1 


THE 
VANCOUVER 
GENERAL 
HOSPITAL 


requires 


PEDIA TRIC, 
OPERATING ROOM & 
PSYCH
ATRIC NURSES 


General staff positions 
also available. 


Salary: $280 - $336 general 
staff . 


Commencing salary $294 for 
approved experience of 2-yrs. 


Salary: Operating Room 
Nurses, $286.25 - $343.25. 


A clinical differential of $10 
a month in addition for ap- 
proved postgraduate course. 


4-week vacation per year. 


Please apply to: 


Personnel Department, 
Vancouver General 
Hospital, 
Vancouver 9, 
British Columbia 


89 



"STOP! IS THIS WHAT YOU ARE LOOKING FOR?" Applications are invited for positions 
on the permanent or "vacation relief" Staff of a 50-bed active hospital 35-mi. from 
Vancouver. R.N.A.B.C. Personnel Policies in effect. Apply to Director of Nursing, Langley 
Memorial Hospital, Murrayville, Br i tish Columbia . 
NEW BRUNSWICK 
Clinical Instructor for IIO-bed modern hospital. Personnel policies under revision to be 
effective in 1960. Apply: Superintendent, Charlotte County Hospital, St. Stephen, New 
Brunswick. 


NEWFOUNDLAND 
Laboratory Technician (1, Fully qualified) for 120-bed General Hospital. Salary according 
to Newfoundland Government scale. 1 way transportation paid. Customary vacation 
with pay after 12-mo. service plus all statutory holidays. Apply to: H. C. Vincent, Business 
Manager, Notre Dame Bay Memorial Hospital, Twillingate, Newfoundland. 
ONT ARlO 
Director of Nursing for 222-bed hospital under construction in Burlington, Ontario. Posi- 
tion requires Graduate Nurse with extensive teaching, administrative & supervisory 
experience. This is a challenging post involving the organization & control of the entire 
nursing staff. Reply by January 31, giving complete qualifications, experience, salary 
expected & references to: Administrator, Joseph Brant Memorial Hospital, Burlington, 
Ontario. 
Assistant Director of Nursing. Registered Nurses for General Duty for new hospital. 
Good salary, 21 days vacation, 8 statutory holidays, accommodation available in 
residence. Apply: Director of Nursing, Miss K. King, Ross Memorial Hospital, Lindsay, 
Ontario. 


QUEBEC 
Operating Room Nurses for modern well equipped department in 140-bed General 
Hospital. No rotation but required to take night calls. Good personnel policies & 
salary in accordance with A.N.P.Q. recommendations. Apply: Director of Nursing, Reddy 
Memorial Hospital, 4039 Tupper Street, Montreal, Quebec. 
ALBERTA 
General Duty Nurse for 17-bed hospital, lOO-mi. north of Calgary, salary $265 gross with 
increments of $5.00 every 6-mo. for 3 increases, 44-hr. wk., 3-wk. vacation after I-year of 
service, 10 statutory holidays, board & room $35 per mo. Apply: Municipal Hospital, Elnora, 
Alberta. 


SASKATCHEWAN 
Graduate Nurses (2) for 8-bed hospital in southern Saskatchewan. Starting salary $280 
less $35 maintenance. 3-wk. vacation, plus statutory holidays, 40-hr. work week. Travel 
fare advanced if necessary. Apply to: Mrs. D. 1. Knops, Secretary-Treasurer, Union 
Hospital, Rockglen, Saskatchewan. 


U.S.A. 
Staff Nurses for large modern tuberculosis hospital in suburban Cleveland. Nurses eligible 
for Ohio registration start at $355 per mo. with semi-annual increments. Extra pay for relief 
& night duty. Opportunities for advancement. Married nurses with families or two (2) 
single nurses may live in attractive, completely furnished 2-bedroom houses at low, low 
rent including utilities. 5-day wk., paid vacation .& holidays. Liberal sick leave cumulative 
to 90-days. Retirement plan. Approved by Joint Committee on Accreditation of Hospitals. 
Write: Director of Nursing, Sunny Acres Hospital, Cleveland 22, Ohio. 
Registered Nurses - Salary open, commensurate with experience, differential for even- 
ings & night service. Openings in Obstetrical & Medical-Surgical areas. Must be eligible 
for registration in the State of Michigan. Apply to: Personnel Department, Woman's 
Hospital, 432 E. Hancock Avenue, Detroit I, Michigan. 


DIRECTOR 


-- 


PRENATAL 


CLASSES 


To direct prenatal Classes and study program of the Prenatal Education 
Committee, sponsored by the Social Planning Council of Metropolitan Toronto. 
Requirements: Registered Nurse, preferably with certificate in public health 
nursing; preparation and experience in administration and experience in the 
area of maternal and child care. 
Salary: minimum $5,000. Starting salary commensurate with specific qualifica- 
tions and experience. 
Apply to: 
CONVENOR, SELECTIONS COMMITTEE, c/o MRS. W. A. E. McBRYDE, 
29 SUSSEX AVENUE, TORONTO 5, ONTARIO. 


90 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



WOODSTOCK GENERAL HOSPITAL 
Woodstock, Ontario 


requires 


Registered Nurses 
for Operating Room, Obstetrical, 
Medical and Surgical units. 


For further information write: 


THE DIRECTOR OF NURSING, 
GENERAL HOSPITAL, 
WOODSTOCK, ONTARIO. 


NURSING SUPERVISORS 


required for 


MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES, 
ESSONDALE, PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 
Salary: $324 - $389 per month 
Duties are those of nursing supervisors in modern 
psychiatric & geriatric units. 
Applicants must be British Subjects, registered 
nurses, with training in a mental hospital setting 
& supervisory experience. 


For further information & application forms, 
apply to: 
THE PERSONNEL OFFICER, B.C. CIVIL SERVICE 
COMMISSION, ESSONDALE, BRITISH COLUMBIA. 
IMMEDIATELY. COMPETITION No. 59:152 


REGISTERED NURSES 


required for 
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES 
B.C. CIVIL SERVICE 
Starting salary $270-$292 per month 
depending upon experience, rising to 
$325 per month. Applicants must be 
Canadian citizens or British subjects 
and registered, or eligible for regis- 
tration in British Columbia. . 


For application forms apply IMMEDIATELY to ,he: 
PERSONNEL OFFICER, B.C. CIVIL SERVICE 
COMMISSION, ESSONDALE, B.C. 
COMPETITION NO. 59:608 


ONTARIO SOCIETY 
FOR CRIPPLED CHILDREN 


REQUIRES FOR ITS 
Five Summer Camps 
(Strategically located throughout Ontario) 
GRADUATE NURSES AND 
NURSING ASSISTANTS 


For further information apply to: 
SUPERVISOR OF CAMPS, 
ONTARIO SOCIETY FOR 
CRIPPLED CHILDREN, 
92 COLLEGE STREET, 
TORONTO 2, ONTARIO. 


JANUARY, 1960 · Vol. 56, No. 1 


REGISTERED NURSES 
AND 
CERTIFIED NURSING 
ASSISTANTS 


REQUIRED FOR 
44-bed hospital with expansion 
program, 40-hr. wk. Situated in 
the Niagara Peninsula. Transpor- 
tation assistance. 


For salary rates & personnel policies 
APPLY TO: DIRECTOR OF NURSING, 
HALDIMAND WAR MEMORIAL HOSPITAL, 
DUNNVILLE, ONTARIO 


PUBLIC HEALTH NURSE 
( qualified J 
for 
City Health Department January 1, 
1960 excellent working conditions, 
including pension plan, hospitali- 
zation benefits, etc. 


APPLY TO: 
MEDICAL OFFICER OF HEALTH, 
CALGARY, ALBERTA. 


THE CENTRAL REGISTRY 
OF GRADUATE NURSES 
TORONTO 


Furnish Nurses 
· at any hour · 
DA Y or NIGHT 


TELEPHONE WAlnut 2-2136 


427 Avenue Road, TORONTO 7 
JEAN C. BROWN, REG. N. 


GENERAL STAFF NURSES 
WANTED 
To begin January 1, 1960 
Salary Reg. N. $265 gross 
1 
O-bed hospital 


Write: 


THE ADMINISTRATOR, 
NORFOLK GENERAL HOSPITAL, 
SIMCOE, ONTARIO. 


91 



UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL 
SASKATOON, SASKATCHEWAN 
Requires 
General Staff Nurses for Medical, Surgical, Obstetrical and Pediatric Services. 
Forty hour week. Salary $270 to $310 gross per month. Differential for 
evening and night duty. Residence accommodation if desired. 


Apply to: 
DIRECTOR OF NURSING, UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL, 
SASKATOON, SASKATCHEWAN 


'" 


GRADUATE STAFF NURSES - YOU WILL LIKE IT HERE 


Opportunities for men & women on the service of your choice. A 953-bed 
teaching hospital with a friendly atmosphere, well planned orientation pro- 
gram, active graduate nurse club, cultural advantages & excellent transpor- 
tation facilities, 
Starting salary: $325 per mo., 6 holidays, sick leave, 3 wk. vacation. 


For further details write: 
Director - Nursing Service, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Ohio. 


DEPARTMENT OF 
NATIONAL HEALTH 
AND WELFARE 
Indian and Northern Health 
Services 
Requires 
PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING 
SUPERVISORS 
$4,620 - $5,160 
(Competition No. 59-834) 


DIRECTORS OF NURSING 
$4,350 - $4,860 
(Competition No. 59-835) 


ASSISTANT DIRECTORS 
OF NURSING 
$3,900 - $4,560 
(Competition No. 59-835) 


Vacancies at various centres throughout 
Canada 


For details, write to 


CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION, OTTAWA 


Please quote appropriate competition 
number. 


92 


REGISTERED NURSES 
AND 
CERTIFIED NURSING 
ASSISTANTS 


SUNNYBROOK HOSPITAL, TORONTO 
DEER LODGE HOSPITAL, WINNIPEG 
QUEEN MARY VETERANS HOSPITAL, MONTREAL 
WESTMINSTER HO:;PITAL, LONDON 
LANCASTER HOSPITAL, SAINT JOHN 
STE. ANNE DE BHLEVUE VETERANS 
HOSPITAL, P.Q. 
Pension plan; three weeks' paid vaca- 
tion; three weeks' cumulative sick 
leave; 5 day week; low cost living in 
staff residence - for Nurses. Applica- 
tion forms are available at Civil Ser- 
vice Commission Offices, National 
Employment Offices and main Post 
Offices. 
For further particulars contact the Civil 
Service Commission Office in the pro- 
vince where the position in which you 
are interested exists - 
ONTARIO - 25 St. Clair Ave. East, Taranto 
MANITOBA - 266 Graham Ave., Winnipeg 
NEW BRUNSWICK - Post Office Bldg., 
Cantercury St., Saint John, N.B. 
QUEBEC - 685 Cathcart St., Montreal 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



.. 
..,
 
-,' :t 
, r. 
- 
 _..
 
 .., .. 
 . 
 
. 
:..;:;.
.:.
l..

t 
J 
. 
 ,,' 
 -. .S:I .' ð ,- 
ls, 'f l , t .
 .,
... i .' ,. 
"I t 1 J J t rr r ,1 ". ð; ,. . 
,,' ; 
.. I, t I It ..,!lII'S" !!II., 
 
. .." '! I '{ t '" 
 't::ð!'.'
; ..., , , ð II! 
, 1 to 

!i." ...
 
'- .... , j "r. 
 .... 
 .. .
.. ,..
ð 
..;
 1 1 , '"" 
 ..
. , . . 
:"" . 

 "I 
 'I ' 1" 
 r 
O · . ,c' .. ".'.(-", 

.
..:.._..... ..t: _" '",::",I,,
. 
_ ..;.
..__..... _ . .... . 
.I
 
:Iiií : : r;: 

' " .; , 'ìí.


 . "
.'. . d, ,' . ' , . , 
(,.;;t..,! - I : I
 " -' · · . .. . . · 
.. . . "',...- 
.1- -^' I-I I ì I ì',. I' f ' 


. "
.
 
þ:- , 


NURSES WHO LIVE 
HERE NEVER STOP 
LEARNING.. . . 
GROWING 


. . . THEY WORK AT 


COOK COUNTY 
HOSPIT AL 


. . . in one of the largest 
Most Stimulating Medical 
Centers in the World 


't ..' 
 ... 


Residence, Cook County School of Nursing 
Here's an opportunity to gain unique and valuable experience in a þublic hospital - world's 
largest for acute medical conditions. Cook County Hospital offers you the stimulation of working 
with more than 2,500 other doctors and nurses in one of the world's largest and most exciting 
medical centers. Housing is available at nominal cost. Salaries begin at $340-$372.50 for a 37'12 
hour week. And you're only minutes from Chicago's fabulous Loop and local universities. 
Graduate Nurses! Write today to Director, Cook County School of Nursing, Depl. c., 1900 West 
Polk Street, Chicago 12, Illinois. 


CALIFORNIA STATE HOSPITALS CALLING... 
REGISTERED NURSES FOR IMMEDIATE EMPLOYMENT 
· STARTING SALARIES $376 WITHOUT EXPERIENCE, 
$395 WITH ONE YEAR PSYCHIATRIC NURSING 
· STIMULATING AND CHALLENGING CAREERS 
· CHOICE OF LOCATION 
· PROMOTIONAL OPPORTUNITIES 
· REGULAR SALARY INCREASES 
· LIBERAL EMPLOYEE BENEFITS 


. 


Eligibility for California license 
and 
Possession U.S. Declaration of Intention Required 


. 


Write Mrs. Katharine Steele 
DIRECTOR OF NURSING SERVICES r DEPARTMENT OF MENTAL HYGIENE 
1320 KAY STREET, SACRAMENTO 14, CALIFORNIA 


JANUARY. 1960" Vol. 56. No. 1 


93 



VICTORIAN ORDER OF NURSES FOR CANADA 
has Staff and Supervisory positions in various parts of Canada. 
Personnel Practices Provide: 
· Opportunity for promotion. 
· Transportation while on duty. 
· Vacation with pay. 
· Retirement annuity benefits. 


For further information write to: 
Director in Chief, 
Victorian Order of Nurses for Canada 
5 Blackburn Ave., Ottawa 2, Ontario 


CLASSROOM & CLINICAL INSTRUCTORS 
GENERAL STAFF NURSES 
required 
The General Hospital of Port Arthur School of Nursing 
Salary schedule in conformity with R.N.A.O. recommendations. 
Partial fare refund after l-yr. in service. 
WRITE: 
DIRECTOR OF NURSING, 
GENERAL HOSPITAL OF PORT ARTHUR, PORT ARTHUR, ONTARIO. 


GUELPH GENERAL HOSPITAL 
REQUIRES 
STAFF FOR THE FOLLOWING POSITIONS: 


Assistant Head Nurses - General Wards (3), General Staff Nurses, Certified 
Nursing Assistants, Active Hospital 200-beds, Pleasant city 36,000 - 3 col- 
leges. Excellent salary & personnel policies. Additional salary for postgradu- 
ate study in specialty. 
for further information apply to: 
DIRECTOR OF NURSES, GENERAL HOSPITAL, GUELPH, ONTARIO. 


REGINA GENERAL HOSprrAL 
REGINA, SASKATCHEWAN 
invites 
Applications for the Position of 
DIRECTOR OF NURSING 
BOO-bed, fully accredited General Hospital with large School of Nursing embarking 
on a two year teaching, plus one year interne, student nursing course effective 
September 1960. Organization provides Associate Directors in Nursing Service and 
Nursing Education. 
Benefits cover Pension Plan, Group Life Insurance, sick leave, four weeks vacation. 
Living accommodation available if desired. 
Inquiries and applications to be forwarded to: 
MR. C. E. BARTON, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR 


94 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 





r//
tU 
428 WEST 59th STREET . NEW YORK 19, N.Y. 
APPLICA TION FOR APPOINTMENT 
NURSING SERVICE DEPARTMENT 
NAME (PRINT) .. _ a___._____ 
ADDRESS a.......... ..... ................................ ............................... .............. 
................................................................................................................... 
BIRTHDAy...... _ u u uu u.. ... .., _ _ u _ u, MARITAL STATUS -............................ 
WHERE REGiSTERED....... .... ... ............. .................................. ...... ... .............. 
POSITION SOUGHT..................................................................... _ _............. 
DATE AVAILABLE ... _......................... u _... _ _ _ _ _ ........................................ _...... 
PROFESSIONAL BACKGROUND 
BASIC NURSING & DATE OF DIPLOMA 
POSTGRADUATE COURSES ADDRESS OR DEGREE 
- . 
EXPERIENCE (LIST MOST RECENT POSITION FI RST) 
POSITION HOSPITAL AND LOCATION DATE 
TRANSPORTATION FROM CANADA PAID UPON APPOINTMENT TO STAFF 
COMMENTS: 
PLEASE INDICATE IN NUMERICAL ORDER, NURSING SERVICE PREFERRED: 
0 MEDICINE D MEDICINE & SURGERY D PEDIATRICS 
0 SURGERY D OPERATING ROOM D GYNECOLOGY 
- 
SEND TO: DIRECTOR, NURSING SERVICE llIE '\ 
IOOSEVElT, \ 
THE ROOSEVEL T HOSPITAL -
 ' 
428 WEST, 59th STREET i"" .. 
, , . ,.(- 
NEW YORK 19, NEW YORK ïiõSPiiãl 


JANUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No. 1 


95 



President ..... 
Past President 


First Vice-PreEiãent... 
Second Vice-President. 


Third Vice-President 
General Secretary..... .. . 


Official Directory 


CANADIAN NURSES' ASSOCIA TIOì
 


74 Stanley A venue, Ottawa 


.Miss Alice Girard, Hõpital St. Luc, Lagauchetiere St., Montreal, Que. 
Miss Trenna G. Hunter, Metropolitan Health Com., City Hall, Van- 
couver, B.C. 
Miss Helen Carpenter, 50 S1. George St., Toronto 5, Onto 
Miss E. A. Electa MacLennan, School of Nursing, Dalhousie Univer- 
sity, Halifax, N.S. 
Miss Hazel Keeler, University Hospital, Saskatoon, Sask. 
Miss M. Pearl Sti\'er, 74 Stanley Ave., Ottawa. 


Presidents of Provi1lcial A ssociatio1ls- 


OTHER MEMBERS OF EXECUTIYE COMMITTEE 


Alberta ........... 
British ColumlJia . 
l\lanitoba ................ 
New Brunswicl.. . _. 
Newfoundland . 
Nova Scotia ... 
Ontario .... ............. 
Prince Ed ward Island ... 
Quehec .................. 
Saskatchewan 


Mrs. D. J. TaylOl', Suite 7, 10012-112 St., Edmonton. 
Miss Edna Rossiter, Shaughnessy Hospital, Vancouver. 
Mrs. Hilda I\lazerall. 392 Campbell St., Winnipeg 9. 
Miss Lois Smith, Provincial Hospital, Lancaster. 
:\1iss Janet Story, 337 Southside Rd., St. John's. 
Miss Margaret I\1atheson. Aberdeen Hospital, New Glasgow. 
Miss Margaret Morgan, Hamilton General Hospital, Hamilton. 
Mrs. Vera MacDonald, King's County Memorial Hospital, Montague. 
Miss Eve Mel'leau, 3201 Forest Hill Avenue, Montreal. 
Miss Louise Miner, Dept. of Health, Regina. 


Religious Sisters (R egional R ept'ese1ltation)- 


l\laritimes ..... 
Quebec 
Ontario ........, 
\Vestern Canada 


Rev. Sister M. Irene, Charlottetown Hospital, Charlottetown. 
Rev. Sister M. Felicitas, St. Mary's Hospital, Montreal. 
Rev. Sister Madeleine of Jesus, Ottawa General Hospital, Ottawa. 
Rev. Sister M. Laurentia, Providence Hospital, Moose Jaw. 


Chainnen of National Committees- 


Nursing Service ......... 
Nursing Education .... 
Public Relations ... 
Legislation and By-I.aws. 


Finance 
Journal Hoard 


Rev. Sister M. Felicitas, S1. Mary's Hospital, Montreal. 
Miss Hazel Keeler. University Hospital, Saskatoon. 
Miss Ethel M. Gordon, Apt. 110, 150 Argyle Ave., Ottawa 4. 
Miss E. A. Electa MacLennan, School of Nursing, DalhousIe UnIver- 
sity, Halifax. 
Miss Helen Carpenter, 50 St. George St., Toronto 5. 
Mrs. Isobel MacLeod, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal. 


EXECUTIVE OFFICERS 


Alberta Ass'n of Upgistered Nursps, Mrs. Clara Van Dusen, 10256 - 112 St., Edmonton. 
Registcl'pd Nurses' Ass'n of British Columbia, Miss Alice L. WrIght, 2524 Cypress St., Van- 
couver 9. 
l\lanitoba Ass'n of Registered Nurses, Miss Lillian E. Pettigrew, 247 Balmoral St., WInnIpeg. 
New HrullswicJ{ Ass'n of Registered Nurses, Miss Muriel Archibald, 231 Saunders St., Fredericton. 
Ass'n of Upgistered Nurses of Newfoundland, MIss Pauline Laracy, 3 Church Hill, St. John's. 
Registered Nurses' Ass'n of Nova Scotia, MIss Nancy H. Watson, 73 College St., Halifax. 
Registered Nurses' Ass'n of Ontario, Miss Florence H. Walker, 33 Price St., Toronto 5. 
Ass'n of Nurses of Prince Edward Island, Mrs. Helen L. Bolger, 188 PrInce St. Charlottetown. 
Association of Nurses of the Province of Quebec, Miss Helena Reimer, 640 Cathcart St., Montreal. 
Saskat('hpwall RpgistprNI Nursps' Ass'n, Miss Victoria Antonini. 2066 Retallack St.. Regina. 


ASSOCIATION OFFICERS 


Camulillll 
III'!>('S' A!>so('iation: 74 Stanley A\e.. Ottawa. Gell{'ml Secrctary,Treasurer, Miss M. Pearl 
Stiver. SeCl etary of Nursing Service, Miss F. Lillian Campion. Assistant to the General Secreta,.y, 
Miss Justine Delmotte. 
International Council of Nurses: 1 Dean Trench St., Westminster, London S.W. 1, England. 
General Secretary. Miss Daisy C. Bridges. 


96 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



I 
For anything that 
l' 
 
 


,
 .

 
{fj, 

 


I 


use Calmitol first 


. . . for every type of pruritus, CALMITOL@ is the 
fast acting conservative, low-cost, nonsensitizing 
antipruritic. Supplied: tubes, 1% oz., and I-lb. 
jars of nonirritant, easy-spreading ointment. 
For severe itching, CALMITOL Liquid, 2-oz. bottles. 
Write for Samples. 

y
 tf þ;..k 286 Sc Paul St. W.. MontreaL 


FEBRUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No.2 


97 



INDEX TO ADVERTISERS 


FEBRUARY, 


Abbott Laboratories Ltd. 


Bland & Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 109 


Cash' s Names ................ 175 
Coca Cola Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 170 
Thos. Cook & Son Ltd. . . . . .. . .. 175 


Dept. of National Defen
e - Army 151 
Desitin Chemical Co. . . . . . . Coyer III 


Charles E. Frosst & Co. ... . . . .. 192 
G. T. Fulford Co. Ltd. ... . . . . .. 171 


H. J. Hein-z Co. of Canada Ltd. .. 159 
Hollister Ltd. ................ 153 
John A. Huston Co. Ltd. . . . . .,. 101 


1960 


169 


Johnson & Johnson Ltd. . . . . . . " 161 


Knox Gelatine (Canada) 
Ltd. .............. 163. 164. 165 
Kress & Owen Co. Canada Ltd... 173 


Thos. Leeming & Co. Inc. ...... 97 
J. B. Lippincott Co. .... . . . Cover IV 


Nivea Phanna<:euticals Ltd. 155 


Parke Davis & Co. Ltd. 


167 


Smith & Nephew . . . . . . . . . . . . " 157 
Swift Canadian Co. Ltd. . . . . , . .. 110 


\\Thite Sister Uniform Inc. . . Cover II 


* 


* 


* 


S"bscriptiOlI Rates: Canada & Bermuda: 6 months $1.75; one year, $3.00 two years, $5.00. 
Student nurses: one year, $2.00; three years, $5.00. 
C.S.A. & foreign: one year, $3.50; two years, $6.00. 
Single copies 35 cents. 


In combination with the American Journal of Nursing or X!lrsing Outlook: one year, $8.00, 
in Canada. 

Iake cheques and money orders payable to The Canadian Nurse. 


Changc of addrcss: Four weeks' notice and the old address as well as the new are necessary. 
:\lot responsible for Journals lost in mail due to errors in address. 
-\uthorized as Second-Class 
1ail, Post Office Department, Ottawa. 
11emher of Canadian Circulation Audit Board. 


Ad'i.'crtisi-ng Representatives: \V. F. L. Edwaràs & Co., Ltd., 34 King St. E., Toronto 1, Ont. 
"Talter Slack, 801 Public Ledger Building, Philadelphia 6, Pa. 


152Z Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal 25, Quebec 


98 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



THE 


CANADIAN NURSE 


VOLUME S6 


NUMBER 2 


FEBRUARY 1960 


100 BETWEEN OURSELVES 
102 NEW PRODUCTS 
104 RANDOM COMMENTS 
111 NURSING SERVICE DEVELOnIEKTS...............Sr. J\!. Felicitas 
113 DIAGNOSIS AND :MANAGEMENT 
OF ADRENAL HYPERFUNCTIO
..............................JV. I. JfoTJe 
116 NURSING CARE IN ADRENAL 
HYPERFUNCTION ._.............................................................f. T. Elliott 
117 CELIAC ÐISEASE.....................................................................H. O'Hanlcy 
11 9 THE CELIAC CHILD'S DIET..................................,....S r. ! oan Alar)' 
120 DIABETES 
IELLITUS......... ................G. Greaves and E. Ward 
126 JUVENILE DIABETES..........................................sr. AI. de St. l\1arc 
127 You ARE 'VHAT You EAT................................................D. Comeau 
129 THE PROFESSION AND THE 
UNIVERSITY ...............................................................E. Jf. j\;[ cDowell 
131 SHORTAGES: NURSES OR NURSI:KG?........................Jf. Kakosh 
133 NURSING ACROSS THE NATION 
135 CONVENTION PERSONALITY 
1 36 :r-.. URSING PROFILES 
138 MANITOBA 'VOMEN'S HOSPITAL 
AUXILIARIES ASSOCIATION..........................................C. A1acleod 
141 PATIENT CARE AT HOME......................................................P. E. Poole 
146 INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS: 
A CLASSRoo
r SUBJECT?................u........u....................D. S. Starr 
148 NURSE-PATIENT RELATION S HIPS...........................C. Blacklock 
166 DRUG ADDICTION...........................................................................!. Gibson 
160 A STEP FORWARD AT THISTLETOWN..............................S. J.Hoore 
1 68 IN MEMORIAM 
172 BOOK REVIEWS 
176 EMPLOYMENT OPPORTCNITIES 


The views expressed 
in the various articles 
are the views of 
the authors and 
do Hot necessarily 
represent the policy 
or viC"Ws of 
THE CANADIAN NL"RSE 
no,. of the Canadian 
Nurses' Association_ 


Journal Board: Mrs. A. I. MacLeod, chairman, Sr. M. Felicitas, Misses H. Carpenter, R. Chittick, S. Giroux, 
E. Gordon, K. MacLaggan, A. Girard, president CNA; Misses M. P. Stiver, M. E. Kerr. 
Editorial Advisers: Alberta. Miss Irene M. Robertson, 11831-87th ATe., Edmonton; Briti.h Columbia, Miss 
Marion E. Macdonel1, 1807 W. 36th Ave., Vancouver 13; Manitoba, Miu Sheila L. Nixon, 
25 Langside St., Wmnipeg; New Brunswick, Miss ShIrley Y. Alc
 180 Charlotte St., 
Fredericton; Newfoundland, Miss Isabel Sutton, .66a 
ullock 
t'l St. John'a; Nova .Scotia, 
Mrs. Hope Mack, P.O. Box 76, Hantsport; OntarIo, MIss Jean watt, R.N.A.O., 33 Pnce St:, 
Toronto; Prince Edward Island, Sr. M. David, Charlottetown Hospital; Quebec, Miss Geneviève 
Lamarre, Hôpital de I'Enfant Jésus, Quebec City (French), Sr. M. Assumpta St. Mary's Hospital, 
Montreal (English); Saskatchewan, :Miss Victoria Antonmi, S.R.N.A., 2066 Retallack St., Regina. 
Executiv
 Director: Margaret E. Kerr, M.A., R.N. 
,fl.sislant Editors: Jean E. MacGregor, B.N.,R.N.; Gabrielle D. Coté, M.A.,R.N., Pamela E. Poole. B.
.,R.N . 
Circulation Manager: \Vinnifred MacLean. Production Assistant: Elizabeth M. Hanlon. 
Advertising Assistant: Ruth H. Baumel 


FEBRUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No.2 


1522 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal 25, Quebec 


99 





 ()
 


Despite the governmental programs for 
hospitalization in most provinces, or per- 
haps because of them, new impetus is being 
given to home care plans. Early in December 
last, a three-day institute convened in Ot- 
tawa to give leadership in the further qe- 
ve10pment of this form of nursing service. 
A report of this institute is included in this 
issue. 
Home care plan discussions have consti- 
tuted a major part of the program of the 
national Committee on Nursing Service as its 
chairman, SISTER MARY FELICITAS, notes in 
her guest editorial. Born in Saskatchewan, 
Sister joined the Community of the Sisters 
of Providence of Kingston and received her 
professional training at Providence Hospital, 
Moose Jaw. She holds her bachelor's degree 
from the University of Ottawa, her master's 
from Catholic University, Washington, D.C., 
where she was awarded Phi Beta Kappa in 
recognition of her high level of scholarship. 
Director of nursing education of St. Mary's 
Hospital, Montreal, since 1945, Sister has 
been a member of the J O1trnal Board since 
1952. She represents the nursing sister- 
hoods of the province of Quebec on the 
CN A Executive Committee and is very 
active in her provincial association. 
* * * 
The twentieth century level of civiliz- 
ation is a far cry from the environment in 
which our remote and primitive ancestors 
existed. Excepting in such limited areas 
as the valley of the mighty Amazon river or 
a few of the isolated islands in Polynesia, 
mankind no longer is beset by such catastro- 
phic perils that it has only two major 
methods of reacting - fight or flight. To 
permit a human being to respond instant- 
aneously to an acute emergency, two closely 
associated systems functioned within his 
body: the endocrine glands that could eject 
needed substances directly into the blood 
stream, and the sympathetic nervous sys- 
tem to act as the coordinating mechanism. 
Primitive man knew iostinctively how to 
react. The physiological reason why he re- 
sponded as he did was not known until 
modern medical research identified the in- 
dividual parts of this complicated mechan- 
ism and discovered their various roles. None 
of us is concerned about the glandular 
processes until they get out of hand - 


100 


either by functioning too actively and be- 
coming "hyper," or by their failure to func- 
tion properly when they are labeled "hypo." 
Both hyperactivity and hypoactivity are 
included in the articles featured in this 
issue. How each responds to adequate medi- 
cal and nursing care is discussed. 
* * * 
We have departed from our established 
practice of publishing the same article in 
the two languages this month, In our Eng- 
lish edition, Miss CHRISTINE MACLEOD, 
president of the Manitoba Association of 
Hospital Auxiliaries describes the many 
and varied ways in which the ladies assist 
the hospitals in her province. Mme. MAR- 
GUERITE D. LAMOTHE, president of the As- 
sociation des Auxiliaires des Hôpitaux de 
la Province de Québec has outlined the ac- 
tivities of the groups with which she is 
working. 
* * * 
From the points of view of both poten- 
tial students and faculty members of other 
Canadian universities, one of the most ex- 
citing developments that has taken place 
within recent years has been the inaugura- 
tion of the first post....baccalaureate program 
in nursing education at the University of 
Western Ontario, London. Such a step has 
been a cherished dream of Dean EDITH 
McDoWELL for a long time. You can read 
her own proud story of what this progres- 
sive step means to all of us. 
* * * 
At the risk of "dating" ourselves, we 
recently counted back over the number of 
biennial conventions of the Canadian Nurses' 
Association we have attended. Our initiation 
was at the convention held in Regina in 
1930. We missed the one in Saint John, N.B. 
in 1932. That was a depression year and, 
with small salaries, very few of us could 
attend. This year's convention in Halifax, 
will be the fifteenth we have been privileged 
to participate in. The last time the CNA 
met in Halifax was 1938. 'Ve were younger 
then, with no rheumatic joints! We travelled 
both ways - Vancouver to Halifax and 
return - by bus. It was then and still is 
a most economical as well as a comfortable 
way to see the countryside. 
Have you made your plans for travelling 
to Halifax next June? 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



for 
Dioper 
Rosh 
t I ! p! RENE 


, 


tt 


4 


CliJlically prOVeJl, effective* 


JII. '<. ". .

 
:::== 


D/8p'?fJJ oe 
rinse 


N- 
!- A.
 ;. 
O').,j;;' 
<' '.J 
'1)i(l,M
tfl
 
..L/J ",";,O'il)' 
baby powder 


.

 


e 


...-..

.<<

 



 


-"'IiI:__ 


...... ."-

 
pttljXI ielt _ 'e . C , H::: ' 
-- ..:::> 
G:\ -- ..' ..:- ..... ...._ .... :.
. :-:- .......:-;' 
... w."...... . ANAL 
IJi3p8re1!!. 


! 
 :; ; Of 
 ' 


. DIAPARENE OINTMENT-medicated, 
soothing ointment to clear up the most obstinate 
case of diaper rash. 
. DIAPARENE POWDER-highly absorbent corn 
starch base, gently medicated, guards against 
prickly heat and chafing. Prêvents ammonia 
odour and diaper rash. 
. DIAPARENE RINSE-(tabIet or liquid)-added 
to final wash water premedicates diaper 
preventing diaper rash and ammonia odour upon 
contact with urine. 


. DIAPARENE PERI-ANAL CREME-A safe 
efficient cream developed especially for the new- 
born with sore-bottom caused by loose stools, and 
diarrhoea. For effective treatment and prevention 
apply at diaper changes to the anal area. 


Most new babies require protection against annoying 
diaper rash. DIAP A RENE in thesefour forms assures 
complete prevention and treatment night and day. 


DIAPARENE antibacterial preparations for complete baby skin care 


*Niedelman, M. L. and Bleier, A.; Jour. Ped., 37:5,762, Nov. 1950 
Fischer, C. C. and Lipschutz, A.; Am. Jour. Dis. Child, 89:5, 596, May 1955 
Benson, R. A., et al: Arch. Ped., 73:250 - 8, July 1956 


DIAPARENE samples and literature available on request to: 
HOMEMAKERS' PRODUCTS (Canada) LIMITED 
36 Caledonia Road Toronto 10, Ontario 


FEBRUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No. 2 


101 



1teø 'P
 


PUBLISHED THROUGH COURTESY OF Canadian Pharmaceutical J ollrllaJ 
AND IN COOPERATION \nTH THE PHARMACEUTICAL FIR
IS. 


BEMINAL WITH MILLTOWN 
Indications-For relief of tension in patients requiring vitamin B therapy. 
Description-Each capsule contains: thiamine 10 mg., riboflavin 5 mg., niacinamide 
10 mg., pyridoxine 0.5 mg., calcium d-pantothenate 2 mg., vitamin BI2 2 mcg., ascorbic 
acid 50 mg., meprobamate (Milltown) 200 mg. 
Administration-One capsule 3 or 4 times daily Or as prescribed. 
Manufacturer-Ayerst, McKenna & Harrison Ltd., Montreal 9. 
CHLOROSTREP SUSPENSION 
Indications-For use in treatment of enteric infections of the diarrheal type and for 
prophylaxis and treatment of infections encountered in intestinal surgery. 
Description-Each 4 cc. represents: chloromycetin (as the palmitate) 125 mg., dihy- 
drostreptomycin (as the sulfate) 125 mg. An orange-flavored preparation. 
Administration-For adults, usually 4 to 16 cc. Children weighing mOre than 10 kg., 
4 to 8 cc. repeated every 6 hours, In pre-operative surgery, the dosage may be given 
3 to 4 days in preparation and after 5 or 6 days when fluids are resumed. 
Manufacturer-Parke, Davis & Co., Ltd., Montreal 9. 
DIPHTHERIA- TET ANUS
PERTUSSIS-POLIOMYELITIS 
Indications-For simultaneous immunization of children against diphtheria, tetanus, 
pertussis and paralytic poliomyelitis. 
Description-Each 1 cc. contains 20,000 million Phase I Hemophilus pertussis 
organisms of proven antigenicity with adequate amounts of diphtheria and tetanus 
toxoids; and each 0.5 cc. dose provides the equivalent of 1 cc, of fluid poliomyelitis 
vaccine, Types 1, 2 and 3. The antigens are adsorbed on an optimum amount of 
aluminum phosfate. 
Administration-Preferably injected intramuscularly For children over 6 months of 
age, one complete treatment consisting of 3 doses of 0.5 cc, each, given at intervals 
of 4 to 6 weeks followed by a booster injection of 0.5 cc. 6 to 12 months later. For 
children under 6 months of age, an additional 0.5 cc. dose in the initial series is 
recommended. 
Manufacturer-Parke, Davis & Co., Ltd., Montreal 9. 
FESOFOR SPANSULE 
Indications-Iron deficiency anemias especially where gastric irritation is to be 
avoided. 
Description-Sustained release capsules containing 150 mg. exsiccated ferrous 
sulfate equivalent to 225 mg. ferrous sulfate, protected against release in the stomach. 
Administration-For mild cases and for maintenance, one capsule daily. For severe 
cases, one twice daily. 
Manufacturer-Smith Kline & French, Montreal 9. 
--- 
GAMMACORTEN 
Indications-Arthritis, severe asthma, allergy, dermatoses; any condition which 
responds to adrenocorticoid therapy. 
Description-Dexamethasone, a highly active substitute synthetic corticosteroid, 
16x- methyl-9x- f1 uoroprednisolone. 
Relative potency has been rated at 35 times that of cortisone, 27 times that of hydro- 
cortisone, about 6 times that of prednisolone or prednisone, and about 5 times that of 
triamcinalone. 
Administration-Dosage is governed by the nature and the severity of the disease, 
patient response, duration of therapy, and individual tolerance or intolerance. 
Contraindications-Active, latent, or questionably-healed tuberculosis; other acute 
or chronic infections; recent intestinal anastomoses; diverticulitis; ocular herpes simplex; 
thrombophlebitis. Therapy in such cases is only justified in the presence of a life- 
threatening situation. 
Manufacturer-Ciba Company Limited, Montreal 2. 
GRA VINON INJECTABLE 
Indications-Vomiting of pregnancy. 
Description-Each cc. contains: vitamin B. 100 mg., vitamin B6 100 mg. 
Manufacturer-Anglo-French Drug Company Ltd., Montreal 18. 
I.D.M. SOLUTION 
Indications-Asthmatic bronchitis, allergic asthma, etc., especially for children. 
Description-Each 5 cc. contains: potassium iodine 80 mg., dihydroxypropyltheo- 
phylline 50 mg., mepyramine maleate 6 mg. 
Administration-One teaspoonful 3 times daily. 
Manufacturer-Rougier Inc.. 2055 Favard St.. Montreal 22. 
Th
 Journal þresellts Pharmaceuticals for infonnation. Nurses mld
rstalld that only a physician may prucribe. 


102 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



DALHOUSIE 


UNIVERSITY 


School of Nursing 
COURSES OFFERED 
1959 - 1960 


1. Degree Course in Basic Professional Nursing 
Candidates for the degree of Bachelor of Nursing are required to complete 
2 years of university work before entering the clinical field, and one year 
of university work following the basic clinical period of 30 months. On 
completion of the course the student receives the Degree of Bachelor of 
Nursing and the Professional Diploma in either Teaching in Schools of 
Nursing or Public Health Nursing. 
2. Degree Course for Graduate Nurses 
Graduate nurses who wish to obtain the degree of Bachelor of Nursing are 
required to complete the three years of university work. 
3. Diploma Courses for Graduate Nurses 
(a) Public Health Nursing 
(b) Teaching in Schools of Nursing 


For further information apply to: 
DIRECTOR, SCHOOL OF NURSING 
DALHOUSIE UNIVERSITY, HALIFAX, N.S. 


KRYL 
Indications-To provide relief from nasal and sinus congestion of colds (and as- 
sociated symptoms and of allergic rhinitis). 
Description-Each tablet contains: Theruhistin (isothipendyl HCI) 4 mg., acetylsa- 
licylic acid 230 mg" phenacetin 160 mg., e-phenylephrine HCl 5 mg., ascorbic acid 
35 mg. 
Administration-Adults: one tablet 4 times daily with food, Children (6 to 12): half 
the adult dosage. 
Manufacturer-Ayerst, McKenna,.Harrison, Montreal 9. 
MADRIBON DROPS 
Indications-Respiratory, urinary, systemic and local infections due to susceptible 
microorganisms. 
Description-Each drop provides: 12.5 mg. 2,4-dimethoxy-6-sulfa-nilamido-l,3-diazine. 
I ce. == approx. 20 drops, A well-tolerated sulfonamide with broad antibacterial spec- 
trum and prolonged action. 
Administration-Initially: 250 mg./20 lb. body weight. Every 24 hours 125 mg./20 lb. 
body weight. 
Manufacturer-Hoffman-LaRoche Ltd., Montreal 9. 
MADRICIDIN 
Indications-Palliation of the common cold; prevention and treatment of secondary 
bacterial infections. 
Description-Each capsule contains: Madribon 125 mg., thephorin 10 mg., n-acetyl- 
p-aminophenoll20 mg., caffeine 30 mg. 
Administration-Adults: First day, 2 capsules q.i.d.; 1 capsule q.i.d. thereafter. 
Children: First day, 2 capsules per 20 Ib./body weight; 1 capsule per 20 lb./body weight 
daily thereafter - given in divided or single doses. Continue therapy until patient is 
asymptomatic for at least 48 hours. 
Manufacturer-hofima!'!-LaRoche Ltd., Montreal 9. 
TEMARIL 
Indications-Pruritis oi widely varied origins. 
Administration-Adults: One 5 mg. capsule every 12 hours. b some resistant cases 
patients may require as much as 30 !:lg. i!'! 24 hours. Children: 6-12 yrs. one spansule daily, 
and not exceeding 2 daily. Uncle:- 6 years Temaril tablets and symp. 
Description-Brand or trimeprazine. 
Manufacturer-Smith. KlÎ:1e & french Laboratories Montreal 9. 


FEBRUARY. 1960. Vol. 56. 1'<0. 2 


103 



IOVA SCOTIA SANATORIUM 
KENTVILLE N.S. 


Offers to Graduate Nurses a Six- 
Month Course in Tube,'culosis Nursing. 
including Immunology, Prevention, 
Medical & Surgical Treatment. 
1. Full series of lectures by Medical 
and Surgical staff. 


2. Demonstrations and Clinics. 


3. Experience in Thoracic Operating 
Room and Postoperative Unit. 
4. FulI maintenance, salary & all staff 
privileges. 


5. Classes start May 1st and Novem- 
ber 1st. 


For information apply to: 


SUPT. OF NURSES, NaY A SCOTIA 
SANATORIUM, KENTVlllE, N.S. 



andom f30mments 


Dear Editor: 
Seeing there are so many nurses needed, 
r have been wondering if there could be re- 
fresher courses of a few days on a variety 
of subj ects, i.e., obstetrics, surgical nurs- 
ing, etc., where one could take only the sub- 
jects one is interested in. I myself would 
not be much interested in surgical nursing 
but others would be. I was always relieved 
when that part of my training was over. But 
I liked ubstetrics very much. In fact, my 
private duty 25 years ag-o was almost ex- 
clusively looking after obstetrical patients in 
their homes. 


I. J.. Ontario 


Dear Editor: 
We have purchased one of your binders for 
our journals and find it very satisfactory. 
No definite decision has yet been reached 
but we are considering ordering more of 
them if they are stilI available. Are you 


104 


planning to continue having them prepared 
every year? 


:U. R. T., Alberta 
1i 
V e have a considerable qllantity of these 
economical binders on hand and shall order 
more as the sllþþl}. drops SO we 'welcome 
your requests for them. No year is stamþed 
on any of them so :rOll can label them as 
rcquired. Ed. 


Dear Editor: 
The Canadian Nurse has shown such 
growth and professional development these 
past years that I hesitate to suggest any- 
thing that has not been, or is not being, 
published. Knowing that very few of the 
younger members either receive or read the 
articles in the ICN Review, I wondered if 
you could and would copy that excellent 
article by Mary Helen Anderson, "The 
Greatest of These," which appeared in 
the Rc'view. 
G. 1\1. F., British Columbia 
1i Watch for this requested material S0011. Ed. 


Dear Editor: 
Each time another issue of the Journal 
comes in I think that I wilI write to let 
you know how much I enjoy it. I especialIy 
enjoyed the October issue for almost the 
entire number was articles from Quebec 
nurses. It is most encouraging to have nurses 
in so many parts of our country writing 
on such a variety of subj ects. 
l S. 'V., Ontario 
Dear Editor: 
Regarding the article, "\ Vhy Judge 
Them?" in your November issue by Sister 
Ste Mechtilde - she had much of worth 
to say on the subject but she did not say 
this. While the powerful influence of alcohol 
is stilI being felt, why not make it the sub- 
j ect of a discussion? \Ve realize what al- 
cohol can do to the dignity of man. 
l M. W., British Columbia 


The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation is 
presenting a series on nursing on Trans- 
Canada 
Iatinee. The series can be heard on 
six consecutive :\rondays from January 11 
through February 15. Time is 2 :30 P.
1., 
E.S.T. but consult your local newspaper for 
times in other regions. 
* * * 
There never were in the world two opin- 
ions alike, no more than two hairs or two 
grains; the most universal quality is diver- 
sity. - MONTAIGNE 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



for your own 
and your patients' 
skin care 
Cl/.l:""l:
 
s/(/ly 
, C

E 
prevents. . . relieves 
rough, dry skin 


., 

 
. I \ \ 
 þ; t fi '. . 
 :.
. \' t

;; 
 
.") f 
'1'\\ 
:..:.. 
 /." ..- , ,.... 
-
''''-:' 
.... -
"/, \. \\ ''I'.' " /.,'é: li I . 
-w 
 j !
 .,' 
r 
 /

 


. . . ideal after "scrub-ups" . for "detergent hands" . for use after 
dermatoses . for babies' tender skin . powder base, chafing, chapping 


VANZA CREME 


Soothing. emollient Vanza Creme forms 
a thin, protective, non-greasy film which 
protects against dehydration. . . 
Hlubricates" with a cholesterinized 
water-in-oil emulsion. 
smooth-spreading . . . quickly absorbed 
2
. oz. tube, and 4 and 15 oz. jars. 


---------- .. ; 
J / ' 
tDUI-r ' 
. 

!"': h SK.

 cfIÞ. . 
-- --
-
 - 


...... 
.. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 


MAIL COUPON FOR FULL-SIZE TUBE 


A 
COMPANION 
PRODUCT: 


. ... 
. 
. 


VanZant & Co., Limited, Dept. 602 
357 College Street, Toronto, Úntario 
Please mail me free of charge a complimentary tube of 
Vanza Creme and guest size Vanza Superfatted Soap. 


. 
. VANZA 
: SUPERFATTED SOAP 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
........... 


NAME .....................o.......,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


for sensitive or dry 
skin, fine, also, 
for nursery use. 


STREET. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


. 
. 


CiTy............................ PROV................. 


FEBRUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No.2 


105 



THE WINNIPEG GENERAL 
HOSPITAL 


Offers to qualified Registered Grad- 
uate Nurses the following opportu- 
nity for advanced preparation: 


A six month Clinical COIlI'se in Oper- 
alÏllg Room, PrinciPles and Advanccd 
Practice. 


Courses commence in JANUARY and 
SEPTEMBER of each year. Maintenance 
is provided. A reasonable stipend is 
given after the first month. Enrol- 
ment is limited to a maximum of six 
students. 


F or further information please 
write to: 


DIRECTOR OF NURSING 
GENERAL HOSPITAL 
WINNIPEG, MANITOBA 


MOUNT HAMILTON 
HOSPITAL 


offers a three-month Postgraduate 
Course in Obstetric Nursing to quali- 
fied Registered Nurses. 
Additional lectures in Teaching and 
Administration will be given in con- 
junction with McMaster University. 


FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE 
AVAILABLE. 


Course to commence 
January, April, September. 


For further information apply to: 


MISS ELIZABETH FERGUSON, R,N., 
SUPERINTENDENT OF NURSING, 
MOUNT HAMILTON HOSPITAL, 
HAMILTON, ONTARIO 


QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY 
SCHOOL OF NURSING 


COURSES OFFERED 


Undergraduat, 
Degree Course, 5 years leading to 
BNSc. Degree 


C,-aduate Nurses 
a. Degre Course, two years. 
b. Diploma Courses, one year. 
Public Health Nursing 


or 
Teaching and Supervision in Schools 
of Nursing. 


For illformatiola apply to: 


DIRECTOR 
SCHOOL OF NURSING, 
QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY 
KINGSTON, ONTARIO 


I 


,106 


MONTREAL 
NEUROLOGICAL 
INSTITUTE 
McGill UNIVERSITY 
GRADUATE COURSE 
in 


NEU ROLOGICAL AND 
NEUROSURGICAL NURSING 
AND OPERATING ROOM 
TECHNIQUE 


Classes: Feb. 1 & Oct. 1 


One half staff salary is paid during 
course. Students may live in or out. 


For information apply: 
MISS E. C, FLANAGAN, B.A., R.N. 
Director of Nursing, 
3801 University St. 
Montreal, Que. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



UNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHEWAN 
School of Nursing 



 .;..;.
 


"'" +- 



 t.." 
,. :. J'i 
. 



,,,* t 
'Új 


'" 



"" 
",- 
.......",.". . 


........' .......
 
 -<-
 



" 



 


';'" 

,;.,,--"""": 
. -,--- ' '. ! ->'...;. " , ..... 
. 
...' "
'\ ,"", 

;,:":: :.:, ::
i;

ii.7 
" .' "it fl .
 U ' .. ,
. "'" 
. J .
 > II 
 :0: t 'H'" 
Î;.' · 
:I :t . '

 " , f; 
"'. .
, . r;'1 
. " . '1 ," ""'<" 
. 
"<:f: t \ ' .;....? 
,{, ... 
,% " '. ,,..' , 


'.
 


.
 


...;. , .... 
.... 


" 



 


" . c 


",4. 


<-
 ... 


>. ,""
 



,-" 
r::
,;, 
)
 "." .... 


. <
.. 


.. 


in cooperation with 
UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL 


PROGRAMS FOR GRADUATE NURSES 
Teaching and Supervision 
To meet the needs of nurses wishing to prepare for positions of responsi- 
bility in either teaching or supervision in Schools of Nursing. 
Public Health Nursing 
To meet the needs of nurses wishing university preparation for staff work 
in public health nursing agencies. 
A dminh. tration of Hospital Nursing Service 
To meet the needs of nurses preparing for head nurse, supervisory or 
ma tron positions. 
This program is supported by the W. K. Kellogg Foundation. 
Diplomas are granted on successful completion of the above programs and 
credits earned may be applied toward the degree of Bachelor of Science in 
Nursing. 
PROGRAMS FOR mGH SCHOOL GRADUATES 
Leading to the Degree in Nursing 
Students with senior matriculation may pursue a combined academic 
and professional program leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in 
Nursing. In the final year students will elect to study Teaching and 
Supervision or Public Health Nursing. This broad educational background 
followed by graduate professional experience enables nurses to progress 
rapidly into positions of responsibility. 
Leading to the Diploma in Nursing 
A three year hospital program is conducted for students meeting the 
entrance requirements of the University. 


For further iJlformatiou or inquiries about scholarships, write to: 
DIRECTOR, SCHOOL OF NURSING, UNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHEWAN, 
SASKATOON, SASKATCHEWAN 


FEBRUARY. 1960. Vol. 56. No.2 


lOT 



COURSES 
FOR 
GRADUATE NURSES 


in various clinical fields. 


Terms begin February 8, 
1960, May 2, 1960, July 25, 
1 960 and October 17, 1 960. 


Room, meals, laundering of 
uniforms, and honorarium 
provided. 


Apply to: 
DIRECTOR, 
COOK COUNTY SCHOOL 
OF NURSING, 
DEPT. C., 1900 WEST POLK ST., 
CHICAGO 12, ILLINOIS 


WILLS EYE HOSPITAL 
Philadelphia, Penna. 


The largest eye hospital in the 
United States offers a six-month 
course in Nursing Care of the Eye to 
Graduates of Accredited Nursing 
Schools. Operating Room Training is 
scheduled in the course. 
. Full maintenance and a stipend of 
$205 per month for the first four 
months. $215 per month for the last 
two months, plus maintenance. 
. REGISTRATION FEE is $20 
. Course starts March 15 & Septem- 
ber 15. Ophthalmic Nurses in great 
demand for hospital eye departments, 
operating rooms & ophthalmologists' 
offices. 


F or information write to: 


Director of Nurses, 
Wills Eye Hospital, 
1601 Spring Garden Street, 
Philadelphia 30, Penna. 


:108 



 


ONTARIO PLACEMENT CENTRE 


For Professional, Supervisory and 
Administrative Nursing Staff 
DIRECTOR: MISS H. E. JONES, REG.N. 
SUITE 304, 97 EGLINTON AVENUE E., 
TORONTO, ONTARIO. 
HU. 1-6301 or HU. 1-6362 


CHILDREN1S HOSPITAL 
OF WASHINGTON, D.C. 


OFFERS 
Registered Nurses a 16-wk. supple- 
mentary program in pediatric nursing, 
Admission dates, January 5, May 3, 
August 30, 1960, January 3, 1961. 


For complete information write to: 


DIRECTOR OF NURSING 
212S-13th STREET, N.W., WASHINGTON 9, D.C. 


THE JOHNS HOPKINS 
HOSPITAL 
SCHOOL 01 NURSING 


Offers to qualified Registered Nurses 
a 16-week supplementary course in 


OPERATIVE ASEPTIC TECHNIC 


with instruction and practice in the 
general surgical, neurosurgical, plastic 
orthopedic, gynecologic, ophthalmolo- 
gic, urologic and ear, nose and throat 
operating room services. Maintenance 
and stipend are provided. 


F or information write to: 


DIRECTOR, SCHOOL OF NURSING 
THE JOHNS HOPKINS HOSPITAL 
BALTIMORE 5, MARYLAND, U.S.A. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



ROYAL 
VICTORIA 
HOSPITAL 


SCHOOL OF NURSING 
MONTREAL, QUEBEC 


Postgraduate Courses 


(a) Six month clinical course in Obstet- 
rical Nursing. 
Classes - September and February. 
(b) Two month clinical course in Gyne- 
cological Nursing. 
Classes following the six month 
courSe in Obstetrical Nursing. 
(c) Eight week course in Care of the 
Premature Infant. 


2. Six month course in Operating Room 
Technique and Management. 
Classes - September and March. 


3. Six month courSe in Theory and Practice 
in Psychiatric Nursing. 
Classes - September and March. 


Complete maintenance or living-out allow- 
ance is provided for the full course. 
Salary - a generous allowance for the 
last half of the course. 


Graduate nurses must be registered and in 
good standing in their own Provinces. 


For information and details of the courses, 
apply to:- 
Miss H. M. Lamont, B.N. 
Director of Nursing, 
Royal Victoria Hospital, 
Montreal, P .Q. 


FEBRUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No.2 


IF YOU HAVE THE 
GOOD FORTUNE TO WEAR 
BLAND'S TAILORED UNIFORMS 
THEN YOU KNOW THE FEEL 
OF COTTONS REMARKABLY 
EXCELLENT 


,
.'\. 
. 


.\ I I 
\ <f \ . ,I \ 
: _ <>\ L 
, 01 
h 


-t 
'I''" '\ 
á, -J 


o 


o 


-t' 



 
NURS'N
 ... \
 
ASSISTANT 
# /
 57 


STYlE 1657 - All SIZES 
3 for $24.50 
in Graduation Dress Cotton 


You may have a Catalogue. 


Made and sold only by 


BLAND AND COMPANY 
2048 Union Ave., Montreal, Canada 


109 



Time for meat's many 
benefits.? 


;, 


. 


, 

 
 , 
, ->j.;...
, 
f#.... , 
I:r 0', ..##' /' .'/F. "II 

 I"/
" J/
I 
.. 
 ." 


...;.. 


. · 
i Swifts 
 e( 
,.. p'l1
 
8EEFs
RA'N( 
ror SA ,", 


\ 


110 


() 


. ' 


. . f 


. 


:" 
.
 
, , 


" 




:::=::.= - 


._..
. 



' . <
 Swift's ., 
 , .. 
T' d-: 

 BËËf ... 

 __ AM> , Ket _0'0-4 
< --
 . 
.f 


.
 100% MEATS EGG YOLKS 
MEAT DINNERS 


. . . then it's 
time to trust 


SWIFT 


. . the meat 
êP ecialist ! 


Swift's 105 years of experi- 
ence as a specialist in fine 
meats benefit your little 
patients in two important 
areas. 
First, for optimal nutri- 
tion, we select leaner meat 
with its higher protein con- 
tent . . . process carefully 
to retain vital nutrients. 
Secondly, to assure the 
emotional satisfaction that 
results from easier feeding 
times, we strain our meats 
smoother. And the flavours 
are so appetizing they aid 
in establishing sound eat- 
ing habits early. 
Only Swift specializes in 
meats and meat dishes for 
babies. 


The two most trusted 
words in meat. . . 


J Swi
t's 
 
t( PremIUm y 


fHE CANADIAN NURSE 



THE CAnADIAn nURSE 


A 
IN 


MONTHLY JOURNAL FOR THE NURSES Of 
ENGLISH AND FRENCH BY THE CANADIAN 


CANADA PUBLISHED 
NURSES' ASSOCIATION 


VOLUME 56 


74 STANLEY AVENUE, OTTAWA 


NUMBER 2 


MONTREAL, FEBRUARY 


1960 


Nursing Service De\Telopmen
 


II
 HAT has been the business of your 
I' National Committees this bien- 
nium? Although each committee has its 
specific functions outlined in the By- 
laws of the Canadian Nurses' Associa- 
tion, all committees aim to assist our 
members through the formulation of 
national policies. By their study, or 
recommendation of studies, various 
facets of national nursing concern are 
presented to the Executive Commit- 
tee which has responsibility for leader- 
ship in these areas, Periodically a 
committee undertakes the preparation 
of some material which is published 
because of its usefulness to the mem- 
bership; to cite just two examples: 
the Public Relations Guide, and the 
Orientation Manual. 
The Nursing Service Committee di- 
n
cts its attention to matters which 
promote high standards of nursing in 
Canada, and which will assist the nurs- 
ing profession to meet problems of 
nursing service wherever they may 
exist. Several topics which come with- 
in its scope, have been deliberated by 
our committee. I have chosen to com- 
ment on two of these. 


FEBRUARY, 1960. Vol. 56. No. 2 


A few years ago, a study of head 
nurse activities was made under the 
auspices of the Research Division, De- 
partment of National Health and 
\YeIfare, Ottawa. This imposing docu- 
ment has been utilized in ,'arious ways 



 


SISTER :\1. FELICIT AS 


111 



and has been the subject of discussion 
among many nurses across the country. 
As a result of this widespread inter- 
est, the Committee on Nursing Ser- 
vice began preparation of a guide for 
head nurses. Four years ago, a special 
working party laid its foundation. 
During this biennium, frequent meet- 
ings of another such group completed 
the work. If approved by the Execu- 
tive Committee, it should be available 
to all nurses at the June meeting. 
\Ve hope it will be a valuable tool 
for aU those engaged in the manage- 
ment of a nursing unit. 
Home care programs, with their 
implications for nursing, have also 
received the attention of our com- 
mittee. These are organized programs, 
with centralized responsibility for the 
administration and coordination of ser- 
vices to patients in their homes, which 
make provision for at least the mini- 
mum of medical, nursing and social 
services. Such programs may be hos- 
pital centered or community centered. 
Both types are found in Canada and 
the United States. 
Historically, physicians have always 
provided care in the patient's home. 
Allied services have not always been 
available. In spite of attempts to give 
"comprehensive nursing care" which 
would embrace provision for aU needs 
of the patient, such care is usuaUy li- 
mited to that given within hospital 
waUs. In a visiting nursing program, 
it is again confined to available facili- 
ties. Organized home care would at- 
tempt to bridge the gap by bringing 


together all forces, in a coordinated 
fashion, on behalf of the patient ill at 
home, thus extending the facilities of 
the hospital for such continuous care 
and for maximum rehabilitation. 
\\'hether the responsibility for integra- 
tion is hospital based or community 
ba
ed, selectivity of patients is essen- 
tia1. It cannot be considered a substi- 
tute for inpatient facilities; patients 
should be placed on home care only 
when home care best meets their needs. 
It is necessary that those responsible 
for administration of the program, as 
well as the patient and the family, are 
jointly prepared to meet the needs of 
the patient. 
Such a plan adds to the growing 
conviction that the hospital is a com- 
munity service rather than a separate 
entity for the isolation of disease. It 
carries the implication that those who 
work in hospitals may have need to 
reconsider their role as members of 
the communi tv in which thev live. 
It is evident that the concept of nurs- 
ing is broadening in response to the 
social changes occurring in our midst. 
The fact that hon'e care plans under 
both these patterns have been inaugur- 
ated in certain areas of Canada and 
are under active consideration in 
others, should lead aU nurses to re- 
view their activities as citizens as wel1 
as nurses. 


SISTER lVfARY FELICIT AS, 
Chairman 
CNA Committee on Xursing 
Service 


Dr. Casimir Grabowski, assistant profes- 
sor of anatomy, University of Pittsburgh 
School of Medicine is investigating the ef- 
fects that oxygen deficiency may have in 
producing congenital defects in the develop- 
ing embryo. It is known that oxyge,n defi- 
ciency can produce congenital malformations 
in mice and chick embryos. \Vhen the oxygen 
concentration of the embryo is reduced in 
experimental studi.es gross defects such as 
cleft lip and palate, anomalies of the heart 
and great blood vessels and missing or 
defective extremities are seen to occur. 
Evidence indicates that oxygen deficiency 
will also produce malformations in the human 
embryo. The blood vessels within the em- 


112 


bryo seem to be affected by the lack of 
oxygen and they, in turn, cause more ob- 
vious malformations. 
Dr. Grabowski is systematically studying 
the way in which different periods of oxygen 
deficiency induce congenital malformations 
in the cllick embryo and ways in which the 
effects of the deficiency can be counteracted. 
It is expected that both the amount of the 
deficiency and the stage of embryonic de- 
velopment at which the deficiency occurs 
will be important factors in the type of mal- 
formation which will take place. 
Report, Easter Seal Research Foundation 
* * * 
In uplifting, get underneath. - GFOT
GE ADE 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Diagnosis and llanagenlPlt 
of ldreual Hyprrfunction 


"T. 1. 
IORSE, .:\I.D. 


The study of the comPlexity of endocrine function has long been tl "bug-bear" 
to the student of nursing. The picture of adrenal hyþerfunction 
may become more clear as a result of the following presentation. 


T HE metabolic "yard of the Yictoria 
General Hospital, Halifax, provides 
an example of effective teamwork be- 
tween the physician and nurse. This 
close cooperation is very important 
for the in,'estigation and treatment 
of endocrine and other metabolic dis- 
orders, as I will attempt to show by 
citing two examples of adrenal hyper- 
function. 
Before discussing these patients it 
would be helpful to note briefly the 
changes which may be expected from 
excessi,"e secretion of the three major 
types of adrenal cortical hormones. 
1. H :ydrocortisone is probably the 
most important secretory product of the 
adrenal cortex and has a profound effect 
on the organic metabolism of the body. 
It stimulates the production of sugar 
from protein so that when present in 
excess one might expect an elevated 
blood sugar level. A large protein loss 
\\'ould be manifested by muscular wast- 
ing, weakening of the protein structure 
of bone and changes in the skin. Hy- 
drocortisone also affects the distribution 
of body fat especially that around the 
face and on the trunk. This hormone 
seems to playa vital part in the response 
of the body to all types of stress such 
as injuries and surgical operations. 
2. Another adrenal cortical hormone 
which is essential for health is called 
aldostcronc. :\mong other things this 
hormone controls the amount of salt 
which the body retains under different 
circumstances and for this reason it 
is important in the maintenance of nor- 
mal blood pressure and hydration. 
3. The third group of hormones is 
called adrcnal androgens, but these do 
not seem to be nearly so essential for 
health \Vhen secreted in normal quan- 


Dr. 
[orse is on the staff of the Vic- 
toria General Hospital, Halifax, N.S. 


FEBRUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No. 2 


tities they may be concerned with mus- 
cular development and the formation of 
new tissue. However, the excessive se- 
cretions of these hormones, occasionally 
observed in children or women, brings 
them to the attention of the physician be- 
cause of the masculinizing effect which 
they engender. This effect is recognized 
by premature puberty in the male child 
and by changes in the body build, 
voice and clitoris in the female along 
with hair growth on the face, chest and 
lower abdomen. 
The recognition of an excess or 
deficiency of some of these hormones 
is greatly facilitated by measuring their 
excretion rate or their metabolic pro- 
ducts in the urine. These measure- 
ments can be very useful in evaluating 
adrenal function but only if a complete 
urine collection has been made over 
a carefully timed 24-hour period. If 
the specimen is incomplete because of 
an error on the part of the patient or 
the nurse it must be rejected. Experi- 
ence has shown that specimens will 
be incomplete all too frequently on a 
busy general hospital ward. For this 
reason small metabolic wards have been 
established in many large general hos- 
pitals in order to collect urine and 
stool samples and to perfonn other 
specialized metabolic investigations. 
Chemical analysis of the urine for 
its content of cortisone metabolites 
( 17 -hydroxycorticoids) is made along 
with an analysis for adrenal androgens 
(17 -ketosteroids). The determination 
of aldosterone content in,"olves a much 
more difficult analysis. 
The physician can gain further in- 
formation regarding adrenal function 
by injecting a honnone which stimul- 
ates the adrenals. This is known as 
adrenocorticotrophic hormone 
(ACTH). As might be expected this 
procedure normally increases the 17- 


113 



hydroxycorticoid and I7-ketosteroid 
levels in the urine. ACTH is secreted 
by the normal human pituitary gland 
in small amounts. Other information 
regarding adrenal function can be ob- 
tained by deliberately suppressing the 
pituitary ACTH output by the admin- 
istration of hydrocortisone or one of 
the newer synthetic steroid hormones. 
. If the 17 -ketosteroid excretion fails 
to drop markedly during such a test an 
androgen-secreting tumor of the adren- 
al cortex or the ovary must be sus- 
pected. 
This brief review of adrenal cor- 
tical physiology and the major tests 
for recognizing adrenal cortical dys- 
function may help to clarify certain 
aspects of the following case reports. 


Masculinizing Tumor 
A IS-year-old girl had noticed an 
increase of facial hair one year before 
admission to the metabolic ward. This 
was fo1lowed by a deepening of the 
voice and a tendency to acne. On 
examination, it was noted that there 
was a fairly marked growth of facial 
hair and of coarse hair on the chest 
and abdomen. The clitoris was slightly 
enlarged but internal examination of 
the pelvis showed it was norma1. 
Twenty-four hour urine samples were 
collected and the 17-ketosteroid content 
was definitely increased although the 
17-hydroxycorticoids were normal. She 
received Prednisone (a steroid closely 
related to hydrocortisone) for four days 
with the expectation that the 17-keto- 
steroid excretion would drop markedly. 
In this patient, however, no drop oc- 
curred. This made the presence of an 
adrenal tumor distinctly likely. Special 
x-rays were taken. These showed no de- 
finite abnormality although there was a 
slight suspicion of a mass in the right 
adrenal region. Both adrenal glands 
were subsequently removed by the urolo- 
gical surgeon and although they ap- 
peared normal on gross examination, 
it was considered not improbable that 
they were the source of the excessive 
androgen secretion. The ovaries could 
not be visualized at that time because 
flank incisions were considered necessary 
to get good adrenal gland exposure. 
A few days after this operation the 
urinary excretion of 17-ketosteroids was 
again measured and found to be almost 
identical with the previous high value. 


114 


This clearly indicated that the source 
of her excessive androgens had not been 
removed and that another operation was 
required. A few weeks later the pa- 
tient's ovaries were examined through 
an abdominal incision and a tumor of 
the left ovary was removed. 
During the postoperative period the 
17 -ketosteroid excretion was shown to 
be very low. This proved that the 
tumor had been the source of the ex- 
cessive secretion of masculinizing hur- 
mone. The pathologist felt that this 
tumor had the appearance of adrenal 
tissue - obviously displaced adrenal 
tissue which had undergone neoplastic 
change. The patient has done well since 
her second operation and much of the 
excessive hair growth has now disap- 
peared. 
As a result of the removal of both 
adrenal glands this girl must have a 
smal1 dose of cortisone or some re- 
lated steroid each day in order to sur- 
vive. During the first few days fol- 
lowing both of her operations this 
cortisone was given intramuscularly 
because of the uncertainty of using 
the oral route at that time. The need 
for intramuscular cortisone or intra- 
venous hydrocortisone is increased at 
such times. 
The following incident demonstrates 
the importance of frequent observation 
by the nurse immediately fo1lowing 
bilateral adrenalectomy. Fifteen hours 
fonowing surgery it was noted by the 
nurse that the patient had a pulse rate 
of 140 per minute. The chart of the 
pulse and respirations had been care- 
fully completed and indicated that this 
increase in pulse rate had occurred 
gradually during the previous few 
hours. The wound dressings had been 
checked and indicated no excessive 
blood loss at the site of the drains. 
The physician was notified and a lar- 
ger dose of intravenous hydrocorti- 
sone was prescribed. This was fo1lowed 
by a reduction in pulse rate and gen- 
eral improvement in the patient's con- 
dition. The nurse's role in this incident 
prevented more serious acute adrenal 
insufficiency. 


Bilateral Adrenal Hyperplasia 
A 43-year-old woman was known to 
have had high blood pressure for seven 
years and had sustained a marked 
weight gain with fat accumulation on 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



the trunk and neck during the past 
five years. She complained of weak- 
ness, headaches and had had a cerebral 
vascular accident three months before 
admission. \. growth of coarse hair 
had also become apparent on the face 
during the past five years suggesting 
increased adrenal androgen secretion. 
The blood pressure was 205/125. The 
fasting blood sugar level was increased. 
The distribution of body fat, the 
hypertension and hyperglycemia sug- 
gested Cu<;hing's syndrome although the 
muscle mass and radiological bone evalu- 
ation \\ ere not abnormal. The 24-hour 
Ii -hydroxycorticoid excretion was defi- 
nitey increased. This offered strong sup- 
port for the diagnosis of excessive hy- 
drocortisone secretioll. The 17 -ketoste- 
roids were normal. Following intra- 
venous infusion of ACTH the normally 
e:xpected increase in lí-hydroxycorticoid 
and Ii-ketosteroid levels occurred sug- 
gesting that the adrenal glands were 
hyperplastic rather than the site of a 
steroid-secreting carcinoma. 
Both adrenal glands were exposed 
by tlw urological surgeon and were 
found to be slightly enlarged. Both 
glands were removed resulting in a 
marked drop in the urinary excretion of 
17 -hydroxycorticoids and Ii -ketosteroids. 
The patient now takes a carefully 
determined dose of cortisone and fluo- 
rohydrocortisone each day. She is 
maintaining a normal blood pressure 
and normal blood sugar concentration. 
The excessiye hair growth on her face 
considerably improved. Her weight is 
down from 283 to 226 pounds on a 
reducing diet but this obviously leaves 
much to be desired. 
Cntreated Cushing's syndrome is 
often fatal and these patients stand 
the stress of operation poorly. The 


e
rly postoperative course of this pa- 
tIent will demonstrate the dose co- 
operation required between physician 
and nurse. 
During the first 24 hours after bilateral 
adrenalectomy her systolic blood pressure 
could be maintained above 90 mm. only 
by continuous infusion of noradrenalin. 
A special nurse was assigned through- 
out this period and numerous visits by 
the physician were necessary to adj ust 
fluid and hydrocortisone therapy. Two 
to four days later several episodes of 
dyspnea occurred. One of these episodes 
was due to atelectasis. This \\'as un- 
doubtedly the result of the pain asso- 
ciated with coughing and the obesity 
which made it extremely dillìcult to 
turn the patient. A portable chest x-ray 
was taken which proved of no diagnos- 
tic value. This pointed out the necessity 
of movement by the patient so as to 
clear the atelectasis. Further pulmonary 
collapse was avoided by frequent turn- 
ing by the nurses and by assisting the 
patient during coughing. A few days 
later a severe episode of dyspnea was 
associated with evidence of pulmonary 
embolism. She survived this with the 
help of anticoagulant therapy but a few 
days later it had to be discontinued be- 
cause of bleeding from both incisions. 
This patient illustrates the stormy post- 
operative course which many cases of 
Cushing's syndrome experience. 
The chief purpose in relating the 
above case reports has been to demon- 
strate the team work required hetween 
physician and nurse in patients with 
adrenal hyperfunction. Any large gen- 
eral hospital is wel1 advised to have a 
metabolic "pard staffed bv alert nurses 
with training and experience in the 
highly specialized procedures which 
this type of work in,'olves. 


A 24-page illustrated booklet entitled 
"Home Care of the Child with Rheumatic 
Fever" has been prepared especially for 
parents of youngsters for whom hospital 
treatment is either not advised or not avail- 
able. I t contains practical pointers on home 
nursing techniques and suggestions for deal- 
ing with the psychological and emotional 
problems that are likely to arise when a 
youngster is confined to bed for more than 
a week or two. 


FEBRUARY, 1960. Vol. 56. No. 2 


This new booklet is issued as a companion 
piece to "Have Fun. . Get \Vell" a public- 
ation on recreational activities for the child 
who is confined to bed. Both are published by 
the American Heart Association, 44 East 
23rd St., 
 ew York 10. 
* * * 
I t is notorious that the memory strength- 
ens as you lay burdens upon it, and be- 
comes trustworthy as you trust it. 
- DE QnNCEY 


115 



Sursing Care in jdreual Hypel'fuuutioD 


JOYCE T. ELLIOTT 


Nursing care of the patient with adrenal hyperfunction is interesting and chal- 
lenging. Learning here is truly an ongoing process. 


D GRING the first eight years of its 
existence, our metabolic ward has 
housed a wide variety of patients. They 
come from two sources. Some are re- 
ferred directly by the doctors of the 
metaholic ward staff, others from the 
wards of the main hospital. The latter 
are screened before admission to de- 
termine whether the condition is suit- 
able for the special studies presently 
being done in the unit. 
Diabetics are always on the ward, 
as \vell as patients who require assess- 
ment of thyroid function. Some receive 
radioactive iodine therapy for the 
treatment of hyperthyroidism. It has 
been fascinating to watch their pro- 
gress. There have been many patients 
admitted for observation and adjust- 
ment of replacement therapy fol1owing 
hypophysectomy. This operation is 
done to al1eviate the unhappy state of 
metastatic involvement of the bony 
structure in those who have had car- 
cinoma of the breast. l\Iany patients 
are admitted for assessment of adrenal 
function. 
Shortly after the ward was opened 
a 13-year-old boy was admitted, who 
presented a typical textbook picture 
of Cushing's syndrome. A unilateral 
aclt;enalectomy was perfornled reveal- 
ing a benign adrenal tumor. Jimmv 
was a ,.ery rewarding patient for with- 
in two years he had grown into a 
normal young person. Fat pads no 
longer hid his ears, the buffalo humps 
had disappeared from the back of his 
neck. and there was a marked decrease 
in the striae on the skin of his abdomen 
and extremities. The precocious sex 
interest that had been of such concern 
to his parents, and had been one of the 
main reasons for bringing him to the 
doctor's attention, was now notably 
modified. 
Two years ago a lady was admitted 


),[iss Elliott is on the staff of the 
Victoria General Hospital, Halifax, 
.S. 


116 


who was remarkably cheerful when 
one considered her general appearance. 
She was of medium height, large frame, 
with a total body weight of 283 pounds. 
The obesity was centripetal, sparing 
the limbs, her face was moon-shaped 
and hirsute. There was a buffalo-type 
pad of fat on her back and intertrigo 
beneath both breasts. The mother of 
seven children, five years prior to 
admission she had had a hysterectomy. 
It was during these five years that her 
great weight gain had occurred. Hair 
growth on her chest, pubic area, axil- 
lae and legs had greatly increased. She 
shaved daily and was troubled by acne 
on her face and chest. Other complaints 
were shortness of breath with noctur- 
nal dyspnea, palpitation, frequency and 
nocturia. 
Following a bilateral adrenalectomy 
she was returned to the metabolic ward 
from the hospital recovery room, and 
placed in an oxygen tent. Intravenous 
apparatus was attached to both legs, 
permitting maintenance of blood pres- 
sure over 90 mm. systolic, by alternate 
administration of Solu-cortef and Le- 
vophed. On several occasions when a 
sudden drop in blood pressure occurred 
we had to raise the foot of the bed. 
Immediately postoperatively her urin- 
ary output was small and highly con- 
centrated. There were frequent episodes 
of rapid pulse and respirations with cold 
and clammy skin. Inflamed areas de- 
veloped about the :.ite of the Levophed 
infusion and did not respond well to an 
injection of Rogitine. She had a trouble- 
some cough, pain about the operative 
areas and a definite tendency for the 
skin over the coccyx to break down. 
This was successfully prevented by the 
use of tincture of benzoin. Her oral 
intake \\ as slow in reaching satisfactory 
fluid and caloric amounts. She developed 
a fondness for remaining in the oxygen 
tent longer than the doctors felt was 
warranted. 
Few patients could have presented 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



a more definite picture of discomfort 
after a conscientious struggle had been 
made to make her comfortable. On 
being Questioned she unfailingly stated 
that she did not feel at ea
e. She de- 
\"eloped pain in the right leg which 
proved to be thrombophlebitis. Hot com- 
presses \\'ere applied to both legs and 
eventually to the operative areas. Inabi- 
lity to retain oral cortisone necessitated 
the cuntinuance of the intramuscular 
type. She was also given aminophylline, 
heparin and benadryl. She \\-as able 
to sit up on the side of the bed on the 
ninth postoperative day. There were 
no further complications. 
At regular inten"als this patient has 
returned to the ward for re-as
e
s- 
ment of her requirements for replace- 
ment therapy and for general recheck. 
Several unhappy family incidents have 
continued to complicate her obesity 
problem, and ha,-e perhaps prevented 
a successful re
pon
e to operation. 
The 
econd patient for bilateral 
adrenalectomy \\'as young and weighed 
1-+8 pounds. 


Celiac Disease 


HeBERT Ü'HAXLEY, 1\I.D. 


Her postoperati\'e cours
 \\'as re- 
markably uneventful with the exception 
of the instance that Dr. 
Iorse has de- 
scribed. \Yhile commenting on the dif- 
ference in the progress of the two pa- 
tients, he explained that the boy with 
Cushing's syndrome had a stormy 
course because of the impairment of 
his general health by this condition. 
The third patient returned to nonnal 
oral intake promptly. Oral cortisone 
,,'as started on the second postoperative 
day. The next day she sat up in a 
chair and continued to increase her 
activity daily. She was discharged from 
hospital on the 13th day aft
r operation. 
On re-admi
sion in four weeks she 
said that she felt that she was in much 
better health, but her hir
utism had 
increased. She remained on the unit 
until re-evaluation of her steroid levels 
was completed. 
he was then trans- 
ferred to the main hospital ,,'here a left 
salphingoophorectomy was performed. 

ow, her hirsutism is steadily de- 
creasing and the control of her re- 
placement therapy is very satisfactory. 


There is as yet no satisfactory eot-planation for the de'veloþmcnt of celiac disease. 
H o'ü.'ever, our knowledge of the food factors in'l/olved in its occur- 
rence has increased. This has given us the key to a means of 
control although not of cure. 


f1 ELIAC disea

 is es
entially steator- 
lJ rhea which is the result of malab- 
sorption of fats from the intestinal 
contents due to changes produced in 
the physiological function of the in- 
testinal muco
a In" certain foods in a 
manner as \'et t{ot understood. The 
clinical pictl
re presented by the pa- 
tient ,,-ith this disease ,"aries accord- 
ing to ib se,'erity and duration. :\[any 
children ha,"e only prolonged or re- 
current diarrhea without any significant 
effect on their general grow:h or de- 


Dr. O'Hanley is the head pediatrician 
in the children's department of the 
Charlotteto\n1 Hospital, Charlottetown, 
P.E.I. 


FEBRUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No. 2 


velopment. Others are reduced to a 
state which is characterized In' severe 
cachexia with los:, of mu
cle oand fat, 
a huge protuberant abdomen, marked 
anemia and ,,'eakness, and increased 

usceptibility to infection. The round 
red cheeks of these children in sharp 
contrast to their general emaciation 
i
 an intriguing facet of a disease 
that holds fascination for many who 
are interested in clinical research. 
Diagnosis in the ad,-anced case rarely 
presents difficulty. A history of pro- 
longed diarrhea characterized by grue1- 
like stools and associated with body 
wasting and abdominal distention im- 
mediateh r indicate
 the condition. In 
infancy 0 specific lahoratory examina- 


117 



tions may he necessary to differentiate 
fibrocystic disease of the pancreas from 
celiac disease. These examinations 
have become so accurate and simpli- 
fied that determination of the specific 
disease is no longer very difficult. In 
older children laboratory tests may be 
employed, particularly in those who 
are not 
everely affected, to confirm the 
clinical diagnosis. These tests are based 
on poor absorption of fat so that the 
demonstration of increased amounts of 
fat in the stool remains of prime im- 
portance in diagnosis. 
It has long been known that the 
malabsorption characteristic of celiac 
disease was related in some way to 
particular foods in the diet. For many 
years fats ,,'ere believed to be the of- 
fending agents because of the increased 
amount of fat that appeared in the 
stou1. Then starches were shown to 
be responsible for celiac disease in 
many children. In recent years protein 
in the form of the gluten fraction of 
wheat and rve has been shown to have 
a deleteriou
 effect on the majority of 
celiac patients. \ Yhatever the offend- 
ing component of food, the manner in 
which it produces its ill effect is not 
understood. One researcher stated that 
very careful examination of the gas- 
trointestinal tract at autopsy failed to 
reveal any abnormal histology. In re- 
cent years many attempts have been 
made to demonstrate abnormal patho- 
logy in celiac disease but as yet no 
definite correlation has been establish- 
ed. The pathophysiology of celiac 
disease remains unsolved. 
The complications of celiac dis- 
ease m addition to body wasting and 
general debility include a number of 
specific deficiencies related to the loss 
of fat in the stools. The fat soluble 
vitamins are excreted in large amounts 
anò the patient may show lack of 
vitamin D and vitamin K especially. 
Concurrent with vitamin D deficiency 
is the loss of large amounts of cal- 


cium in the stool. Rickets and tetany 
are therefore frequently associated with 
prolonged celiac disease. Anemia is 
often marked. Plasma proteins may be 
reduced sufficiently to lead to edema. 
The general debilitated state makes 
these patients very vulnerable to in- 
fection and recurrent episodes are 
common. 
The treatment of celiac disease may 
be simple or complicated. If gluten is 
the offending food, a gluten-free diet 
results in dramatic improvement in 
the child's health and remission of 
the disease complex. On occasion 
when a gluten-free diet does not have 
the expected results, other fonus of 
dietary management are necessary. 
Sometimes considerable difficulty is 
encountered in selecting the proper 
foods for elimination. Starches in par- 
ticular need careful evaluation in the 
diet of a child who does not respond 
to gluten-free foods. It also appears 
that fat may, on occasion, be the diet- 
ary factor needing restriction. 
The essential thing is to achieve a 
diet that the child can tolerate and 
which also provides him with adequate 
intake for proper growth and develop- 
ment. His diet should be palatable, 
especiaI1y if marked anorexia charac- 
terizes his iI1ness. Additional amounts 
of water-soluble vitamins are neces- 
sary adjuncts and calcium should be 
supplied generously. Anemia, if pre- 
sent, requires specific therapy. To bring 
a child from cachexia to robust health 
may require many months of control- 
led treatment. \i\1hen this happy result 
is achieved, it may be inadvertently 
lost by reverting to a normal diet. This 
happens when the parents believe the 
child to be cured and no longer in 
need of restriction of diet after he has 
been clinically well for months. It is 
very important that the parents should 
be educated to realize that celiac dis- 
ease is never cured but only held in 
remission by dietary control. 


Those who have lost an infant are never, 
as it were, without an infant child. They 
are the only persons who, in one sense, 
retain it always. -LEIGH HUNT 
* * * 
Has any reader ever found perfect accur- 


118 


acy in any newspaper account of any event 
of which he himself had inside knowledge? 
- EDWARD LUCAS 
* * * 
To him who is in fear, everything rustles. 
- SOCRATES 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



The Crliau Child's Diet 


SISTER JOAN l\IARY, C.S.
I., 
I.A. 


Raising a child who has celiac disease presents subtle problems Keep'ing to a 
rigid diet involves more for the mother than tire mere exclusion 
of certain foods. 


O VER a period of years numerous 
dietary plans have been proposed 
and used in the treatment of children 
with celiac disease. Invariably they 
depended on the elimination or restric- 
tion of starches and fats. Since 1950 
one of the causes of celiac disease has 
been attributed to an intolerance to 
gluten (or gliaden) in wheat and rye 
with the starch fraction considered 
harmless. l\lany patients have respond- 
ed to a gluten-free diet. However, a 
few still fail to thrive satisfactorily on 
this diet and require restriction of other 
foods such as potatoes, fats and foods 
high in residue. 
The exclusion of wheat and rye 
flour eliminates bread, cake, pastry, 
gravy and soups thickened with flour, 
together with buns, biscuits, and other 
foods. Celiac patients react only to 
the protein in wheat (gluten) and can 
take wheat starch without harmful ef- 
fects. Gluten is separated from wheat 
on a commercial basis and the product 
- pure wheat starch - can be readily 
obtained. It costs only slightly more 
than ordinary flour, and is used as a 
substitute. The bread, though quite 
palatable, is less easy to make than 
ordinary bread. It is crumbly and 
heavier because of the lack of the 
dough-making property of gluten. An- 
gel cake and cookies can also he made 
with this flour. 
The gluten-free diet is not difficult 
to give at home. The main problem 
is the presence of smaIl quantities of 
wheat flour in a wide range of manu- 
factured products not clearly of wheat 
origin, for example: ice cream, canned 
cream soups, canned meats, packaged 


Sister Joan Mary, a staff member 
at Gharlottetown Hospital, P.E.I., has 
recently completed the requirements for 
her master's degree at University of 
St. Louis, Mo. Her graduation thesis 
was on this topic. 


FEBRUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No. 2 


puddings, mayonnaIse, macaroni and 
spaghetti, as well as other foods of 
unknown origin. One child had a re- 
currence of symptoms by eating one 
serving of canned meat. The parents 
should have a list of the foods the 
child has to avoid as well as of those 
allowed. Apart from the total exclusion 
of wheat and rye gluten, the diet in 
many cases is normal. 
Obviously, the cooperation of the 
parents is essential in caring for the 
celiac child. They must be persuaded 
to adhere to the diet rigidly as even 
a small amount of gluten is enough to 
bring on a recurrence of symptoms. 
One mother in speaking of her celiac 
child stated "If he ate the crumbs from 
the carving board, when I was cutting 
the home-made bread it was enough 
to bring on diarrhea." 
Getting the child to accept a diet 
free from gluten requires weeks of un- 
limited patience and persuasion. All 
children as soon as they become con- 
scious of the actions of 
dults and 
other children tend to imitate them. 
Consequently, they not only want to 
eat what they see adults eating but 
demand foods other children ask for, 
such as bread, cake and ice cream. One 
mother reported solving this problem 
by substituting those foods with lolli- 
pops and sherbet. Her child could eat 
both without difficulty and did not 
feel deprived of all sweets. 
The parents' emotional attitude to 
the vv'ord diet has a great deal to do 
with their willingness to see that the 
diet order is carried out on an individ- 
ual basis within prescribed limitations. 
Their psychological reaction will mir- 
ror the habitual pattern of response of 
the individual child. It must be remem- 
hered also that the appearance of food 
has a psychological effect on the celiac 
child as it has on anyone. Everyone 
seems to relish food which is attractive- 
ly prepared and served on colorful 


119 



dishes with an added garnish. Pleasant 
surroundings and cheerful company 
wiI1 do much to win the cooperation 
of the older child in accepting the foods 
aI1o\\'ed on the diet. 
Dietan' restriction mav cause feel- 
ings of e
nbarrassl11ent in 
a celiac child 
who cannot accept foods others enjoy. 
The need for special foods along with 
some restriction of his activity, fur- 
ther contributes toward making a child 
feel different. To a\'oid unpleasant 
situations it may be helpful to limit 
parties. In this way the child is not 
faced \\"ith a variety of foods he can- 
not ha\'e and fatigue is also avoided 
by not partaking in play that causes 
over-exertion. 
Social difficulties are also existent 
in carrying out the diet. One is that 
of ensuring a gluten-free lunch for a 
child who HlUst take his lunch to 
schoo1. 
The foI1owing recipes are made with 
gluten-free flour: 
Glllten-free Loaf 
I Y8 cups gluten-free flour 
4 tablespoons sugar 
4 tablespoons butter or margarine 
4 teaspoons baking powder 
milk as required 


Diabrtes Mellitus 


G. GREA\'ES and ELIZABETH \YARD 


Sift dry ingredients into a bowl Rub 
in butter. 
Iix in enough milk to make 
a batter consistency. Mix lightly and 
pour into a greased tin. Bake in a Quick 
oven for 10 minutes. Then reduce to a 
moderate heat for a further 30 minutes. 


Angel Cake 


4 eggs 
M cups sugar (white) 
y;; teaspoon vanilla 
M cups sifted flour (gluten-free) 
1 teaspoon baking powder 

 teaspoon salt 
2 teaspoons lemon juice 
Place mixing bowl O\'er pan of hot 
water. .\dd eggs and sugar; beat until 
mixture is lukewarm. Remove from heat, 
then beat until the mixture resembles 
whipperl cream. Add vanilla. Cool. Sift 
flour or wheat starch, then add baking 
powder and salt; sift again. Gradually 
fold dry ingredients into egg mixture, 
using spoon or wire whisk. Fold in lemon 
juice. Gently poor into ungreased pan 
- (9-inch tub
 pan). Bake in 350 0 F. 
oven 35-40 minutes, or until cake springs 
back \\.hen lightly touched with finger. 
Invert on rack 1 hour. Loosen sides 
of cake with a spatula; remove from 
pan. 


Prcscription for the diabetic - fill/life or mere existcncc? To Hnderstand is to 
co pc, to fear is to fail. 


D IABETES meI1itus is a chronic dis- 
ease of metaboli
m associated with 
an insufficient supply of insulin. Se- 
creted In' the beta celIs of the duct- 
less glan
ds of the pancreas or islands 
of Langerhans, insulin is necessary for 
the metaLolism of carhohydrates and 
therefore for fat metabolisn;. 
The first step in carhohydrate me- 
tabolism is the c011\'ersion of the glu- 
cose that is not needed for immediate 


The' authors are graduates of the 
Royal Columbian Hospital, New \Ycst- 
minster, B.C. 


120 


energy, into glycogen so that it may 
be put into temporary storage. For this 
conversion to take place the glucose 
must be transported through the cell 
memhrane; one theory \\"idely held to- 
dav indicates that in
ulin in some way 
promotes this transportation. The prO'- 
cess of conversion, calIed gl}'cogenesis 
takes place largely in liver cells. It is 
to he no:ed that diabetic patients have 
very little liver glycogen. 
The second step is glycogcllol}'sÎs, 
the opposite of glycogenesis, is the 
reconversion of glycogen to glucose 
and its transportation out\\'ard through 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



the cel'l membrane. Insulin appears to 
be necessary for glycogenolysis alsu. 
Two other substances influence this 
process, both by stimulation of it. 
They are: epinephrine which is present 
in excess amounts during times of 
stress, and the hyperglycemic factor, 
glucagon from the alpha cells of the 
islands of Langerhans. 
Insulin and thyroid hormone both 
exert control ove
 the rate of carbo- 
hydrate catabolism - insulin because 
it promotes glucose transport into celIs 
so that it is available for oxidation 
and thyroid because it accelerates the 
oxidation reaction. 
Insufficiency of insulin may be due 
to fibrosis of the islands of Langer- 
hans or an actual decrease in the num- 
ber of these structures. 


Incidence and Prevention 
Diabetes is chiefly a disease of older 
people, the incidence increasing stead- 
ily with age and reaching a peak bet- 
ween the years of 65 and 75. The 
incidence of diabetes is increasing for 
three reasons: 
1. Diabetics live so much longer now 
that the disease may be controlled. 
2, Diabetics are having so much more 
children. 
3. The average duration of life of the 
entire population is lengthening. 
Diabetes is hereditary, with one 
person in four inheriting the tendency. 
A diabetic should therefore not marry 
another diabetic and should avoid mar- 
rying into a diabetic family. The older 
the age of the patient when diabetes 
is diagnosed the milder the disease will 
be. 
The disease is more common in 
people who are overweight. Above the 
age of 30, 80 to 90 per cent of poten- 
tial diabetics are overweight before 
they develop the disease. The mother 
who gives birth to an infant weighing 
12 pounds or more stands a 100 per 
cent chance of later becoming a diabetic 
herself . 


Diagnosis and Management 
The onset of diabetes is usualIy 
insidious. The patient may experience 
no symptoms whatsoever or he may 
report any or alI of the classical triad: 
polyphagia, polyuria, polydipsia. There 
may be an accompanying weight-loss, 
weakness, drowsiness, vague aches and 


FEBRUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No, 2 


pains, dryness of the skin and mucous 
membrane. The diagnosis is usualIy 
made on the findings of hyperglycemia 
and glycosuria. The objectives of 
management are as folIows : 
1. To compensate for the metabolic 
insufficiency by the administration of 
insulin, or an oral hypoglycemic agent, 
by diet or by a combination of drugs 
and diet. 
2. To attain and maintain an ideal 
body weight. 
3. To prevent complications. 
The following two nursing care 
studies iHustrate the wav in which 
these objectives were met for indivi- 
dual patients, at different stages of 
their diabetes. 


Infection as a Complication 
of Diabetes 
The Patient 
:\[r. Thomas was admitted to hospital 
with a diagnosis of "diabetes out of 
balance." He was a 39-year-old man 
who had lost a great deal of weight 
over the past few months. Despite the 
fact that he was very uncomfortable, 
he was cheerful. He had a wonderful 
outlook on life. 
The fact that he was a diabetic had 
changed his way of life very little and 
the special care that he had to take 
because of his illness fitted in naturally 
to his daily living. He told me that he 
follows his diet carefully and when he 
goes out to dinner, either he or his wife 
supervise the type and quantity of food 
served to him. Fortunately his diet has 
not been too much of a hardship for him 
as he does not like sweet things. He 
feels that this is nature's way of keep- 
ing him from eating high caloric foods_ 
Occasionally he uses saccharin in his. 
tea or coffee. 
He did not recall ever having experi- 
enced diabetic coma, but occasionally 
when he had had too much exercise he' 
had experienced mild shock He carries 
lumps of sugar at all times, to be taken 
if he feels weak or begins to perspire 
freely. He has thus prevented serious 
insulin shock, but is aware that this 
may occur and therefore carries a 
diabetic identification card. 
He has been very careful to rotate 
the sites of injection and no lumps 
appears on his arms or legs. He also 
realizes that special care to his feet is 
essential. 


121 



In order to understand his illness 
more fully Mr. Thomas has read several 
books on diabetes mellitus, and while 
in hospital never passed up an opportu- 
nity to learn more about his condition. 
During my conversations with him he 
told me that there was a history of 
diabetes in his family. Although his 
father did not have the disease, some 
of his father's brothers and sisters did. 
Mr. Thomas has six children including 
t \vo sets of twins. His eldest child is 
a daughter of }4, The children are 
checked cvery six months by the family 
physician. Both he and his wife, who 
also thoroughly understands the disease, 
are watchful for signs and symptoms 
in their children. 
Past History 
This i
 the fifth time that Mr. Thomas 
has been hospitalized for control of his 
diabetcs. \\'hen the condition was first 
diagnoscd it was regulated with dict. 
After losing 40 pounds he remained free 
of glycosuria for six months, but there- 
after it was necessary for him to take 
protamine zinc insulin. Two years later 
he camc to hospital because of painful 
swelling of hoth legs, which was attri- 
huted to thrombophlebitis. He improved 
with treatment only to return the fol- 
lo\ving year \\ ith an infected ulcer on 
his right leg. A culture isolated Staphy- 
lococcus þ}IogCllcs. Five days later he 
was discharged to be treated further 
a t home. 
Prcscnt Illncss 
)'Ir. Thomas suddenly developed diar- 
rhea. It lasted for about three days and 
\",as followed by an attack of "in- 
fluenza." Before he was completely well 
again he developed moderately severe 
pain in the region of the right ischial 
tuberosity. The pain came in spasms, 
was not relicved by aspirin and only 
partially relieved by the application of 
heat, Two weeks later he was admitted. 
\Vhen the doctor talked to 
lr. 
Thomas he discovered that the patient 
had visited his mother in California 
the year before bccause she had become 
ill with pulmonary tuberculosis. A chest 
x-ray was taken which proved negative. 
An intradermal tuberculin test was done 
using strength 1 :10,000. The results were 
suspicious so another was done with 
strength 1: 1000. This test proved neg- 
ative. An x-ray of his right hip showed 
no definite lesion but his elevated sedi- 
mentation rate and white blood count 


122 


and a temperature which remained bet- 
ween 100 0 and 102 0 F, indicated a hid- 
den infection. 
The white blood count normal is 
5,000 - 9,000. On admission it was 
14,700, ten days later 21,450. Sedimenta- 
tion rate normal is 0-10 per hour. Mr. 
Thomas' was 105 per hour on admission 
and remained high. 
A diagnosis of rectal abscess proved 
negative on sigmoidoscopic examination. 
The final diagnosis was "diabetes with 
severe infection of unknown etiology 
or site." 
Medication and Treatment 
The infection caused Mr. Thomas' 
diabetes to be "thrown out of balance." 
His Clinitest read + 4. His fasting 
blood sugar was as high as 257 per cu. 
mm. of blood, normal bcing 80-120. On 
admission he was givcn a 3.000-calorie 
diet and 50 units of protamine zinc 
insulin once daily. (This is a long- 
acting insulin with onset of action in 
4 - 6 hours, duration 24 - 36 hours.) 
As his Clinitest continued to be + 4 
he was given a 2
00-calories diet and 
55 units of isophane insulin (N.P.H.) 
(This type of insulin is madc from zinc 
insulin crystals modified by protamine. 
It acts within 1 - 2 hours and lasts for 
28 - 30 hours.) Repeated Clinitests in- 
dicated + 4 with the Acitest strongly 
positive. Protamine zinc insulin was 
tried again, 80 units daily, but it did 
not bring the diabetes under control. 
He was then given 35 units of plain 
insulin q. 6. h. For the first time during 
his hospitalization his Clinitest dropped 
to + 1. (Plain insulin, also known as 
unmodified or crystalline, is short-acting 
with an onset of 20 - 30 minutes and 
a duration of 6 - 8 hours.) Some time 
later )'fr. Thomas was changed to pro- 
tamine zinc insulin, 70 units daily. As 
the infection suhsided the amount of 
insulin his body required decreased. On 
discharge he was receiving 45 units of 
PZI. His Clinitest and Acitest both 
remained negative. 
The pain in Mr. Thomas' hip became 
almost unbearable at times. It was not 
relieved by acetophen compound with 
codeine gr. 
, so he was given 
Demerol 100 mg. q.3.h. p.r,n. (Dem- 
erol, or meperidine hydrochloride, re- 
sembles codeine in its analgesic qualities. 
I t is not as potent a hypnotic as mor- 
phine.) It only partially relieved the 
pain. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Until the infection disappeared the 
diabetes was almost impossible to control. 

Ir. Thomas was givcn chloromycetin 
500 mg. q.i.d. for five days. It had ap- 
parently done nothing to control the 
infection and was discontinu'ed because 
the doctor felt that an antibiotic might 
prevent the abscess from "coming to a 
head." Six days later, the patient was 
given Signemycin 500 mg. q.i.d. (This 
is a broad-spectrum anti-microbial com- 
bination of oxytetracyIine and oleando- 
mycin.) After 11 days of administra- 
tion his temperature returned to normal. 
Seven days later when it was discon- 
tinued his temperature remained normal. 
Hot compresses did not relieve the 
pain, and although 1Ir. Thomas gained 
some relief while he was in a hot bath 
the effort of getting in and out of hi
 
bed and the tub was exhausting. For 
this reason he refused the haths more 
often than he accepted them. 
Nursing Care 

Ir. Thomas had been a diabetic for 
quite a few years and knew a great 
deal about his condition. He was very 
aware of the importance of caring for 
his feet. Each day they were washed 
with warm soapy water, dried carefully 
and rubbed with cocoa butter. 
Because of pain and a general feeling 
of malaise, it was sometimes impossible 
for Mr. Thomas to eat his meals. The 
missing calories were made up with 
juices. Sometimes he had to be coaxed 
to take them. 
One afternoon he stated that he felt 
weak. His skin was grey and moist, 
he was drowsy and very apprehensive. 
His pulse was 120 and full. He was 
immediately given a glass of orange 
juice containing three teaspoonfuls of 
sugar. Insulin shock was prevented but 
this incident proved that although his 
CIinitest was + 4 it was possible for 
him to have an insulin reaction. 
Mr. Thomas' blood sugar was high 
so it was necessary to watch for dia- 
betic acidosis. Fortunately it did not 
occur. 
During Mr. Thomas' hospitalization 
there was an influenza epidemic in the 
city. The hospital was closed to visitors, 
so he was very lonely for his wife and 
family. At times when his morale was 
very low, I made a point of staying 
near him to chat about his family. 
Rehabilitation 
Mr. Thomas needed no new teaching. 


FEBRUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No, 2 


The lessons he learned from the doc- 
tors and nurses by their actions and 
discussions with him served to reinforce 
his knowledge of the disease and to 
reassure him that he was caring for 
himself in the best way possible. The 
present illness emphasized for my pa- 
tient and for me, the importance of the 
prevention of infections in the diabetic 
patient. 


The Problem of Diabetic 
Control 
The Patient as a Person 
lIr. Henry, aged 43, had his own 
business as a plaster contractor, Six 
years ago he decided he would like 
to engage in some work where he could 
be of greater service to his fellowmen. 
Despite the fact he had had only grade 
X schooling, he enrolled in a h\ o-year 
course in psychiatric nursing, Com- 
pleting this preparation he has been 
employed as a psychiatric nurse up 
to the time of his present hospitalization. 
Past History 
Mr. Henry's diabetes had been diag- 
nosed five years earlier when he was 
admitted to hospital for a hemorrhoi- 
dectomy. Twenty minutes prior to the 
operation a 2 + sugar was discovered. 
An immediate repeat urinalysis show- 
ed only a trace of sugar since the pa- 
tient had had no breakfast. His fasting 
blood sugar was 180 mg. per cent, nor- 
mal 80 - 120 mg. per cent. Despite these 
factors the operation was performed, 
His postoperative course was satisfac- 
tory. 
Mr. Henry recalled that there had 
been an increase in his urinary volume 
and fluid intake in the past year. He 
had also noticed that he was more dia- 
phoretic on less exertion. He was dis- 
charged on five units of crystalline 
insulin twice a day and a diabetic diet 
of 2000 calories. The doctor's objective 
was "to carry the patient on the mini- 
mum requirement of regular insulin and 
diet; with a view to discontinuing the 
insulin if possible." For the next two 
years there was little trouble controlling 
the disease due to the patient's intel- 
ligent care of himself, He read many 
books and articles on the subject of 
diabetes and, because of his training, 
thoroughly understood his condition, 
Four years ago when he was ad- 
mitted for dental' surgery, the doctor 
decided to reassess :Mr. Henry's diabetes. 


123 



On admission his fasting blood sugar 
was 188 mg. per cent. After breakfast 
it was 460 mg. per cent. Postoperatively 
he received crystalline insulin and in- 
travenous glucose. During his hospital 
stay eÀperimentation was made with 
isophane insulin (XPH) but this did 
not control the diabetes properly. He 
was discharged on a regulation dose of 
45 units of protamine zinc insulin and 
a 2500-calorie diet. At this time his 
urine varied from a 3 + to 4 + Clinitest 
with a negative acetone. 
Prescnt Illlless 
Early last fall, lIr. Henry began to 
have trouble controlling his diabetes. 
He had his blood sugar tested once a 
week and the results were usually above 
normal. His diet had been increased to 
2íOO calories. His dosage of insulin 
\vas increased by 20 units so that he 
was receiving 65 units of PZI a day. 
Ht noticed that he was drinking ex- 
cessive amounts of water. He kept a 
jug of water at his bedside at night 
because his mouth "began to feel like 
parchment." Because of the excessive 
fluid intake, he had abdominal cramps 
which increased in severity as the po- 
lydipsia became worse. A gastric analy- 
sis was done to rule out the possibility 
of an ulcer. The results showed that he 
had only a minute amount of gastric 
juice. He was given hydrochloric acid 
to take before each meal. At this time 
his Clinitests showed a positive reaction 
most of the time. He had made a 
practice of testing his urine three times 
a week when his diabetes was regulated, 
and three times a day if there were 
any positive Clinitests. Besides the 65 
units of PZI once daily he took 5 
units of crystalIine for every 3 + Cli- 
nitest and 10 units for every 4 +. The 
severity of his diabetes increased until 
he was taking as much as 20 to 30 
extra units of insulin a day. A month 
before his admission to hospital, Mr, 
Henry had two slight insulin reactions. 
His blood sugar was consistently high 
and he was having no negative Cli- 
nitests. It was in this condition that 
he was admitted. 
He adjusted very quickly to the 
hospital routine and at the end of the 
first evening was chatting companionably 
with the other patients in the ward 
Because the doctor had asked him to 
be up and about, he passed the time 
by walking around the ward and getting 


124 


acquainted \vith the other patients, After 
two days, when he felt more "at home," 
he began helping with jobs around the 
ward. Towards the end of his hospital 
stay he was allowed to do the CIinitests 
for himself as well as for other diabetic 
patients. 
On admission 1rr. Henry's temper- 
ature was 98 0 F., his pulse ,vas 72, 
regular and of good quality and his 
respirations were 20. Four hours later 
he had an insulin reaction for which 
orange juice was given with good ef- 
fect. 
An 1800-calorie diet was ordered. 
After having had a 2700-calorie diet 
it was learned that he was very hungry. 
He had been used to eating in the even- 
ings at home so arrangements were made 
with the diet kitchen to provide him 
with evening nourishment. 
The chest x-ray showed no evidence 
of a parenchymatous lesion but the 
hilar shadows and lung markings were 
heavy. 
His fasting blood sugar was 346 
mg. per cent on his first morning in 
hospital. From this initial high it grad- 
ually lowered until at the time of his 
discharge two weeks later it was down 
to 123 mg. per cent. 
On the fourth day of hospitalization 
his insulin was increased to 20 units 
before every meal, three times a day. 
He was weighed and it was found 
that he had lost 17 pounds in three 
months. He had a slight insulin reaction 
for which two glasses of orange juice 
with added sugar were given with good 
effect. He describeð the symptoms of 
his reaction as a "tingling" feeling in 
the tips of his fingers, a "hollow sensa- 
tion in his stomach" and diaphoresis, 
His Clinitests were still positive for 
sugar. 
During his sixth hospital day, 
Ir. 
Henry experienced three reactions, one 
in the early afternoon, the second in 
the late afternoon and the third in the 
evening. He was given four ounces of 
orange juice and one teaspoon of sugar, 
each time. The patient was nervous, 
tense and unable to sleep in the early 
part of the evening. At midnight a 
sedative was given and he slept well. 
Before breakfast the following morn- 
ing the doctor was notified of the pre- 
vious day's happenings. He decreased 
the insulin to 15 units before breakfast. 
Later it was reduced to 15 units before 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



dinner and supper with 20 units before 
breakfast. The diet was increased to 
2100 calories, the extra calories to be 
di\'ided between breakfast and supper. 
The patient had one more reaction. Mr. 
Henry stated that these reactions were 
much more severe than any he had had 
previously. 
Two days later, the crystalline insulin 
was adjusted as follows: before break- 
fast 20 units; before lunch 15 units; 
before supper 10 units. lIr. Henry had 
two more slight reactions. On the ninth 
day his insulin was changed to 45 units 
of 
PH once daily before breakfast. 
On the eleventh day. his diet was in- 
creased to 2300 calories. As the mid- 
afternoon and evening are the times 
during which reactions may occur when 
N PH is being used, the extra 200 ca- 
lories were divided between dinner and 
the evening nourishment. His Clinitests 
were no\\' negative almost every time 
and his blood sugar was 123 mg. per 
cent. Thc diabetes seemed to come under 
control once the patient was started on 
a course of 
PH insulin, 
He was instructed to continue with 


Ju\renile Diabetes 


SJSTFR 
\IARIE DE ST. 1IARC 


his 2300-calorie diet and 45 units of 
NPH insulin once daily at home. 
Teaching 
No specific teaching was required as 
the patient understood the problems of 
diabetics. Mr. Henry had mentioned 
that he had been having trouble with 
his eyes. He noticed that when reading 
for moderate lengths of time his vision 
had begun to blur. Because of the in- 
cidence of diabetic retinitis, it was sug- 
gested that he visit an ophthalmologist 
as soon as possible. 


SUI11111ary 
I t can readily be seen from these 
two nursing care studies that the dia- 
betic patient can lead a happy and pro- 
ductive life. Both patients had a good 
understanding of their condition and 
a positive attitude toward the disea5e 
despite frequent hospitalizations. They 
have learned to cope with an incurable 
disease and how to prevent complica- 
tions. These studies may make helpful 
reading for the new diabetic who is 
frightened or the old diabetic who is 
discouraged. 


A student nurse teaches a new diabetic about her disease and its control. 


Y YOXKE, a girl of 17, came to hos- 
pital. The second oldest in a family 
of ten, she was orphaned at 14, and 
hecame the mother of the house. 
One could notice the early maturity. 
Her flushed appearance and nervous 
gestures were indicative of extreme 
fatigue. Her temperature was 99 0 F, 
pulse 88, respirations 24, blood pres- 
sure 112/60 and weight 102 pounds. 
She complained of symptoms which 
exactly characterize those of the diabe- 
tic: a sensation of hunger, excessive 
thirst, blurred vision, frequent large 
amounts of urine, loss of energy and 


Sister :Mari(' rl
 St. Marc was a stu- 
dent at the Hôtel Dieu Hospital in 

J ontr('al wh
n this paper was written. 


FEBRUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No. 2 


weight, general malaise, etc. The details 
were carefully charted. After a careful 
examination, the doctor wrote emer- 
gency orders and asked to be caIled as 
soon as the reports came back. 
After receiving the reports the doc- 
tor visited Yvonne again. He told 
her that she was diabetic, that she 
would have to be on a strict diet and 
take insulin injections. He told her 
that if she cooperated he would soon 
have the illness under control. She 
had nothing to worry about, the prog- 
nosis was excellent especially because 
she was an intelligent patient who 
would cooperate with her doctor. Be- 
fore departing he asked the nurse to 
be responsible for teaching this young 
girl about her illness. 


125 



Doctor's orders: 
Blood sugar daily 
Save all urine 
CIinitest q.i.d. 
Acitest q.i.d. 
Measured diet 
Crystalline insulin before meals as fol- 
lows: 


sugar Ï1
 urille 
2 + 
10+ 
1 + 
0-
+ 
N.P_H. insulin 


insulin 
16 units 
8 uni ts 
6 units 
4 units 
10 uni ts every morning. 


N .P.H. insulin has an onset of ac- 
tion of two hours and duration of 
18-24 hours. It aids greatly in the 
control of diabetes. 
The next day before lunch, Yvonne 
had a visit from her family. I noticed 
that they brought her a lovely box 
of chocolates. A difficult battle was 
being waged within the patient. A 
conflict arose between her desire to 
satisfy her tastes and her desire to 
control her diabetes. She told herself 
it was hopeless to have to foHow a diet 
all her life. I explained to her that 
diabetes in itself was not serious but 
that there are complications. I ex- 
plained them to her as simply as pos- 
sible. Nothing more was necessary to 
convince my patient that she must, 
at an costs, be faithful to the insulin 
and the diet. 
The patient learned that diabetes 
is due to an insufficiency of the se- 
cretion of insulin from the pancreas. 
This insufficiency causes metabolic dis- 
turbances. Too much sugar is liberated 
fr<?m the liver and so it appears in the 
urme. 
Further education of the patient in- 
cluded teaching her how to use Clini- 
test. The method employed is: 
mix five drops of urine and ten drops 
of water in a test tube. A Clinitest 
tablet is then added and you wait until 
the boiling has ccased. The color is 
then compared to the color chart and 
insulin given according to the results. 
The Acitest is even more simple. A bit 
of powder, abuut the size of a pea, is 
put on a piece of white paper and 
two drops of urine are added to it, with 
an eye dropper. With the help of a color 
chart the presence or lack of acetone 
can be determined. 
Soon, Yvonne was aþle to ca

y out 


126 


her tests without supervision. The 24- 
hour specimen permitted determination 
of total output and the total amount 
of sugar during the same time. The 
blood sugar determines the level of 
sugar in the blood. Acetone indicates 
the presence of toxic acids. Insulin 
controls the blood sugar. 
As the days passed, this young 
girl became the object of frequent 
and attentive visits by her doctor, in 
whom she placed complete confidence. 
She had faith in his orders and with 
the cooperation of her nurse carried 
them out to the letter. 
During the first few days there was 
little change in the tests, After five 
days there was marked improvement 
in her heal th, a drop in her blood 
sugar and the quantity of sugar in her 
urine. In two weeks the diabetes was 
under control. The doctor told her 
that she could be discharged as soon 
as she could give her own injections. 
That was aU she needed to make her 
decision. All that remained to do was 
to teach her to prepare her in j ec- 
tions of insulin. 
I explained how the syringe was 
marked . . . 40 units and 80 units. I 
emphasized the importance of checking 
the concentration on the bottle and using 
the corresponding scale on the syringe. 
Sterilize the top of the bottle with 
alcohol. Draw into the syringue the 
same amount of air as the insulin pre- 
scribed. Shake the bottle then force 
the air from the syringe into it. With- 
draw the number of units required, 
checking again carefully. Clean the skin 
on the arm or the anterior surface of 
the thigh with alcohol, being careful 
not to inject it too closely to former 
sites. 
The patient was soon able to give 
herself injections with ease. She learn- 
ed to sterilize the syringe by boiling 
it for ten minutes, then wrapping it 
in a sterile wrapper. 
I advised my patient to take ex- 
treme care of the skin of her feet, to 
take a warm bath daily and to dry 
weU between her toes; to be careful 
not to cut her toe nails too short; never 
to touch corns, and to prevent them by 
wearing shoes that are not too tight; 
to avoid injuries, and treat them im- 
mediatelv thev occur; above an, never 
to forget- to taÍ<e her insulin. 
The doctor gave Yvonne a diabetic 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



identification card with instructions 
always to carrv it. It read as follows: 
( am a diabetic and take insulin. If 
anyone finds me ill, uncon"scious or be- 
having in a strange manner, put a cube 
of sugar or a candy between my teeth 
or make me drink a glass of orange 
juice slowly. If, within 15 minutes I 
am not better, take me to the nearest 
hospital or notify my doctor. 


Yon :\re "That Yon Eat 


DOROTHY COMEAU 


My name is ., ., ,. Tel. _. _ . . . 
l\ddress ........................ 
My doctor is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Address. .. .. .. .. .. . . '" Tel. .... 
She was also given a diet sheet. 
I t bears repeating: "The diabetic 
who accepts and understands has al- 
ready overcome half of the problem. 
\Vith diabetes, a grain of wisdom is 
worth the treasure, health." 


Have you a low threshold of fatigue? Do you, have problems with your budget? 
Try examining your physical fitness and your food dollar against 
the criteria that follow. 


' I ALNUTRITION is the condition 
11 brought about by the improper 
assimilation of food. \Vithout food, our 
verv life could not be sustained and 
without good food and a sound diet 
physical fitness cannot be attained. 
The difference between what you are 
and what you would like to be may 
largely be a matter of the kinds of food 
you are eating, Foods are body-building 
matcrials and the kind of body one has 
depends mainly on the kind of food 
eaten.} 
One needs not only sufficient food, 
but a varied diet, because there are 
some nutrients which require the pre- 
sence of others in order to be fully 
used, in somewhat the same way as 
chemical reactions require catalysts. 
The amount of food required for 
an average day's work, in terms of 
calories, ranges from 2800 in the 
colder countries such as 
onvay, down 
to 2200 in warmer countries such as 
the Philippines. In the five years pre- 
ceding \Vorld \Var II, about 38 per 
cent of the world's population had to 
subsist on less than 2200 calories per 
day. In the past twenty years this has 
risen to 59.5 per cent; in other words, 


Miss Comeau is a student in the de- 
gree program, X-ray Technology, of 

fount Saint Vincent College, Halifax, 
N,S. 


FEBRUARY, 1960. Vol. 56. No. 2 


"almost three people out of every five 
in the world today are hungry."2 This 
is partly due to the fact that only 8 
per cent of the earth is under cultiva- 
tion - 8 per cent of the world's sur- 
face in crops to feed two and one half 
billion people! Even more startling is 
the fact that "one-third of mankind 
consumes three-fûurths of the world's 
food. " 


Causes of lvIa/nutrition 
In spite of all the efforts of inter- 
national organizations . . . in spite of 
increased production, food supplies are 
just keeping pace with the growing 
population. . . Even in çountries where 
calorie levels are adequate, diets do not 
contain enough protective foods .. To 
combat the inequality in the world's 
food supplies the Food and Agriculture 
Organization (of United Nations), in 
1943, established food consumption tar- 
gets representing food supplies which, 
from the nutritional standpoint, are quan- 
titatively and qualitatively adequate for 
everybody . . . The production of cereals 
would have to be increased by 50 per 
cent, the production of meats by 90 per 
cent, of milk and dairy products by 
125 per cent, vegetable oils 125 per 
cent, fruits and vegetables 300 per 
cent.} 
\Ve in Canada have an abundant 
food supply, being one of the ten 


127 



countries having the highest calorie 
level in the world. Nevertheless, ev- 
idence of malnutrition exists among 
both rich and poor. In some cities 
where dietary studies have been made, 
it has been estimated that one-fifth of 
the families are not getting the right 
kind of food Or the right amount. 
In 1955, 86 Canadians died of malnu- 
trition due to vitamin deficiencies. Three 
of these died of scurvy, two of beri-beri, 
five of rickets, four of osteomalacia and 
72 of other Band C deficiencies. Yet, 
in 1945, only 44 deaths from malnutri- 
tion were reported, even after six years 
of war. And in 1935, there were 72 
deaths. All these deaths are, of course, 
totally unnecessary, but after all, they 
are not so many in a population of 
16 million. Far more important are the 
many thousands of Canadians suffering 
from debilitating forms of malnutrition' 2 
According to a nutrition survey 
covering all age groups in I-t- differ- 
ent areas of Canada, made over a 10- 
year period, 14% of the people were 
anemic due to lack of iron, protein 
and various vitamins; 770 had rickets; 
10% had sore itchy eyes, sore lips 
and sore tongue due to a lack of milk 
products, liver, meat and eggs; 3% 
had night blindness, poor skin and 
lowered resistance due to lack of vi- 
tamin A; 16% had protein deficiency 
from lack of sufficient meat, milk, fish; 
3% of males and 4% of females were 
10% underweight; 1 % of males and 
2.50/0 females were 100/0 or more over- 
weight; 0.2% lacked niacin (vitamin 
B) which is found in potatoes, cereals 
and meats; these showed digestive dis- 
turbances, skin eruptions, mental de- 
pression and pellagra. "Apart from 
these people who show well defined 
results of nutritional deficiencies, 12 
to 50 per cent of Canadians surveyed 
were endangering their health through 
eating much less than the amounts of 
protective foods recommended in Can- 
ada's Food Rules." 
All surveys in every area have 
shown that some people do not make 
use of the foods available. The prob- 
lems most frequently encountered 
were: 
insufficient use of vitamin D by school 
children; inadequate use of milk for 
calcium and riboflavin; low intake of 
fruits and vegetables as sources of vita- 
min C; over-use of sweet foods and fats 


128 


which destroy appetite fm more nutri- 
tious foods. 
Three main factors govern eating 
habits: intellectual, psychological and 
economic. Since Canada has an excel- 
lent food supply available, and most 
families have a reasonable income, 
supplemented by Fall1ily Allowance, 
faults in Canadian's eating habits do 
not seem to be due to an economic 
factor, at least in the majority of cases. 
In spite of the many opportunities for 
adult education, people are still quite 
ignorant of the relative values of dif- 
ferent foods, proper selection and pre- 
paration of foods, not only to retain 
their vitamin values but to present 
them in an appetizing form. How many 
vegetaLles are cooked too long, and 
their juices poured down the drain! 
Another form of ignorance is the be- 
lief in fads and fallacies, for example, 
"skipping breakfast helps you reduce," 
"only babies need cod liver oil," "pota- 
toes are fattening." 
Psychological factors, attitudes to- 
wards food, can cause anything from 
constant nibbling to complete rejection 
of food. Teenagers congregate at the 
soda fountain in search of companion- 
ship; dissatisfied persons sometimes 
use food as a substitute for other ob- 
jects that they crave; hard-working 
businessmen may be too fatigued at 
mealtime to eat properly. Ethnic 
groups \",ho are accustomed to certain 
foods in their native lands may not 
find dishes to their liking here, and 
fail to supply the deficiency from the 
foods that are plentiful. Finally, there 
are the timid folk who will not try 
anything new, and the people who 
"eat solely to maintain life" and are 
not interested in food. A balanced per- 
sonality shows here as in all aspects 
of life - one's attitudes towards food 
may be quite revealing. 
The economic factor regarding foods 
in Canada seems to be compouncled 
of ignorance and attitudes. ....\. good 
many people spend money on soft 
drinks, candy and other fancy items, 
so-called "empty calories"; or they 
huy the most expensive cuts of meat 
when they could, with skill and train- 
ing, make the cheaper cuts equally ap- 
petizing. Nutritious and appetizing food 
for Canadians is well within the 
ayerage budget. The trouble is that 

o many fail to see that "ounce fOl- 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



ounce, milk is cheaper than soft drinks 
raisin
 cheaper than chocolate bars, 
peanut butter cheaper than jam" 1 and 
that there are countless exchanges or 
substitutions that can be made in me- 
nus and recipes that will preserve or 
even increase their food value while 
decreasing the cost of a meal. 
Better nutrition can cume onlv when 
people are in
erested in knowi
g how 
to get the best possible diet for what 
they have to 
pend. In most areas there 
are agencies of one kind or another 
capable of prn,.iding such information, 
for example, the extension 
ervices of 
universities and colleges, public health 
and l1u:rition clinics, child weHare and 
health cen:ers. Safeguarding our food 


supply and keeping the food costs 
within the purchasing power of the 
low-income groups should be a part 
of our national defense program, in 
the building of a healthy nation. 
:\" utrition is necessarilv one of our 
ma j or life-time pre-occupations. \\That 
we eat will either contribute to our 
life's happiness and effectiveness or 
\"ill condemn us to live helm" our 
potential in hoth health and enjoyment. 


References 
1. Crisp, Katherine, Health for rOil, 
3rd ed. K ew York: J. B. Lippincott, 
195.1 
2, "Food and People," COllado's 
Health alld IV ('!fare, April 195ï. 


The Profession and the fni\'ersity 


EDITn :\1 
lcDO\\'FLL, .:\r.
-\. 


Canada's first .Haster's degree course i1l11Ursillg has been lau1lched. 


D üRI
G the next decade, an increas- 
ing number of Canadian university 
schools of nursing \"ill offer advanced 
educational programs. For many years, 
the Canadian 1\ urses' .Association and 
man" individual nurses as well as non- 
nurs"es. have been asking why our uni- 
versity schools of nursing did not 
offer post-baccalaureate degrees. Our 
American colleagues, to whom we 
are so much indebted, ha\'e asked the 
same question. 
This Year, for the first time, two 
, post-hacéalaureate students are regis- 
tered a
 the 'Cniversitv of \Vestern 
Ontario School of X urs1ng. They plan 
to complete the academic requirements 
of a two-year program leading to a 
.:\laster's degree in nursing. This pro- 
gram is one of the projects made 
possible by the \Y. K. Kellogg Founda- 
tion's five-year grant to the school 
of nursing. In the early development 
of this program, the school proposes 
to focus attention upon the field of 


':\,Iiss )'IcDowelI is dean of the School 
of Xursing, Cniversity of \Vestern On- 
tario, London, Ontario. 


FEBRUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No.2 


administration, particularly adminis- 
tration of nursing services. 
The process of defining the con- 
tent of advanced educational programs 
is not without its problems. One dif- 
ficult\. arises within the universities 
where nursing is a comparative new- 


l 


EDITH :11. :1IcDo\\ ELL 


129 



comer. The faculties of the liberal 
arts, of law, medicine and theology 
have all had a very much older associ- 
ation. Historically, many universities 
had their origins in the development 
of one or other of these faculties. 
Programs of nursing education did 
not make their appearance in Canadian 
universities until 1920. The selection 
and sequence of educational content 
of all programs, the academic stand- 
ards to be maintained, the degrees to 
be conferred are subject to approval 
bv universitv senates. Faculties of 
Schools of Nursing have to face these 
questions: 
Does nursing have its Own content? 
\Vhat is this content? 
How should the content be selected 
and in what sequence should it be 
given to meet senate requirements at the 
Baccalaureate, 
Iaster and Doctoral 
levels of academic achievement? 
The difficulties in planning univer- 
sity curricula are not lightened by 
the conflicting views of our profession 
concerning the art of nursing. In- 
consistencies exist between our de- 
finition of the nature of that art and 
our active practice of it. Do we not 
have the degree of freedom that a pro- 
fession requires in order to bring our 
aspirations into closer alignment with 
our practice? Does the failure lie in 
onr educational programs or are ad- 
ministrative patterns in the practice 
field such that many nurses are frus- 
trated in their attemÍ)ts to apply the art 
of nursing as they believe it should 
be applied? 
An analysis of the formulations 
concerning the nature of nursing in 
order to discuver implications for 
education and practice, reveals that 
nursing is a synthesis. The content 
is derived from many fields of study 
that fall mainly into three categories: 
1. spiritual studies 
2. humanistic studies 
3. the natural philosophies, that is, 
the sciences. 
Take away anyone of the three and 
the art of nursing is impoverished 
and incomplete, both in its education 
and practice. 
That we have been concerned with 
the nursing situation is evidenced by 
the frequency with which certain 
phrases have grown into our profes- 
sionalliterature in recent years: 


130 


the nurse never nurses less than the 
whole patient . . . (Surely a blinding 
flash of the obvious !) 
comprehensive nursing care . . . total 
care needs. . . 
patients as people . . . interpersonal 
relationships in nursing " the person 
in the body . . . nurse-patient relation- 
ships . . . the nurse does not nurse path- 
ology . . . she works with people - and 
a host of others. 
If these expressions represent what 
is so obvious to us in the practice of 
nursing, is it possible that our current 
need to use them is symptomatic of 
some deeper lying pathology? Con- 
cerning man's spiritual needs in our 
society. there is not a little confusion 
and great questing for certitude. Be- 
tween the humanistic studies and the 
natural sciences, there is a wide cha
m 
across which human voices cannot be 
heard clearly. If ,,'e were to chart 
what appears to be a "pecking" order, 
the natural sciences would seem to 
have leadership prestige. This state of 
affairs creates manv difficulties to all 
of the helping profe
sions. 
The difficulties presented thus far 
make their impact upon our progress 
in planning for advanced educational 
content. These difficulties could be very 
challengin"g to the nursing profession 
and are insurmountable only to a pro- 
fession that does not attempt to see 
its situation clearly. Of the more than 
60,000 practising nurses in Canada, 
how many are making an effort to see 
our professional situation clearly? How 
many of these cut short their own gen- 
eral education in order to enter hos- 
pital schools? How many of these 
closed their professional education with 
the attainment of nurse registration? 
Do they realize that through their 
practice the general public (and this 
includes other professional groups) de- 
rives the materials from which it huilds 
the nurse-image in our society? 
 eed 
we be surprised that the public ap- 
pears bewildered when we use the ex- 
pression "nurse education" but seems 
to understand us onlv too well when 
we speak of "nurse trå'ining" ? 
The nursing profession constitutes 
the largest single group of health 
workers throughout the world. Our 
immediate concern as a profession is 
with the health of the people of Can- 
ada. For too long a time we have per- 


, 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



mitted public attention to focus on 
numbers and quantity, rather than on 
quality of health work. 
If our basic education is too narrowly 
technical; 
if we stress the natural sciences and 
exclude spiritual and humanistic un- 
derstandings; 
if the art of nursing is not practised 
at a high level in the patient care field 
\, here the student learns; 
if we do not have well prepared 
teachers and administrators; 
if administrative practices at all levels 
of responsibili
y are outmoded 
then the quality of health care for the 
people of Canada is threatened. 
As they have since 1920, employ- 
ing agencies win turn increasingly 
to university schools of nursing for 
specia11y prepared nurses to fiJI posi- 
tions of teaching, supervision, public 
health nursing and a11 levels of ad- 
ministrative responsibility. \\ïth the 
continuing expansion of health ser- 


vices, the demand win continue. Not- 
withstanding our attempts to increase 
undergraduate enrolment and the num- 
bers of auxiliary workers, it should 
not be difficult to see that an increase 
in the numbers of students and of 
auxiliarv workers, as weIl as the con- 
stant co
ing and going of general staff 
nurses wil1 continue to strain our ad- 
ministrative and supervisory resources. 
This is the point at which our profes- 
sional burden is most serious and 
difficult. 
Is there any way in which we can 
help a larger percentage of our mem- 
bership to accept the need for more 
advanced educa
ional preparation in 
order to assist with the heavv burdens 
now carried bv women in án leader- 
ship positions 
within our health agen- 
cies? \ Yhat we are able to accomplish 
through university programs is con- 
tingent upon the levels of professional 
aspiration entertained by our practising 
mem bers. 


Shortages: Nurses or Xursing
 


l\IARGUERITE KAKOSH, Ph.D. 


rYlzat kind of nursing are 'U!e practicing in our hospitals today? rVhen 'we thinl
 
abou.t it, that is, about ourselves, are 'It'e satisfied with what 'It'e 
see, hear, feel and do? 


I T IS CONSTAKTLY asserted that there 
is a shortage of nurses. The adminis- 
trator cannot find enough and if he 
could his budget could not stand the 
strain. The doctor would like more 
nurses. The patient would like more 
professional nursing care. One study in 
the Cnited States showed tha
 patients 
received only 18 minutes of professional 
nursing care in an eight-hour period. It 
IS apparent that the more education the 
nurse has, the higher her salary be- 
comes and the further she moves from 
the bedside. The director of nursing 


Dr. Kakosh, who is an associate pro- 
fessor at the College of Nursing of 
Rutgers Cniversity, New Jersey, gave 
this address at the annual meeting of the 
Association of Nurses of the Province 
of Quebec. 


FEBRUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No. 2 


service wants safe and adequate nursing 
care. She has by far the largest budget 
in the hospita1. How much nursing care 
does the nursing service dol1ar buy? 
\Vhere is the rest going? And the nurse, 
she is the unhappiest of al1! She wants 
to spend more time with patients. She 
feels that '"her duties are ca1culated to 
keep her from the bedside." 
Fundamental1y we want to nurse. If 
we had all the time we wanted would 
we be there at the bedside? \V ould the 
care be of a different character or qual- 
ity or would it be the same? If we 
wanted to and if we had unity of pur- 
pose, we could learn to nurse differ- 
ently. 


The Practising Nurse 
Systematic study of the actual prac- 
tice of the professional worker is neces- 


131 



sary to secure improvement. The pro- 
fession has not done this, neither have 
schools of nursing. What changes that 
have come about have come through 
nursing education. If one looks at the 
history of graduate programs it is evi- 
dent that their educational objective 
has not been practice, It is regrettable 
that there are so few opportunities for 
the preparation of specialists in nursing 
practice. Can a nurse rea11y teach if she 
has. not had on an advanced level the 
course content 
he is going to teach? 
Patient care has not had true profes- 
sional quality. There are only elements 
of professionalism in it. Why? First, 
there is limited supervision in clinical 
areas on completion of the basic course. 
Second, there is little or no opportunity 
for the student or graduate to observe 
profes"ional nursing care. The super- 
visor and head nurse must be able to 
practice above the level we now have 
in the basic course. There is a direct 
correlation between the quality of care 
which will be given and that which a 
supervisor is herself able to practice. 
Actual nursing care of patients 
counts so little in remuneration, status, 
prestige etc. Bedside care seems so 
much less important than the work of 
the head nurse or supervisor. HI'm 
just a staff nurse" is a common remark. 
HToday I was an aide. I did aU the work 
that an aide does - gave baths, dressed 
and fed patients, assisted them into 
wheelchair . . ." \Vas there rea11y 
any difference in the practice of the 
aide and the nurse? Perhaps there is 
little reason to value it any more high- 
ly. \\Te11-prepared skil1ful practitioners 
are paid the same as any who have put 
on a uniform for the first time. Until 
we are able and enabled to practice 
that quality of care that has inherent 
in it a growing source of satisfaction, 
we cannot expect respect for it. 


Do we know 'ì('ll11t we are educating 
nurses for? Is my care the same as 
that given by the auxiliary? If there 
is no difference then the profession of 
nursing wiH die and only the occupa- 
tion of nursing wi11 continue to exist I 
What difference wi11 the quality of 
the care make? vVi11 it make a differ- 
ence ? 
Short term curative care is typical 
of what is commonly given in our 
hospitals today. It is hospital-routine 
and procedure centered. The nurse is 
kindly, we11-intentioned and efficient; 
she approaches the nursing problem in 
terms of getting the work done. This 
care is considered to be of good quality 
by present standards. 
A "gooder" type of care is possible 
- long term and rehabilitative. The 
nurse makes the patient the central 
focus. She brings to the nursing prob- 
lem a deeper understanding- of the 
roles of science; social and psycho- 
logical, as wen as physical and bio- 
10gica1. This type of nursing does not 
imply a different definition but a 
broader application. The meshing of 
these sciences gives an increased depth 
and penetration of meaning to the 
practice of nursing. There is an under- 
standing of the human being in order 
to help him to plan his way of carrying 
out treatment at his rate of growth, 
and to fit into his way of living. 
This type of practice depends on 
the nurse's understanding and use of 
herself. Each nurse selects only those 
things which have meaning for her. 
To the extent that we can accept these 
concepts we wi11 effect change - 
change in nurse practitioners. 
"'Then one is a stranger to oneself 
then one is estranged from others too. 
If one is out of touch with oneself, then 
one cannot touch others. 
- A
xE r _I
DBERC;H 


Biblioqraþ/zy on Callcer for Nurses, U.S. 
Public Health Service Publication, No. 687, 
has just been released. It includes lists 
of books, pamphlets, annotated audiovisual 
materials, teaching aids, such as prosthetic 
devices and other equipment for care of can- 
cer patients and annotated references on 
cancer of specific sites and nursing aspects 
of cancer. A vaih\ble from: Superintendent 


132 


of Documents. Government Printing Office, 
\Vashington, D.C., at 20 cents per copy. 
* * * 
The constant interchangc of those thous- 
and little courtesies which imperceptibly 
sweeten life, has a happy effect upon the 
features. and spreads a mellow evening 
charm over the wrinkles of old age. 
- \V ASHIXGTON IRVIKG 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 




-- 



þo, 
_.".- J." 


;1.- 
\j' \ 

.
 


c "' _ 
& 

 


t' 


NURSING 


_ 
 across the 

,. NATION 


PREPARED IN YOUR NATIONAL OFFICE, CANADIAN NURSES' ASSOCIATION, OTTAWA 


Seminar on Learnin!! 
An international seminar on "Learn- 
ing to Investigate i\ ursing Problems" 
is being held in Delhi, India, this 
month. Thirty nurses from 15 coun- 
tries ",ill at
tend. The staff of the 
Florence Xightingale Education Diy- 
ision of leX is organizing this seminar 
which will be tìnanced hv income from 
the Trust Fund of the FÍorence 'Xight- 
ingale Inrernational Foundation, sup- 
plemented by a grant from the Rocke- 
feller Foundation. 
During the last ten years nurses 
ha\'e either by thell1se
\Tes or with 
othe; professioÍlal people, made great 
strides in systematic studies and scien- 
tific inyestigations of nursing problems. 
The experience gained will be drawn 
upon to help participants in the sem- 
inar to select those nursing problems 
which should be solved through re- 
search and those ,d1Ïch can be solved 
by other measures. There wi11 he both 
l
cture
 and group work during the 
seminar. For the latter, smaIl groups 
\\-ill ,,'ork intensiyeh. on specific prob- 
lems chosen by the' participants them- 
selves, so that the experience they 
gain wi11 be highly rele\Tant to their 
0\\'11 current nursing problems. 
.\mong problems which may he 
studied are: methods of ensuring the 
continuity in the conlll1unity of the 
patient's - nursing care after discharge 
from hospital: anò ho\\- research on 
this subject can he as
isted through 
home \Tisits. Y ariou
 research tech- 
niques win he 
tud
ed as well as how 
the methods u
ed in the social sciences 
can be adapted to nursing research. 
Dr. CLARA 1 IARDI
, sociologist and 
anthropologist and executive director, 
.\merican X ur
e
' F ounclation is chief 
consultant for this seminar. Assisting 
win be Dr. RE
 A BOYLE, chief. X urs- 


FEBRUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No.2 


ing Research and Consultation Branch, 
DiYision of X ursing Resources. Pub- 
lic Health Sen'ices, CS4\ Department 
of Health. Education and \ \' elfare, and 
Profe
sor J. H. F. HROTHERSTO:--', 
Usher Institute, Edinhurgh, Scotland, 
representing the public health field. 


National Office Staff 
.:\Iis
 J(TSTIXE DEL:\IOTTE joined the 
staff of X ational Office December 7, 
1959, as assistant to the general secre- 
tar\'. 
Iiss Delmotte is secretary of the 
Public Relations Committee - besides 
assisting in the overall administration 
of X ational Office. Her broad experi- 
ence in nursing - both hospital and 
public health and her fluency in four 
languages, will enable her to play an 
important part in CX A ,,'ork. She is 
warmly welcomed by us al1. 


Emergency Health Services 
Conference 
On Xm'ember 16-18, 1959, the 
President represented the 
 \ssociation 
at this national cunference. .:\Iiss Helen 

Iu

al1em, repre
enting nursing edu- 
cation and the General Secretary also 
attended as memhers of the D
fence 
.:\Iedical Dental Sen'ic
s Ach-isory 
Board. 
This conference hrought together 
representatiyes of gO\Ternment and vo- 
luntary organizations who are con- 
cerned ,,-ith prohlel11
 im'oh-ed in 
Emergency Health SenTice
. 
One hundred and fiye person
 at- 
tended this meeting - a .:\[inister 
of Health, Deputy 
[inisters, nurses, 
physicians, medical officer
. armed 
sen'ice personnel, dentists and repre- 
sentatiYe
 of Canadian .:\Iedica1. Cana- 
dian Hospita1. Canadian X urses, Red 
Cross. St. John's. \mhulance .-\ssoci- 
ations. - 


133 



The main theme of the conference 
was coordination of services. Empha- 
sis was also placed on "Self Help." 
A cabinet committee has been set 
up and is the ultimate authority. A 
new committee has been established 
c:alled Emergency 1\1easures Organiz- 
ation-"EMO." The secretary of EMO 
is a member of the cabinet committee. 
E
IO has two branches - one for 
emergency government services, the 
other, public services. 
The Armed Services will be assigned 
certain activities but by no means the 
entire program. 
A mass education program on a 
national basis is being planned. The 
objective is to have each individual 
informed, prepared to take care of 
himself and fit into the total program 
in the event of an emergency. 
The President of CN A, speaking 
on television at the conference, said: 

Iembers of the CN A have always sup- 
ported programs to improve the health 
and welfare of Canadian citizens. They 
will not lag h
hind in this regard. 


The Order of St. John of Jerusalem 
In October, the General Secre
ary 
was appointed to the Priory-Council 
of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem 
and represented the CN A at the meet- 
ing of the Grand Priory held in Otta- 
wa, October 22. In conjunction with 
thi
, the General Secretary. as CNA 
repre:,entative, attended an Investiture 
at Government House, when 11iss 
EYELYN PEPPER, RRC and Lieutenant 
Commander 1IARY NESBITT, were 
made Serving Sisters of the Priory of 
Canada of the 110st Yenerable Order 
of the Hospital of St. John of Jeru- 
salem. 


International Visitor 
:ì\Irs. IVIARGlJERITE rvIENDES-HAMIL- 
TO
 of Ministry of Health, Kingston, 
Jamaica, has been awarded a WHO 
scholarship for three months' study 
in United States and Canada. 
l\Irs. Mendes-Hamilton holds the 
position of public health nursing su- 
pervisor for Sou'h Eastern Jamaica. 
Plans are forging ahead in Jamaica's 
Ministry of Health for the integration 
of public health, hospital and clinical 
services. It is in preparation for the 
implementation of these plans that 
1\1rs. :\Iendes- Hamilton is visiting the 


134 


provinces of Eastern Canada this 
month. The CN A extends a \ve1come 
to one of Jamaica's nurse leaders. 


Film Preview 
A new film in color entitled "Hos- 
pital Sepsis - a Communicable Dis- 
ease" produced under the supervision 
of Dr. Carl \V. '\i\Talter by Johnson & 
Tohnson Limited was screened in Ot- 
tawa through the courtesy of the N a- 
tional Film Board. 
It clearly describes the hazards in- 
volved in spreading infection through 
routine hospital procedures, and sug- 
gests methods of control. This film is 
recommended not only for professional 
personnel, but for all those involved 
with hospital housekeeping and main- 
tenance of the hospital plant. 
Curriculum Workshop 
Forty-seven Canadian nurse educa- 
tors registered at the Curriculum 
\Y orkshop held in Ottawa, November 
23-25, 1959, and organized by the CN A 
Committee on Nursing Education. 
This workshop was a preliminary step 
to\vards the preparation of a )J ational 
Guide for Curriculum Development. 
:\Iiss FLORENCE ELLIOTT, director, 
Study on Cost of K ursing Education, 
National League for Nursing, formerly 
director of Curriculum Conference 
Project, National League for Nurs- 
ing, was coordinator and consultant. 
Through formal lectures, informal dis- 
cussions and group work concepts of 
nursing and their implications in the 
development of a curriculum were dis- 
cussed. 


National Committee Meetings 
CNA National Committees on Nurs- 
ing Sen.'ice and Nursing Education 
held their annual meetings in Ot:awa 
in November 1959. Topics discussed 
at the meeting of the Committee on 
Nursing Service were job satisfaction, 
turnover of staff and social needs of 
nurses; home care plans and impli- 
cations for nursing in hospital insur- 
ance plans. A draft copy of a "Guide 
for Head Nurses in Hospitals" was 
reviewed. This guide will be presented 
to the Executive Committee for ap- 
proval this month. Please watch this 
column for notification of its pub- 
lication. 
Discussion during the meeting of 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



the Committee on 'X ursing Education 
centered around the educational pro- 
grams for the registered nurse and the 
assistant nurse; philosophy, aims and 
objectives of basic nursing education 
diploma programs and the establish- 


ment of Canadian criteria for the e\'aI- 
ua
ion of schools of nursing in Canada. 
The report of the Curric111um ',"ork- 
shop was discussed and iurther plans 
were made toward the de\'e
opmel1t of 
a national curriculum guide. 


Con\'('ntion Pf'I.sonalit.y 


The preparations required for a General 
)'leeting of the Canadian Nurses' Association 
involve a staggering amount of work for 
the nurses of the hostess province and city. 


ÐOROTIIY GILL 


.A sudden, even if very temporary rise in 
population within the convention city amount- 
ing to hundreds of people calls for months of 
planning if they are to be fed and housed 
comfortably. Auditorium space must be 


.' 


found; various social and recreational acti- 
vities must be planned to provide a welcome 
break in a busy week; provision must be 
made for welcoming delegates and directing 
them on their way as each bus, train or 
plane arrival brings its complement of visi- 
tors. These and a horde of other details, 
down to providing information about the 
best place to get a fresh "hair-do," come 
within the scope of the Arrangements Com- 
mi ttee. 
The chairman of this committee requires, 
among other qualities. efficiency, endurance, 
and a sense of humor. Dorothy Rusamond 
Gill fulfills these requirements admirably. A 
graduate of Yictoria General Hospital, Ha- 
lifax with postgraduate preparation in teach- 
ing and supervision from the School for 
Graduate X urses, llcGill University and in 
psychiatric nursing from the Cniversity of 
Toronto, )'liss Gill is supervisor in psychia- 
tric nursing at V.G.H. She has taken a very 
active part in the "york of professional or- 
ganizations as president of her a1umnae 
association; secretary and president of the 
Ha1ifax Branch, RXAXS: recording secre- 
tary and member of the public relations and 
nominating committees. RXAXS. She can 
b
 counted upon to give the most capable 
leadership possible in helping to make this 
one of the best conventions ever. 


Nt'\\' Diploma Course 


The School of Xursing, Dalhousie Cniver- 
sity, Halifax has announced the establish- 
ment of a new diploma course in nursing 
service administration for head nurses, super- 
visors, and junior administrators in hospi- 
tals and public health agencies. 
This is a general course extending over 


FEBRUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No. 2 


a period of approximately nine months. 
Only nurses who have had at least two years 
of graduate professional experience in a 
junior executive position will be admitted. 
The approximate cost will be $350. 
Further information mav be obtained from 
lIiss E. A. Electa lIacLennan, Director. 


135 



Nursing Profiles 


\ \" e are pleased to extend special greet- 
ings this month to Justine 
'Iarie-Rose 
Delmoth" who has joined the staff of 

 ational Office as assistant to the General 
Secretary. Born in the United States, and 
educated in :\ ova Scotia, :\Iiss Delmotte is 
a graduate of the Royal Victoria Hospital, 
l\Iontreal. \\,ith postgraduate education in 
public health nm-sing at the School for 
Graduate X Ul"ses, 
fcGill Cniversity, 1\1ont- 
real. 


"; .( 


i-:" 


'\ 



 


(Paul Horsdal) 
J CSTINE DEL
lOTTE 
She has had extensive experience in nurs- 
ing on an international level beginning with 
her wartime sen'ice, 1942-45, as Captain 
(
/S) in the Suuth African 
Iilitary l'\urs- 
ing Senice in .\frica and Italy. In 1945 
she juined CXRR;\ and IRO, working as 
an area nurse and then as a zone nurse 
in Gemlany and _\ustria. In lQ4H she return- 
ed to Canada for a year of postgraduate 
study and subsequently joined the City Health 
Department of :\Iontreal for a brief period. 
In 1950 the lure of faraway places resulted 
in an appoin:ment with the \\" orld Health 
Organization and led to successive duty 
periods in Thailand, Cambodia and Moroc- 
co. 
1iss De1mone returned to Canada again 
in 195R and prior to her present appoint- 
ment was a nursing counsellor with the 
Department of 
ational Health and \Vel- 
fare, Civil Service Health Division. 


136 


Fluent in four languages and with her 
rich background of nursing e::..perience, 
Iiss 
Delmotte will have much to contribute in 
her new position. Nurses are moving about 
from country to country in increasing num- 
bers and with a freedom unknown just a 
few years ago. National Office is called 
upon to arrange for study tours and of- 
ficial visits for a growing number of over- 
seas visitors each year. Apart from this 
group are the girls who seek employment in 
our hospitals and who bring with them 
problems in relation to registration and 
professional preparation. Her colleagues in 
Xational Office and the staffs of our pro- 
vincial associations will welcome the expert 
advice and guidance that :\Iiss Delmotte 
can undoubtedly offer. Canadian nurses can 
\\"cll be proud of the fact that one of their 
m
mb
rs has contributed so much to inter- 
national nursing, and pleased that her skill 
and experience have been placed at the 
sen'ice of our own national association. 


A little over a year ago Emily R. Groe- 
newald left 
Iontreal to take up her duties 
as assistant director of nursing at the DV A 
Hospital, Lancaster, New Brunswick. Re- 
cently she was appointed director of nurs- 
ing there. 
Miss Groenewald received her preliminary 
education in South Africa. She is a graduate 


{J 


,":;:. 


:l:..:ç. 


"., 


\ 


E:\lILY R. GROE
E\\"ALD 


THE CANADIAN NVRSE 



of \Vomen's College Hospital. Toronto and 
received her diploma in teaching and super- 
vision at .:\IcGill School for Graduate X urses, 
.:\Iontreal. 
:Much of her professional career has been 
devoted to nursing education - as an in- 
structor, Guelph General Hospital; medical 
supervisor, Children's .:\Iemorial Hospital 
(now .:\Iontreal Children's Hospital) ; nurs- 
ing arts instructor, \\ïnnipeg General Hos- 
pital; educational assistant, DVA Hospital, 
Ste. Anne de Bellevue, P.Q.; and director, 
),1 om real Central School for i'J ursing As- 
sistants, Queen :\Iary Yeteran's Hospital, 
).Iontreal. 
:Miss Groene\\ aid has been active in pro- 
fessional associations throughout her career. 
She is an enthusiastic follower of ).[ontreal 
"Alouettes" and "Les Canadiens" and enjoys 
music, reading, travel and the theatre. 


- 
"" 


..... 


v 


(L. Ford) 


LENORE DUGGAN 


Lenore DURgan who has been appointed 
professor of health education at St. Joseph's 
Teachers' College, Montreal, is the first 
nurse in the province of Quebec to hold 
such a position. 


A graduate uf St. .:\Iary's Huspital. )'Iont- 
real in 19-t9, )'Iiss Duggan engaged in post- 
graduate study at the School for Graduate 
Nurses, :\IcGill Cniversity, specializing in 
teaching and supervision in medical and 
surgical nursing. In 1958 she was appointed 
assistant director of her school oi nursing. 
We extend our good wishes and congratu- 
lations to her in this new venture. 


....... 


" 



 


I 


ISABEL T. COLVIX 


Isabel T. Colvin has been appointed as- 
sociate director of nursing service at Regina 
General Hospital where she has served for 
the past several years as assistant night 
supervisor 1950-52 and obstetrical supervisor 
1953-59. Since her graduation from R.G.H. 
in 1950, Miss Colvin has also completed re- 
Quirements for her Bachelor of Nursing 
degree from the School for Graduate N urs- 
es, McGill University. She has taken an ac- 
tive interest in the affairs of her provincial 
association and has served as secretary of 
the Regina chapter and as chairman of the 
Committee on X ursing Service. 


Expendable plastic oxygen masks, de- 
signed to prO\'ide maximum patient comfort, 
are now made of a special non-toxic green 
vinyl that gently conforms to the face. 
They remain soft and pliable in use, and 
can be trimmed with shears to conform to 
unusual facial features. The masks are used 
with standard oxygen connecting tubes or 
\\ith large-bore tubing, and are sold with 


FEBRl:ARY, 1960. Vol. 56. No.2 


breathing bags for high concentrations of 
oxygen. 
For further information write to: N ation- 
al Cylinder Gas Division, Chemetron Cor- 
poration, Chicago. 
* * * 
).fedicine, the only profession that labors 
incessantly to destroy the reason for its 
own existence. - J UIES BRYCE 


137 



Manitoba Women's Hospital 
Ituxiliaries .tssouiatioD 


CHRISTINA :\L-\CLEOD 


Hospitals serve the community but in Manitoba it is a two-way process. The 
zeal and hard work of women in their U leisure" time can contribute 
in large measure to the health of a community. 


T HE above title is quite a mouthful. 
It is also quite a handful to direct 
its workings in these days. This pro- 
vincial association came into being 
on November 1, 1946. Aids had func- 
tioned, more or less, for 60 years 
wherever hospitals were established 
though they were few and far apart. 
In 1941 Dr. Buck of the American 
Public Health A
S'ociation ,vas re- 
quested. to make a survey of provincial 
health needs. He made recommend- 
ations to the Ivlanitoba \VeIfare Super- 
visory Board regarding the need for 
more hospitals and an increased bed 
capacity. Since that time hospitals have 
mushroomed aU over the province. 
The Hon. Paul Martin, former 
Minister of Health of the federal gov- 
ernment, said: 
We are on the threshold of a new 
conception of hospital care. An adminis- 
trative course is now being worked out 
by a Canadian Hospital Council Com- 
mittee for a larger field of work 
throughout Canada and auxiliaries will 
enter into the picture more than ever 
before. 
He was speaking at an organization- 
al meeting of the National Council of 
Hospital Auxi'1iaries of Canada in 
Ottawa on May 29, 1951. The "larger 
field of work" was the increased num- 
bers of hospitals mentioned previous- 
ly. 
A women's auxiliary is important 
to a hospital because the women of a 
community can do many things for a 
hospital that no one else can do. It 


Miss 
facleod formerly a director of 
nursing of Brandon General Hospital, 
is the president of the Manitoba Wo- 
men's Auxiliaries Association. In pre- 
paring this article the author drew some 
'of her material from the auxiliaries 
suggested reference list. 


'.138 


is a truism to say that a hospital can 
not achieve its aims unless the public 
understands those aims and the means 
by which they may be accomplished. 
Unless it has the esteem and the sup- 
port of the citizens of the community, 
the hospital can not function adequate- 
ly. No matter what the population of 
your city, town or village or the to- 
tal membership of your auxiliary, the 
members of the latter will exert an 
influence in proportion to their num- 
ber, their enthusiasm and their in- 
te1ligent appreciation of the hospital's 
problems. I t is also a truism that the 
auxiIiary member or volunteer who 
is we1l-versed in the activities of her 
hospital can te1l its story better than 
the paid employee, To se1l the hospital 
story takes ingenuity, energy and a 
deeply grounded belief in the value 
of the work. It also requires leader- 
ship. 
The auxiliary's leaders have the 
duty of helping a group of community 
women choose activities and problems 
that are within the power and resour- 
ces of the organization to pursue ef- 
fectively. The group needs to feel that 
what it does is significant enough, im- 
portant enough, difficult enough and 
necessary enough to challenge its 
thinking, talents and effort. More- 
over the group must be able to make 
progress in its action, to carry out its 
program and reach its goals in an ef- 
fective and contro1led manner. It must 
feel and know that it is needed and 
fu1ly appreciated. 
Confidential information about in- 
dividual members of a group belongs 
onlv to the members and their leaders. 
Pe;sonal information should be used 
onlv to assist in the leadership role 
ami should never be released for com- 
mon gOSSIp. 
The fo1lO\'ving excerpt is from an 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



address given by :\1r. G. R. Rosenfeld, 
administrator of the Yictoria General 
Hospital, \\ïnnipeg. He was discuss- 
ing the continuing and increasing need 
for auxiliaries. 
The humanitarian aspects of the care 
of the sick and injured in the hospital 
is the guiding principle which has served 
as a beacon to the women's hospital 
auxiliaries throughout the province of 
Manitoba and the world, It has not 
flickered or faltered, nor has the color 
changed. The money raised by the 
women's auxiliaries has done much to 
assist in the purchase of equipment and 
supplies for the care of the sick and 
inj ured. The public relations established 
through an informed and understanding 
women's auxiliary is the soundest found- 
ation for a good hospital-community 
relationship. This serves to guarantee 
hospital financial security and permits 
the auxiliaries, through their volunteer 
services and fund-raising activities, to 
elevate the level of hospital care in the 
province of Manitoba. Hospitals can be 
understood best by and explained to the 
community most effectively through 
women's auxiliaries. 
Public relations are discussed so 
much nowadays that we forget that 


r 



 .' 


t .4i ' " ,,
 


 
,f1, > 
I 'Of. 

J t
 '- 
I " 

 
, 
:.... 


-J.:,.. ":. 


A, 


\ 


,
 


. 


-- 


l. 


each one of us is responsible for them 
every day. Hïzat we do or say or 
í.('/zere we do or say it makes the dif- 
ference between good and bad relation- 
ships. Let us eyer be watchful in this 
respect, 
From the beginning our provincial 
motto has been "Know your Hospita1." 
The auxiliaries are proud of their 
hospitals. They want them to live and 
prosper. Judge :\Iilton George of 1'10r- 
den, :\Ianitoba, who is steeped in hos- 
pital work and recognized as an au- 
thorit,- wel1 beyond his native com- 
munity said this of auxiliaries: ..y ohm- 
tary women workers have kept hospi- 
tals from closing, particularly during 
the stressful years of the late thirties." 
He was 1iviñ: g in a dried-out area of 
the province at that time and knew 
the situation wel1. "Those women who 
caught the ,'ision and passed it on 
made an enduring contribution to those 
who are following in their steps." 
There was no director of volunteers 
then - it was realh- not feasible in 
eight-bed hospitals! 
 
\Yhen visiting auxiliaries, guilds and 
aids throughout the province, one is 
struck with the perseverance it takes 
to keep on creating new projects. There 


I 


" 
IRE IiUIlO SHOP ., 

 /1fÏÍÑ" 


, 


..

 ...""' 


! '^' 


I 



 


J 


---... 


FEBRUARY, 1960" Vol. 56, No. 2 


St. Agnes Guild Shop 


139 



must be careful planning to avoid du- 
p1ication and to select proper launching 
times. As an example of a novel idea, 
one of the province's newspapers re- 
cently ran this headline: "Pilot Mound 
Bachelors are Taxed to Get Hospital 
a Sewing :\lachine." The women are 
continual1y coming up with new "gim- 
micks" and stimulating healthy com- 
petition. Often these are most amusing 
and unusua1. 


, 


,- l 


r 


"::a 


- r f 



 

,,,,,,I'< ',', 
, .--/ 


// 


. --
 
y 1'. w_ 

- :' "
i

 
't 



 

<,.:;- 
- I"" (,(. .' 


j 
--- 



- 



-
 


(Bill Rose) 
The V o/unteer and the Patient 
:\Iany of the women \vho make up 
the auxiliaries are grandmothers - 
but such youthful ones! Often they 
have had years of experience in church 
activities hefore turning their talents 
to hospital work This places wonder- 
ful human resources for new direction 
and leadership at the disposal of the 
organization. The efforts of these 
women in pub1ic relations result in 
a we11-informed community. 
At the moment there are 73 auxil- 
iaries in the province of Manitoba 
with more to be organized. Their value 
cannot be measured in dollars and 
cents. They haye played their part 
in hospital building projects, prepar- 
ing linens and obtaining necessary 
equipment for new units. They have 
assisted in student recruitment, ar- 
ranged for loans for prospective nurs- 
ing students. Their support has been 
given to local cancer campaigns, to 
the Red Cross home nursing courses 
designed to heIp relieve shortage of 
nursing service. Their achievements 
have really been too numerous to 
mention. 
The following description of the 



40 


work of the auxiliaries in four of 
our hospitals wiU serve to emphasize 
the importance of their role: 
During the past five years, voluntary 
services provided to one of our large 
general hospitals - the vVinnipeg Gen- 
eral Hospital - by the \Vhite Cross 
Guild have totalled 70,025 hours. This 
would have an economic value of approx- 
imately $52,500. In addition the Guild 
provided the hospital with cash gifts 
amounting to $26,866. At present, their 
resources are being directed towards 
research work. 
The guilds that serve The Children's 
Hospital of Winnipeg have raised an 
average of $25,000 per year during the 
past five years. In 1957 when the hos- 
pital residence was nearing completion, 
the six organizations undertook to pro- 
vide the funds required for furnishing 
it. A total amount of $--H,OOO was ac- 
quired for this purpose. Now their 
resources are being directed to research. 


r 



m 



-
 - --

, 
- 
:j 


,lit 



 


,,1&" 



r 


I 


Arranging flowers 


The Princess Elizabeth Hospital Guild 
serves three hospitals for the chronically 
ill - the Princess Elizabeth, the King 
George and the King Edward. The 
Guild had pledged itself to provide the 
patients with friendship, comfort for 
body and mind, and to assist the hos- 
pitals in every possible way. They have 
surely kept their pledge! To the chroni- 
cally ill, the women of the Guild are 
eyes, ears, hands and feet. When the po- 
lio epidemic produced an emergency sit- 
uation, the Guild responded whole-heart- 
edly to the need for assistance. The 
members arranged to assist with the 
feeding of helpless patients so that 
professional staff might be relieved for 


THE CANADIAN NCRSE 



other duties. ::\lany other patient com- 
forts have been made possible as well. 
The Guild has provided the hospitals 
\\-ith paraplegic chairs, crutches, \\ heel- 
chairs. physiotherapy and public address 
equipment, and furnishings for the new 
hydrotherapy unit. One other most com- 
mendable proj ect has been the fund set 
aside for the benefit of patients who 
are studying in order to become self- 
supporting. 
At Steinbach, ::\lanitoba in 1938 eight 
\\ omen formed an Aid that no\\ num- 


Patirß
 Care at Houle 


bers almost 500 members. They are 
the hardest working group of women 
that one could meet. During the past 
five years they have given the hospital 
more than $12,000 in cash but triple 
that amount in linens, fruit, vegetables 
and other produce. The store-room looks 
like a supermarket. 
The work done by the members of 
these volunteer organizations is vast. 
\ Vithout their help, our hospitals and 
their patients would be much poorer 
not only materially but spiritually. 


ii 011lC carc programs have been discltssed, planned and in somc areas, tried. 
This is a report of a conference on H O11le Care: 'll.lzat -it is, 'Zeh}' 
<:l'e necd it, how it could be instituted, and what implications it 
has for Canadians - patients, their famiNes and tlze medical and 
allied ser'l,ices '(chich the}' ltse. 


T HE Canadian X urses' Association 
recently sponsored a conference in 
Otta,,-a on Home Care Plans. In a 
general introduction to this subject 

Iiss Eli :\fagnussen gave some an- 
swers to current pressing problems. 
Invited to Ottawa b,' 
Iiss Dorothv 
Percy, chief nursing
 ceJI1sultant, De'- 
partment of X ational Health and \Ve1- 
fare, 
Iiss .:\Iagnussen, who is a nurs- 
ing consultant with \YHO and chief 
nurse of the Danish :l\Iinistry of Health, 
spent t\\ 0 and a half days at the YON 
Blackburn House a:' a resource person 
to the conference. Some of her com- 
men
s foUo\\": 
Although there is an ever-increasing 
number of hospital beds, the demand 
continues to exceed the supply. Because 
of a broader philosophy which states 
that every person should benefit from 
advances in medicine, there has been a 
rationalization regarding those who re- 
quire less technical or long-term care. 
Are nursing homes the answer? 
The psychological effects of long in- 
stitutionalization are mental disturbances 
and broken homes. \\Then a patient is 
cared for at home a cooperative de- 
\'elopment takes place there. Having a 
patient to look after can often gather 
the family together. 
Because there is a marked increase in 


FEBRUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No.2 


the number of older people in our society 
there is also a proportionate increase 
in chronic and 10ng-term illness. \Ve live 
longer and we live longer with our 
diseases. 
At the present time Denmark has a 
population of four and a half million. 
1959 1980 
62-t,OOO 945,000 
5-t,OOO 81.000 


Over 60 
In nursing homes 
Confined to bed 
or wheelchairs 12,000 18,000 
If these patients are to be cared for at 
home what are their needs? 
Domestic - homemaker service such 
as, shopping, cooking, serving, etc. In 
Denmark. a homemaker is prescribed 
by the doctor for one to two weeks. 
For patients who are elderly or disabled 
another group ca1led "home helps" meets 
long-term needs. 
Social - entertainment and occupa- 
tional activities through cooperative plan- 
ning with professions other than medical 
and nursing e.g. occupational therapy, 
social service etc. 
J! edical and nursing - family doctor, 
nurse, and physiotherapist. 
Who will evaluate the needs? Some 
patients wi1l only need parts of the 
service. \ Yho wiII administer the sys- 
tern? One method is a hospital-based 
system. This is an extension of hospital 


141 



services into the home. Nursing ser- 
vice can emanate from the hospital 
or the hospital can buy nursing service. 
A second method is a community-based 
system with administration being car- 
ried out by government health service. 
The inauguration of a home care 
plan and its successful functioning have 
two important requisites - (a) inclusion 
of the philosophy of home care in basic 
education in medicine and nursing; and 
(b) cooperation with other professions. 
Without cooperation the plan will fail. 
Fol1owing Miss l\iagnussen's intro- 
duction to the topic there was a sym- 
posium entitled "Roles and Relation- 
ships in Home Care Plans." Those 
who participated were: 
Dr. Samuel Mirsky, DV A Hospital, 
Ottawa; Mrs. Doris Small, district di- 
rector, Greater Montreal Branch, Vic- 
torian Order of Nurses; Miss Enid 
Wyness, director, Social Service De- 
partment, Ottawa Civic Hospital; Dr. 
William Storrar, medical director, Mont- 
real General Hospital; and Mrs. Mar- 
garet Pincock, executive director, Visit- 
ing Homemakers' Association of Ottawa. 
Miss Helen McArthur, national director, 
Nursing Services, Canadian Red Cross 
Society was moderator. 
The participants opened the dis- 
cussion by defining home care plans. 
Although opinions differed as to the 
origin or administrative body of the 
service, all were agreed that home 
care was the provision of services 
such as are found in a hospital for 
patients at home. In order to estab- 
lish a plan the hospital must be thought 
of as a community agency. 
The doctor makes home visits and, 
with the cooperation of both the hos- 
pital nurse and the visiting nurse, 
makes recommendations for other ser- 
vices for the patient e.g. homemaker. 
The visiting nurse is seen as the 
member of the team who could sup- 
ply information about the patient's 
home, family, culture, religion and 
community relationships. In her ef- 
forts to rehabilitate him she recognizes 
ways in which he may help himself 
and assists him to do so. She is the 
one who is closest to the patient and 
his family and as such can act as a 
counsellor to help the family and the 
patient to live with his disabilities. In 
order to fulfil her role she needs to 
be included in the pre-transfer con- 


142 


ference before he leaves hospital since 
she will continue to act as a coordina- 
tor of services. 
The social worker must have a good 
working knowledge of the role and 
competence of others on the team. 
Specifically, she is a case worker. She 
and the patient "look at the problem 
together," after which she can tap the 
sources of help in the community. "The 
coordinator of the team," the social 
worker stated, "may vary from time 
to time as the patient's needs change." 
The homemaker should take part 
in home care planning - for the pro- 
gram as a whole and the individual 
plan for a specific patient. 
Several recommendations evolved 
from the discussion which followed the 
symposium. In Canada we require the 
initiation of more pilot projects to de- 
termine the type of program we need. 
This could be done at the provincial 
level with support from federal health 
grants. The hospital bed situation is 
going to force us to do something. 
\Vith present health insurance cover- 
age, government or voluntary, the pa- 
tient at home has to pay for his own 
services, e.g., nursing care, drugs. Hos- 
pitals for the chronically ill are not 
the answer, for the reasons outlined 
by Miss Magnussen. Do we need bet- 
ter utilization of existing personnel and 
services, coupled with involvement of 
the family? Dr. Mirsky stated that 
it is not an exacerbation in chronic 
illness that causes readmission to hos- 
pital but deterioration of the home 
situation. 
The primary need at the present 
seemed to be greater coordination of 
existing resources. Later in the con- 
ference, there was extensive discus- 
sion of our present situation and the 
implications for future planning, 
On the morning of the second day, 
three discussion groups were formed 
according to interest areas - hospital, 
pub1ic health and nursing education. 
The group to which a participant was 
assigned was not necessarily their 
actual field of practice. 
Reports of Groups 
Hospital: Education must be broad. 
Existing personnel must be helped to 
see the need for home care and to un- 
derstand the meaning of it. There must 
he motivation of all hospital personnel. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Doctors are a very important part of 
the planning. Their education could 
be undertaken by a doctor who was 
both knowledgeable and enthusiastic. 
At the :\iontreal General Hospital 
where a VON liaison is on the hos- 
pital staff it has been found that the 
number of referrals are in direct pro- 
portion to the VO)J's liaison with 
the doctors. 
This group stated that we are not 
utilizing Our visiting nurse services to 
the best advantage. \Ve need a good 
referral system and an increased aware- 
ness and appreciation of visiting nurse 
services by an hospital personnel. If 
home care, as it is now, was better 
understood it could be made available 
to all, rather than only the indigent. 
Some means of achieving our goals 
,,'ould be: 
A reorganization of hospital care 
along the lines of progressive patient 
care; exchange of doctors and nurses 
from hospital to community; enlistment 
of support of citizen groups; drawing 
student nurses into districts and chap- 
ters of our associations, and constant 
education and interpretation keeping 
in mind that "illness is only an inci- 
dent in the life of the patient." 
Public H ealtlz : This group reiterated 
the need for pilot studies with em- 
phasis on making all facilities avail- 
able, not on who coordinates. These 
studies would show that home care 
plans will streamline visiting nursing 
service - thev will not overload hos- 
pitals but helpJ them. \Ve need a broad- 
er based type of care from the com- 
munity as a whole - this requires 
re-education. The advantages of home 
care as outlined by this group are: 
More patients may be cared for; 
pressure will be decreased as the average 
stay in hospitals will decrease; decrease 
in waiting time to enter hospital; im- 
proved quality of care; the patient will 
want to vacate the bed; the patient 
will have greater peace of mind re- 
garding his family; home care can help 
to lead society back into the home. 
The nurse is the kev person, who must 
think of the role óf other professions 
and her own role as a citizen. 
Nursing Education: The goals and 
needs require a three-\vay program of 
interpretation - to doctors, to the 
public and to nurses themselves. This 
group asked themselves a C],uestion and 


FEBRUARY, 1960. Vol. 56. No. 2 


then attempted to answer it. \Vhat 
kind of a concept are we giving our 
student nurses? 
Basic nursing education could pro- 
vide first level preparation in all fields. 
This is not specialization but the appli- 
cation of the same principles to dif- 
ferent situations. In order to do this 
most effectively schools need to be 
educational institutions - financially 
and administratively independent of 
hospitals. The group emphasized the 
need for a new approach in nursing 
because patients are in the community 
as well as in hospital. A recommenda- 
tion came for continuing and expand- 
ing leadership from universities. A 
body of nurses is ready to support 
reappraisal of basic and post-basic 
education. 
It was hoped that by eyaluation 
and accreditation on a national level 
through CN A leadership we would 
head toward greater standardization of 
nursing education in Canada. Home 
care plans could spearhead the drive 
for comprehensive nursing. 
These group reports were prepared 
prior to :\iiss :\Iagnussen's final pre- 
sentation "The Impact of Home Care 
Plans on Nursing Education in Den- 
mark" She started by stating that 
education for and in home care can 
be divided into five areas: 
1. Basic nursing education 
2. Special education for public health 
nurses 
3. Preparation of the present visiting 
nurse for her job in home care (The 
visiting nurse in Denmark has not re- 
ceived post-basic public health education 
at a university.) 
4. Preparation of leaders in home 


care 


5. Education of other professions and 
the public in home care. 
Basic nursing education: \Vhy do 
we insist on speaking of the need for 
integration of social and health as- 
pects in the basic curriculum - wlw 
not just comprehensive care? In Deñ- 
mark in 19Sï schools of nursing were 
approved and accredited. This was 
done bv the 
 ational Health Service 
and a - board on which the national 
nurses' association had representation. 
_-\ curriculum was set up for all schools 
bv this central bodv and is now under 
dual control - thé central board and 
the board of the individual hospitals. 


143 



A curriculum guide was sent to each 
school which outlines the minimum re- 
quirements. There must be a visiting 
nurse and a government health officer 
on each school board. I t is recom- 
mended that a public health nurse (one 
with post-basic education in public 
health) be a member of the teaching 
staff. A tradition in Denmark is that 
a young girl spends one year in a 
home other than her mvn, helping the 
mother with her children and learning 
to take care of a home. This year is a 
prerequisite to entrance into a school 
of nursing and has been found to help 
the student nurse to adjust better to 
the hospital and broader nursing situ- 
ation. 
The public health nurse needs special 
preparation in the preventive aspects 
of nursing. 
Education of the 'visiting nurse is 
done on an inservice basis. It is an 
ongoing process. At the present time 
the responsibility is in the hands of 
the government health officer in each 
district. 


Mrutal Hraltb lustitlut e 


The School of 
ursing of Dalhousie Uni- 
versity, Halifax will hold a three-day in- 
stitute on "!\ ursing Aspects in the Mental 
Health Program," February 24, 25 and 26, 
1960. The sessions will be held in the audi- 
torium of the nurses' residence, Victoria 
General Hospital, Halifax. The registration 
fee will be two dollars ($2.00). 
The conference leaders are MISS P. C. 
PIKE, head of the Psychiatric Nursing Re- 
search Department, Allan Memorial Insti- 
tute, Montreal and DR. ROBERT O. JONES, 
professor of psychiatry, Dalhousie Universi- 
ty. Nurses wishing to attend this institute 
should contact Miss E. A. Electa Mac- 
Lennan, director, School of Nursing, 
Dalhousie rnh'ersity, Halifax as soon 
as possible. 


* * * 
\Ve wish to remind subscribers to the 
11lternational Nursing Review that, begin- 
ning with the February, 1960 issue, the 
Review will be published six times a year 
instead of quarterly. Owing to the rise in 
printing- and mailing costs, as well as to 


144 


\Ve need to prepare leaders in home 
care in our own profession so that 
existing services may improve as they 
grow. 
Other professions: In some areas 
medical students have been given prac- 
tical training in public health and hos- 
pital nursing. This can be very ef- 
fective. We need to explore how phy- 
siotherapists, occupational therapists, 
social workers, etc., can work together 
for the furtherance of home care. Edu- 
cation of the public requires nurses 
"to get out and sel1." 
o progress can 
be made until the public is ready. 

 urses are slow in helping the public 
toward this readiness. 
IVliss lVlagnussen emphasized that 
the program of home care in Denmark 
is still young. It is also too soon to 
evaluate the effects of legislation on 
the schools of nursing. 
\Ye in Canada, will fo11o\\" with in- 
terest the expansion of these projects 
planned to meet more adequately the 
health needs of the Danish people. 
P A :\1 EL\ E. POOLE 


the cost of more frequent publication, the 
subscription will in future be 30 shillings 
sterling per annum or $4.50. 
- ICX X e'wslcftcr 
* * * 
A new professional film entitled "Cerebral 
Yascular Diseases: The Challenge of Man- 
agement," has been released by the Amer- 
ican Hearth Association. The film demon- 
strates the latest methods for aiding 
recovery and rehabilitation of stroke pa- 
tients through use of services and equipment 
available to all physicians. 
A version of this film for lay audiences, 
entitled "Second Chance," can be of help 
in instructing families of stroke victims on 
rehabilitation procedures and as a visual 
aid in addressing non-professional groups. 
Both are 16 mm. black-and-white sound 
films, whose production was aided by a grant 
from E. R. Squibb & Sons, division of Olin 
Mathieson Chemical Corporation. Prints are 
available for purchase or loan from the 
American Heart Association, 44 East 23rd 
Street, X e\\" York 10, )oJ. Y. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Interpersonal Relationships: a flassroom Subject
 


DOROTHY S. STARR, :\I.N. 


KIlO't.('illg how to get along 'il'cll 't.{..'ith others call lead to a more successfltl life 
for anyone. To be all effective nurse, this abilit), becomes a neces- 
sit},. How can 'l('e help the 1lurse dc'Z'elop her uliderstanding of 
people? TVhere do we start? 


T HE '\'AY in which a student nurse 
gets along with other people - with 
her patients and with other members 
of the nursing team - is a primary 
factor in the quality of her nursing 
care. The student's relationships with 
others. in her professional capacity, are 
therefore the concern of all those re- 
sponsible for guiding her learning 
experiences. Is there something to be 
contributed in the classroom to the 
student's ability to form positive, help- 
ful relationships? Specifically, can 
psychology and sociology, taught after 
the preclinical period, contribute to her 
capacity for significant interpersonal 
relationships? 
Psychodynamic nursing is a new 
term fOr part of the old concept of 
nursing the patient as a whole. It 

eell1S to in\'olve the nurse - student 
or graduate - in a more conscious 
interaction of her own persona1ity with 
that of the patient. Is the nurse, by 
heing "sweet and kind," meeting the 
dependency needs of the patient or is 

he, in fact, retarding his tentative 
reach toward independence in order to 
satisfv her own needs? Is she too 
mate;nal toward her patient or not 
maternal enough? She needs to ob- 
sen-e the effect of her personality 
upon that of the patient and to be 
conscious of what his personality does 
to her, in turn. 
Some of the techniques for exploring 
the realm of interpersonal relationships 
which are described and upon which 
research is reported t , seem to require 
greater maturity and a wider knowl- 
edge of psychology than that developed 
by most students in a three-year basic 


:\[rs. Starr is executive assistant to 
the associate director of nursing educa- 
tion, Ottawa Civic Hospital, Ottawa, 
Onto 


FEBRCARY. 1960. Vol. 56. No.2 


nursing program with a 
econdary 
school education prerequisite. It is to 
be hoped that nurses will continue to 
learn following their graduation and 
will use their increasing experience to 
perfect yarying techniques of psycho- 
dynamic nursing - interviewing, for 
instance. This seems to imply in service 
training for graduate nurse staff as 
the need for it is felt. The student 
nurse of today whose education places 
greater emphasis on awareness of 
interpersonal relationships may feel a 
desire to continue these studies in an 
in service educational program. 
The aim and goal of nursing is 
health. In aU bedside nursing care the 
nurse is stri\'ing, in cooperation with 
the patient 2 , to return him to health - 
not just physical health but with un- 
impaired psychic faculties and, we 
hope, with better resources to keep 
himself from illness in the future. 
There are some critics of nursing edu- 
cation today who say that nurses are 
forgetting their primary role and are 
moving into areas more properly 
served by doctors, social workers and 
psychiatrists. It is true that. conscious- 
ly or unconsciously, in a skiUed or an 
awkward manner, the nurse is dealing 
with the patient's emotional problems 
day-by-day. "She can bring psycho- 
therapeutic or psycho-noxious attitu- 
des and beha\'ior to a particular si- 
tuation." 3 
Two sociologists, reporting an an- 
alysis of the nurse's role, say that 
the nurse, as a member of the health 
team, is a professional and is obligated 
to hold the welfare of the patient as of 
primary importance. As the expressive 
specialist on this team, it is her function 
to lower the tension level of patients and 
to keep the doctor-nurse-patient rela- 
tionship harmonious..j 
Student nurses. like many people 


1-15 



outside of hospital circles, are inte- 
rested and intrigued by the psychi- 
atrically-oriented material, accurate or 
distorted, which floods the mass com- 
munication media. In addition to her 
curiosity and to the introspection 
which belongs to adolescence, we urge 
upon the student nurse consideration 
of the emotional needs of the patient. 
We ask her to look behind the pa- 
tient's words for his meaning. 
There is a contin.uum: recognizing 
emotional content, communicating that 
content, by word or attitude, to the 
patient; interpreting that content to 
the patient. The latter function is that 
of the psychotherapist. The second is 
that of the nurse \"ith greater skill 
than we can help the student nurse 
develop under present conditions. This 
would leave as our present task help- 
ing the student to recognize the pos- 
sible meaning of what the patient does 
and says. This would further mean, it 
seems to me, that the student needs to 
be aided in understanding first what 
she means by her own behavior and 
verbalization. 
Hildegard Peplau5 expresses the 
nurse's personal factor: 
A nurse cannot pay attention to cues 
in the situation when her own needs are 
uppermost and require attention in the 
situation. Her observations are, unwit- 
tingly, focussed upon the way in which 
her unrecognized needs are being met by 
a patient. A good deal of advice has been 
given to nurses on how to behave in 
relation to patients; it is a rare book 
that points out, in addition, the fact 
that the nurse may generate anxiety and 
guilt when her own needs operate out- 
side awareness and are not met by pa- 
tients. However, until the actual needs 
of the nurse are met or identified, so 
that she is aware of what they are and 
how they function as barriers to the 
patient's goals, she does not have con- 
trol such as is required for carrying out 
all of the "shoulds" and "musts" indi- 
cated in nursing literature. She cannot 
gain rapport with patients when her own 
anxiety restricts a\\-areness and limits 
her attention and observation to what 
brings approval for her. 
Obviously we cannot hope to help 
every student to self-recognition but 
we shall have accomplished much if we 
can help a student to do the following: 
1. Accept her failure to come up to 


146 


her ideal of a nurse in the belief that she 
can grow and change. As long as she 
cannot accept her failure and so hides it 
from herself, she cannot change. 
2, Accept the patient as different from 
herself without making value judgments 
about his standards and conduct or, at 
least, recognize that differences in 
standards and customs exist. 
The focus of a short course of dis- 
cussion on psychology and sociology 
should be on recognition of some of 
the general principles of human be- 
havior, with observation of these prin- 
ciples in practice on the wards, under 
the supervision of clinical instructors 
as an added ingredient to all bedside 
nursing care. It is only through ex- 
perience and experimentation that 
these concepts will become part of bed- 
side nursing. So long as they remain 
abstract academic principles they will 
not enter into the nursing care of the 
patient. 
_'\ group of psychiatrists 6 who 
studied this problem stated, 
The instructor of nursing personnel 
has, in her relationship with her stu- 
dents, a royal opportunity to help them 
in their relationship with patients. The 
instructor, too, has to evaluate her own 
uses of defences against anxiety. One of 
the most common defences is the zeal 
with which various "ologies" are taught. 
Knowledge and memory are emphasized. 
Nursing routines are laboriously check- 
ed. Close relationships, living relation- 
ships, are avoided. 
\Ve probably can teach didactically 
very little of value to the nurse in terms 
of dealing with patients. \Ve can, how- 
ever, provide situations in which she 
herself can learn with a minimum of 
anxiety. The nurse may gradually reach 
a high point of tolerance of anxiety 
because of her own self-knowledge. 
\Vith experience she can learn not only 
to appreciate the dilemmas of her pa- 
tients but also to help them through 
their disparate efforts to cope with them. 
The course, as I envision it, would 
be conducted as a seminar with rela- 
tively small groups of students, not 
more than 20 in each, who might be 
seated in a semicircle or around a 
tahle. The principles are presented by 
the instructor although her seat in the 
circle or around the table does not 
have the formality of the starched, 
behind-the-Iectern stance. In a 12- 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



hour course, the first two lectures 
would be devoted to a review of prin- 
ciples of psychology involving: the 
concepts of homeostasis; the hierar- 
chy of needs; the physiological mani- 
festations of emotion; frustration and 
conflict; and mechanisms of adjust- 
ment. The third period is concerned 
with some of the feelings that hospi- 
talization and illness may arouse in the 
patient. 
The subject of the meaning of illness 
to the patient is presented to students 
in many ways and at various times. 
It seems wise to present the emotional 
aspects of illness in a way less closely 
related to the medical aspects of the 
patient's illness. The classroom makes 
a more objective appraisal of the 
patient-nurse relationship possible. 
The atmosphere is conducive to con- 
sidering principles and applying them 
to specific patient situations while 
separated from the urgency and stress 
of the work situation. Illness as an 
event will have been discussed in the 
classroom during the student's pre- 
clinical term, but in her third year she 
will have her own experience from 
which to draw illustrations. 
In the fourth hour some of the 
feelings which the nurse may have in 
relation to the patient and to the work 
situation could be discussed. No at- 
tempt need be made to elicit personal 
experience illustrations although fre- 
quently a student may offer one. The 
subject should be approached in a 
manner calculated to arouse a mini- 
mum of defence. :Many nurses have 
feelings of anxiety, rebellion against 
authority, conflict over opposing goals, 
anger, ambivalence over dependency 
needs, frustration over the gulf be- 
tween the ideal and actual perform- 
ance. 
The fifth and sixth hours can be 
devoted to considering the kinds of 
personal relationships developed be- 
tween student nurses and patients. 
Students may be asked to record con- 
versations between themselves and 
their patients for later group discus- 
sion along the following lines: \Vhat 
did this patient really want from the 
nurse? and, what can the nurse do for 
this patient, considering his feelings 
and her own? 
Since social and psychological fac- 
tors cannot be distinctly separated, 


FEBRUARY. 1960. Vol. 56. No.2 


sociology follows psychology in an un- 
broken series. In sociology an attempt 
is made to select those principles which 
have direct application to the student's 
nursing experience and to re-empha- 
size constantly the relevance of the 
subject matter to the care of the 
patient in the hospital or in the com- 
munity. Six hours are used to present 
the patient as an individual in society, 
as a member of the family, and as a 
member of the community, with ap- 
proximately equal amounts of time 
spent on each topic. 
The two hours devoted to the pa- 
tient as an individual in society (by 
inference, the nurse or anyone else as 
an individual in society) cover the 
concept of culture with its subdivisions 
of folkways, mores, institutions and 
laws, and the way in which an indi- 
vidual learns about the society in 
which he lives, including concepts of 
role and status within the group. 
The subject of the family is of great 
importance to the nurse. This topic 
provides perhaps the hardest task in 
selecting material to be included in a 
very short course. Mention is made of 
some of the forms of family structure, 
of the function of the family, and of 
the cultural changes in life on the 
North American continent and their 
effect upon family life. In the second 
hour, the family cycle is considered. 
The student is asked to discuss how a 
family changes when the first baby 
arrives, the pressure on family life 
when the children begin to leave home, 
and the readjustment in family life 
that aging brings. 
Consideration of the patient's life in 
the community includes some discus- 
sion of housing; the ecology of cities; 
segregation, voluntary and inyolun- 
tary; ancl the effect of housing on 
health problems. The last class period 
is centered on the groups in which the 
patient, or anyone else, lives and in- 
cludes discussion of race, social class, 
ethnic and nationality groups. Again 
discussion is based on fact, as opposed 
to popularly-held misconceptions, and 
the effect that these divisions of man- 
kind have upon health problems. 
Another 12-hour course in ward 
administration primarily considers the 
relationship of the nurse to hospital 
personnel. In this course role-playing 
is used to help the student nurse 


147 



experience some of the situations in 
the protected environment of a small 
group in the classroom. Students role- 
play such situations as: the head nurse 
who must reprimand a student for 
failing to keep an intake-and-output 
record; the clinical instructor who in- 
vestigates a student's indifference to 
the geriatric patient; the patient who 
complains to the student of her doc- 
tor's short visits and apparent lack of 
interest. 
Discussions following role-portrayal 
center around: How would you have 
handled this situation? How would 
you have felt if you were in this posi- 
tion? 'Vhy òon't you like to tell 
another member of the nursing team 
of an omission when it is your res- 
ponsibility as team leader to see that 
an patients are given good nursing 
care? 
The classroom teaching of inter- 
personal relationships in terms of 
psychology and sociology is aimed at 
introducing the student to new ideas 
and to a few basic concepts of these 
social sciences, in an atmosphere where 


Xurse-Patient Relationships 


CATHARI
E BLACKLOCK 


she can learn and experiment with a 
minimum of anxiety. 'Ve feel that the 
classroom has a contribution to make 
to the student's capacity for significant 
interpersonal relationships. 


References 
1. Bernstein, Brophy, McCarthy, Roe- 
pe: Teaching Nurse-Patient Relation- 
ships: an Experimental Study. Nursil1g 
Research, 54: 80-84. 
2. Phillips, E. c.: Nurses, Patients 
and Prepositions. Nursing Outlook, 53: 
674-76. 
3. Gilmore, H. : The Psychiatrist's 
Part in Nursing Education Programs. 
Nltrsing Outlook, 53 :217-19. 
4. Johnson, M. M. and Martin, H_ 
\V.: A Sociological Analysis of the 
Nurse Role. American Jour/lal of Nur- 
sing, 58 :373-77. 
5. Peplau, H.: Interþers01wl Relatiolls 
in Nursing. New York: G.P. Putnam's 
Sons, p. 139, 1952. 
6. Group for the Advancement of 
Psychiatry: Therapeutic V se of Se]f. 

fonograph, GAP report #33. June 
1955. 


Success or failure! Good relationships call decide the effati'l'cness of YOllr 
nursing care. Techllical skill alone is only half the U11S'lC'er. 


T ECHNICALLY speaking, a relation- 
ship implies a state of being mutual- 
ly or reciprocal1y interested. It is now 
apparent that nurse-patient relation- 
ships are as important as clinical skills 
in the basic principles of nursing care. 
There is a need for a we1\-defined phi- 
losophy of life as a basis for establish- 
ing more positive attitudes. The per- 
sonalitv of the individual nurse is a 
\"ery "important factor in effecti,"e 
nurse-patient relationships'1 
The nurse is now being educated 



fiss Blacklock recently returned to 
Canada after several years as surgical 
supervisor at Mount Sinai Hospital, New 
York. 


148 


to treat the patient not just as an 
appendectomy or a tonsil1ectomy, but 
as a living, feeling human being tem- 
porarily or permanently incapacitated 
by illness. To give this type of care, 
she must be prepared to help the pa- 
tient psychological1y and socially. 
Psychological Preparation 
"The same fire that melts the butter 
hardens the egg." Every personality 
develops continually from infancy until 
(leath, and throughout this span it 
persists even though it changes. Psy- 
chology is the study of behavior or 
misbeha vior. It is the science that 
seeks to understand the activities of 
the individual. The individual is a 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



vital personality reacting to the en- 
vironment created bv his iUness. Rec- 
ognizing this interreiationship, it is ob- 
YÏous that the skillful nurse must mi- 
nister to the patient's emotional needs 
as well as to the physical aspects of 
his pathological condition'2 
The ntlr
e has a more urgent need 
for psychology than most professional 
people. She needs to understand the 
basic principles of behavior not as 
abstract concepts, but as workable, 
practical aids which will assist her in 
recognizing how best to sen'e her pa- 
tients and how to deal most tactfulh- 
with trouble
ome situations. She, more 
than an\'one else, can stimulate the 
desire to" live and to get well. She must 
have an interest in and a liking for 
the pa
ient in order to enable him to 
return this feeling. She must have 
patience and understanding and be 
wil1ing to listen. Each indi\"idual dif- 
fers from al1 others and must be treat- 
ed accordingly. 


Sociological Preparation 
The nurse should know and recog- 
nize her potential contribution in the 
various fields of social welfare. She 
should be prepared to: 
give better nursing service to the patient; 
interpret the patient's problems to his 
relatives and friends: cooperate effecti- 
vely with the physician in understand- 
ing the patient; learn more about the 
interrelation of health, social conditions 
and problems; contribute in greater de- 
gree to nationwide programs for health; 
carry out more intelligently federal or 
provincial welfare legislation such as 
the \\Torkmen's Compensation laws. 
The patient in thinking of his re- 
covery. whether partial or complete, 
often must adjust to other and perhaps 
greater problems than his present con- 
dition. The nurse's first-hand studv of 
social prohlems begins with the i
di- 
vidual. She influences the total pro- 
blem by the \\Oay in \"hich she helps 
the patient. The patient's personality 
is an important factor in social adjust- 
ment. 3 
To treat this subject fuUy, it is neces- 
sary to consider the nurse-patient 
relationship in all types of hospitals 
and in the home. 


In the General Hospital 
In dealing with the patìent in a 


FEBRUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No.2 


general hospital, \'iew him as ha\ ing 
healthy potentialities and treat him 
accordingly. III patients have normal 
sensitivities. If anything, these sensi 
tivities are more acute than normal. 
The nurse's function is to create situ- 
ations that provide an opportunity for 
wholesome, balanced activity at the 
patient's Ievel. 4 
In aU nurse-patient relationships the 
nurse exerts inevitable influence. This 
influence is for good when she is a 
mature, generous, humble, understand- 
ing individual with a stable, whole- 
some personality structure that rises 
above irritations, resentment, pettine::;:, 
and a narrow point of view. Succes
- 
ful relationships depend less on effi- 
cient administration of drugs and 
manipulation of equipment than on 
spirit, attitudes, values and sen
iti\"ities 
put into useful social practice. The 
nurse is not merely a dispenser of 
care. She is a vital part of it - a 
prime mover in all efficacious patient- 
nurse relationships. 
Quite often the patient responds 
to stimuli so quickly and so vehem- 
entlv that one can see the effect of 
care and especiaUy the consequences 
of general attitudes and behavior. He 
teaches the nurse the importance of 
reciprocity in human relationships, and 
the need for honesty in social relation- 
ships. - 
Through contact with the patient 
one gains the experience that perfect:' 
study. Knowledge acquired in the 
classroom simply places the nurse in 
an intel1ectual relationship with the 
subject matter. It is while dealing 
with the patient that she has flashes 
of insight into his point of \-ie\\". At 
the highest level, patient and nurse 
think and plan together, each aware 
of the particular contribution mafle by 
the other. 
There are four levels of partici- 
pation: coerci\'e. permissive, directive, 
coopera ti ve." 
1. The lowest level of participation 
is coercive. This is often necessary when 
force is needed as in the enforcement of 
communicable disease control or in the 
hospitalization of the psychotic patient. 
This is naturally not a satisfactory re- 
lationship for the patient or family. 
2. _\ permissive relationship takes 
place \\'hen the patient is persuaded to 
accept treatment or to foIlow advice, 


149 



though he really does not want to do 
so. In this type of relationship the nurse 
decides and the family accepts but does 
not participate in the decision. 
3. More satisfactory is the relation- 
ship in which the patient and nurse 
share in discussion and in planning. 
This may be called a participating rela- 
tionship. It is really only directive but 
it allows the family to exercise some 
selection and choice in decisions. 
4. When the patient or family and 
nurse are able to work jointly in the 
analysis and solution of problems and 
each contributes to the fullest extent 
throughout the entire process, the re- 
lationship may be described as co- 
operative. 
Resistance to the efforts of the nurse 
may mean that while the patient needs 
help he is loath to get involved with 
ideas and plans that mean change. 
Change is a threat to established daily 
living which may not be comfortable 
itself, but is more comfortable than 
change. Change brings the necessity 
for thought and decision with sub- 
sequent feelings of discomfort unless 
happy results are quickly obvious. 
A Formula 
1. Actual interest in the patient's 
point of view and genuine respect for it 
- not assumed respect as a device for 
sugar-coating her "message." 
2. Appropriate health information 
based on availabte research. 
3. Skill in bedside nursing. 
4. Belief on the part of the nurse 
that her professional purposes are of 
value. 
This is a working formula which in- 
cludes the emotional aspects and is 
designed to make the patient feel that 
identification with the nurse is worth 
while. It is not easy to go slowly, to 
stop for thought, to be aware of one's 
own reactions, to be willing to relate 
oneself to the lives of others rather 
than to direct them. The sum total is 
the straight road to a working relation- 
ship with the patient. 
In the Special Hospital 
In a large class of diseases men- 
tal symptoms take predominance oyer 
physical and are the first consider- 
ation in treatment and care. Before 
coming to the psychiatric ward, most 
nurses ha,'e the idea that all people 


150 


who are men tall v i1l are irrational 
and do not unde;stand what goes on 
around them. One of the fundamental 
ideas to grasp early is that the patient, 
regardless of his behavior, is a human 
being who thinks, loves and hates and 
has quiet and acute sensibilities. Pleas- 
ant reactions are very near the surface. 
They require only the right stimulus. 
Even with the unwholesome, disagree- 
able and sometimes offensive symptoms 
of mental illness, probably there are 
more sensitive, noble souls to be found 
in hospitals for the mentally ill than 
in any other one place. At heart the 
psychiatric patient is. friendly and 
good. Unpleasant, perverse, unreason- 
able behavior is all part of his illness 
and corresponds to the fever, vomitus 
and yile breath of the patient on the 
medical and surgical ward. 
Personality factors are stressed in 
nurse-patient relationships here because 
every word and act produces a positive 
or negative influence on the patient's 
immediate condition. Nurses, like other 
people, may be one of two fundamen- 
tal personality types: those who focus 
primarily on people and those who fo- 
cus primarily on things. 
In dealing with the patient the nurse 
does not use little bits of energy now 
and then. It is necessary to think con- 
tinually. Within her own mind, she 
establishes immediate and ultimate 
nursing objectives. She considers sug- 
gestions and associations that give 
meaning to the patient's behavior of 
the moment and plans a way to get 
the patient's state of feeling in line with 
the need. Getting the mood or the 
attitude of the patient in line with the 
need is something one learns by one- 
self for oneself. 
Achievement in psychiatric nursing 
depends on the management of inter- 
personal relationships. This includes 
applying knowledge, spirit, interest, 
objectivity, tenderness in intellectual 
action. Through the behavior of the 
nursing personnel it is possible to make 
a patient feel calm, comfortable, secure 
and thereby change noise and uncon- 
trolled activity to quiet and order. The 
nurse can see now more clearly and 
more specifically how better knowledge 
of human behavior fortifies her daily 
work, and hO\\- nursing can become 
part of the current mental hygiene 
program. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Make Nursing 
an adventure 


with practical advantages 


As a N ursin
 Sister with the Royal Canadian Army"l\ledical 
Corps, you get the excitement of adventure and travel . . . 
serving with Canada's Army at home and o\'erseas. 
Opportunities exist to work in the various fields of nursing 
such as teaching and supervision, nursing administration, pub- 
lic health, and operating room techniques and Inanagement. 
You receive officer's pay, al10wances for uniforms, food and 
accommodation, plus 30 days annual holidays with pay. 
You may apply for a Re
uIar Army appointment for a life- 
time career, or a Short Service Commission whereby you 
engage for a period of three, four or five years. 


If YOll arc a Registered Nurse, 
under 35 years of age, 
and a Canadian citizen or 
British subject, 
write now for full 
information, 
without obligation to: 



'.'jt. 


I 



\ 
') 


Director General of 
IUedical Services, 
Army Headquartel'8, 
OTT A W A, Ont. 


.. , 


. 


., 


, 


--.. 


\ 


"SERVING WITH A PURPOSE" 


* 



 
UMr 


FEBRUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No. 2 


151 



In the Hoole 
\ Yhen the public health nurse of- 
fers her services to people who could 
profit from her knowledge but are not 
acutely ill or in obvious danger of 
iHness, she finds herself entering upon 
a more complex situation than is pre- 
sented in nursing the sick patient. 
Successful health teaching depends 
upon the relationship between the 
nurse and the individual. The latter 
must be made to feel that the nurse 
has some valuable information to offer 
him. 
The use of the word "relationships" 
in a professional sense, while enlarging 
its meaning may obscure the original 
and still useful sense of the word for 
laymen or members of another pro- 
fession. \\Then you consider the re- 
lationships between two persons, as 
for example between the nurse and 
the person in the community with 
whom she forms a contact, one asks 
first whether the two "get on" to- 
gether. Then you must consider how 
or on what basis they maintain their 
relationships. There is a need to study 
the attitudes of both, the interplay be- 
tween them as revealed by their be- 
havior, and fina1\y the usefulness or 
fertility of the relationship in view of 
the objective in mind - here the 
teaching of health'6 
If'hen the patient accepts: 
':\Iany of the patients who ",,'e1come 
the help of the nurse are mature and 
well-adjusted. They are glad that a 
source of information on health matters 
is available. They recognize their own 
problems, and are even able to see their 
own mistakes. They may seek to make 
use of the nurse in many ways. These 
range from legitimate use of her supe- 
rior health knowledge by people in need 
of advice in such matters, through an 
emotional dependency which may help 
or hinder according to the individual 
situation, to an attempt, often uncon- 
scious, on the part of the patient with 
marked personality problems to fit into 
the defense they have worked out for 
making life more endurahle. 
TV /zen the patient resists: 
The nurse's ideals for her own con- 
duct influence her methods of work with 
the patient. Unconscious emotional re- 
actions On the part of the nurse may be 
a source of danger to the patient. The 
nurse should not try to judge the family 


152 


hy her own stanclar"cls. Often she has 
a lack of understanding. The patient may 
be emotionally immature, or perhaps 
looks upon the nurse as a superior per- 
sOn unable to help her in her difficulties. 
If the cmotional and intellectual needs 
and status of the patient are taken into 
consideration so that the information 
the nurse can offer is specific and ap- 
propriate, many of the other difficulties 
in making a "good" visit will be elimi- 
nated almost automatically_ 
Once a contact in the home has 
been established, the nurse must con- 
sider who is the "key person" in the 
family. Clarification of a difficult si- 
tuation may foHm,,- a thoughtful se- 
lection of the member of the family 
,vith whom the nurse shaH attempt to 
work out the strongest relationship. 
Sometimes it is a high schoul girl \\'ho 
frequently becomes more in
erested in 
family nutritional needs than a foreign- 
born mother. She can be depended 
upon to make use of her new ideas 
in the family since they are proud to 
accept this evidence of the child's 
progress. One pitfall that frequently 
endangers the nurse's relationships 
with the family is identification of 
herself ''lith one member of the family 
who appears to warrant special sym- 
pathy and protection or ,,-ith a certain 
faction in the familv. 
Obtaini1;g insight 
1. Listening: The opportunity to 
tell his fears and anxieties to a tolerant 
person who is not part of the situation 
yet understands what he is talking 
åbout, lea \-es the patient feeling that 
he has actua1\y lost some of his troubles 
in the act of talking about them. This 
wil1ingness on the part of the nurse to 
listen to him is a help to the patient 
and also aids the nurse. 
2. Questioning: This is an acti- 
vity \\"hich cannot be separated from 
learning. Unless the patient is under 
pressure to talk to the nurse because 
of his own interest or excitement. it 
mav be the nurse's skilled questioning 
whIch wi1\ helpfully tap the reserves 
of the patient's feelings and wi1\ per- 
mit the nurse and the patient to un- 
derstand each other more fully. 


The nurse and the group 
The nurse's customary gift for 
leadership helps her with the organ- 
ization of ",ueh projects as a child. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



" 


111112"> 


\)llKEN::. JOHN S 
Dr Bow""_" 


.! - SPECIAL DIET I 
. X-RAY TREA TMfNT I 


.. 
one 
+ 
one 
... 


.. 


FEBRL"ARY. 1960. VoL 56. No.2 


CJ 
o 


Only one patienr is the 
right one ro receive the 
prescribed rreatmenr. 
How can you be sure? 
Hollister's new Line-O- 
Vision Bed Sign re- 
minds all personnel 
what care is needed. 
Then Hollister's famous 
Idenr-A-Band gives un- 
mistakable proof of 
idenrity. Together, they 
add up to the right care 
for the right patienr . . . 
every tIme. 


@[fTI@ 


the right one 


HollisTE
 
\- LIMITED 
160 Bav St., Toronto 1 


153 



health conference. She must ensure 
that speed, efficiency and the pressure 
of habitual routine do not blind her 
to ineffective results which may af- 
fect the children and the mothers who 
are attending the conference. 
Any nurse who has conduc
ed child 
health conferences has seen the thera- 
peutic effect that this experience may 
hold for the child who is afraid or shy. 
Through observing him as one of this 
group she may learn to understand 
that the child's behavior is natural 
rather than "bad." 


In conclusion it can be stated that: 
A good relationship is one that allows 
the nurse to accomplish in the most 
effective manner possible the task for 
which she has come to help the family 
or the indi\'idual. 


Bibliography 
1. ,AI ell tal Health in Nursillg: vVork- 
shop on Mental Health in Nursing - 
Psychological Approach. Edited by Cath- 
olic University Press, 1948. 
2. Gilbert, R. and vYeitz. Psychology 
for the Profession of Nursing. New 
York: Ronald Press Co., 19-1-9. 
3. SelIew, Gladys and Furtey, Father. 
Sociology alld Social Problems in Nurs- 
ing Service. :-';ew York: \V. B. Saun- 
ders Co., 1946. 
4. Render, Helen. Nurse-Patient Re- 
lationships in P sJ'chiatry. New York: 

IcGraw-Hill Book Co., 1947. 
5. Freeman, Ruth B. Public H ealtl, 
.VlIrsillg Practice. Philadelphia: \V. B. 
Saunders Co., 1950. 
6. Gilbert, Ruth. The Public Health 
HlIrse alld her Paticllt. Cambridge: 
Harvard Cniversity Press, 1951. 


In tJh
 Good Old Da)"s 


(The Calladian Nurse, FEBRUARY, 1920) 


The Necessity for Breast Feeding 
A French medical journal, describing the 
work of the well-baby clinic at LilIe during 
the German occupation, says that there was 
one unforeseen result. As the Germans car- 
ried off all the cows there was no milk; as 
the factories were not running, the women 
could not find wage-earning work, and were 
obliged to stay at home with their babies. 
The mothers were forced to nurse their in- 
fants to keep them alive and the infantile 
death rate was far lower than was ever 
known before in the town. He concludes 
that milk-distributing stations are a mistake, 
as they relieve mothers of their first duty. 
* * * 
The Industrial Nurse 
It is stated that the first trained nurse 
to be employed as an industrial nurse was 
one engaged by the V ermont 
Iarble Com- 
pany, in 1895, to visit the homes of the 
employees and care for the sick mothers 
and babies. 


* * * 


Training SchOQI Requirements 
The girl who enters a training school 


154 


has a right to be given full and proper in- 
struction. Likewise the public has a right 
to demand that, when a nurse assumes the 
responsibility of caring for the sick, she 
shall be fully qualified. 
No hospital should be allowed to estab- 
lish a training school unless it comes up to 
a required standard set by a governing body 
\\'ho are qualified to judge and determine 
what that standard shall be. 


* * * 


Registration in Britain 
Congratulations from this magazine and 
from all the nurses of Canada to our sisters 
in England for the successful ending of their 
strenuous appeal to Parliament for registra- 
tion, \\'hich has lasted for fourteen years . . . 
The law will enable nurses to organize their 
profession so that it may be a more ef- 
ficient instrument for the service of the sick 
and suffering, and to raise the standard, 
through preventive work, of the national 
health. 



fuch outcry, little outcome. - AESOP 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



IT'S 


N IVEA 
-
 


CREME 


.... 


'""'" 


Â.. (i;.). 
"'Y' .. 
. c-,..



 

 e> 
,-.... - 


'ç;)' 


,.
 



. 

 


--- 

 


'1 


I-
 
{

 ,<I 
"'... C
' 

"'" . 
 .h.. , 

( 
 ."e- 
, \
. 
't\ 

 


....1 \j E 
'
 t...
 A 
. ' 'It, ( me 
". .... -,( 
.....
. -:- 
' JHf "UN 



 


+" 


fõr .!IOU anó 
!lour poftents 
-:p

g
.
 
ofMl,
W
 


Sun, wintry winds, even routine hospital duties can rob skin of its 
natural oils. Make it dry, rough, and red. That's why so many nurses 
use Nivea Creme to keep their skin soft, smooth, and supple. 


For they know Nivea contains a special ingredient, Eucerite, that 
closely resembles the natural oils of the skin. The remarkable agent 
penetrates the skin's top layers to feed and nourish it - keep it fresh 
and fragrant. 


And here's a tip to keep you looking your best on those important 
dates - Nivea makes an excellent powder base. 


NIVEA PHARMACEUTICALS L YD. 


5640 PARÉ ST., MONTREAL 9 


FEBRUARY, 1960' Vol. 56, No. 2 


155 



Drug :\ddiution 


JOIlX GIBSOX, .:\I.B., Ch.B., D.P.:\I. 


The drug addict - pitied 
r scorned? L4.ddiction - sicJ..'J1cSS or erline, curable 
or incurable_) 


,I DRCG addict is a person who takes 
A excessive amounts of a drug or 
for prolonged periods \vithout medical 
indications, develops a tolerance, and 
shows symptoms of withdrawal if he 
cannot get or is not given the drug. 

Iost addicts show psychopathic traits 
before they become addicts. It is 
rare for mentally normal persons 
to become addicts, with the possible 
exception of some who are addicted to 
barbiturates. Any drug with sedative 
or hypnotic properties can become a 
drug of addiction. It is also common- 
place knowledge that any drug used 
to relieve the symptoms produced by 
the withdrawal of another drug is it- 
self likely to produce addiction. In 
some parts of the world, drugs are 
taken daily in small amounts by large 
numbers of people and produce mild 
addiction, for example opium in the 
Far East. cocaine in South America, 
and hashish (marihuana) in Africa 
and Asia. Of the drugs prescribed 
medicallv, the ones that commonly 
produce 
 addiction are the barbiturate
. 
opium and morphine, heroin, pethidine. 
co.caine, paraldehyde and a111pheta- 
l11me. 


Barbiturates 
Because of the large amounts pre- 
scribed for many nervous symptoms, 
addiction to barbiturates is probably 
now the commonest of aU addictiuns in 
the western world. Patients thus treated 
can easily develop a dependence upon 
the drug and will show symptoms if 
it is withdrawn. That the patient has 
developed a tolerance for the drug can 
be deduced when he is able to take it 
by day and not become sleepy, Chronic 
intoxication \\'ith the drug may produce 
a state of hypomania resembling drunk- 
enness, with an irritability and mood- 


Dr. Gibson is a psychiatrist at St. 
Lawrence's Hospital, Caterham, Surrey. 
England. This is the sixth of a senes 
of articles on psychiatric subjects. 


156 


iness that the addict Lrie
 to relieve by 
taking more of it. Barbiturates are 
present Iy a common cause of accidental 
death and suicide. \Vithdra\\al of the 
drug produces irritability, anxiety, tre- 
mur, sweating, palpitatiun and insomnia. 
The occurrence of any of these may, 
unfortunately, be taken as evidence of 
the continued existence of the mental 
state for which the barbiturate was 
originally prescribed. Treatment is by 
\\,ithdra\\'al of the drug and simple psy- 
chotherapy. 


Opium and 
lorphine 
In the Far East addiction IS common 
since opium is commonly taken by 
mouth or by smoking. In other parts of 
the world the incidence of this particular 
addiction is highly variable. Its variabi- 
lity depends upun the number of psy- 
chopaths 111 the community and the 
strictness of the precautions taken by 
the state to control manufacture, pre- 
scription and sale. Addiction usually 
b
gins in early adult life and is often 
associated with addiction to other drugs. 
Some addicts are happy on relatively 
small doses of drug, which they do not 
have tu increase and on which they may 
be able to live happily and wod.;: ef- 
ficiently as long as they are ahle to ob- 
tain it. Others take increasingly larger 
amounts with severe physical and men- 
tal effects. The addict deve!ops a loss 
of appetite. constipation, malnutrition, 
anemia. abscesses at the sites of injec- 
tions, and a pour resistance to infcction. 
:\[ental changes include further develop- 
ment of psychopathic behavior, in parti- 
cular unreliability, lying and stealing 
in order to obtain the drug. If the drug 
is withdrawn. withdrawal symptom" be- 
gin in about 24 hours and are at their 
worst in í!. hours, after which they 
abate. They include headache, nausea, 
yomiting, diarrhea. anxiety, restlessness 
and insomnia. The symptoms are so 
distressing that few addicts are willing 
to endure them. 
Treatment is by rapid withdrawal of 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 




 


, 


Elastopla
.t 


'+ 


THE POROUS ADHESIVE 


r; 


Years of extensive clinical trial 
and successful use in Great 
Britain and Canada have shown 
that only Elastoplast Porous 
Adhesive provides all these 
advantages: 


Elastopla
t 


. Adequate Porosity throughout 
the entire surface of the adhesive 
that permits free sweat evapora- 
tion and reduces skin reaction. 
. The proper degree of Stretch and 
Regain for correct compression 
and support. 
. Fluffy edges to prevent trauma to 
devitalized skin. 


.' 


The synonym for quality and reliability in the 
surgical field 


.,......., 
is&NiSMITH & NEPHEW, LIMITED 
... 
 
......... 5640 Paré Street, Montreal 9. Que. 


FEBRUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No.2 


157 



the drug over the course of three or 
four days. More gradual reduction is 
useless. Sedation is accomplished by 
the use of barbiturates, paraldehyde or 
methadone. The latter is itself likely 
to produce an addiction, although a 
milder one. 1Iodified insulin treatment 
and subsequent psychotherapy are also 
used. So unreliable are the patients 
that treatment can be carried out only 
in a hospital or in the home where 
fulI supervision can ensure that the 
addict has no access to the drug. Many 
addicts abandon treatment and relapse 
is aU t00 common. 


Heroin 
Diamorphine hydrochloride produces 
addiction easily. I t may be preferred by 
some addicts because of the intensity of 
the euphoria and the freedom from vo- 
miting and diarrhea. Severe physical 
and mental deterioration is produced, and 
the addiction is very difficult to cure. 


Pethidine 
This is a synthetic drug that is used 
as a substitute for morphine in the 
relief of pain, spasm and cough. Addic- 
ti'On to it is more severe than that 
produced by morphine. It is more rap- 
idly acquired and very difficult to cure. 
Tolerance and dependence develop quick- 
ly but some addicts have kilIed them- 
selves with overdoses. With large doses 
tremors, twitchings, convulsions, con- 
fusion and halIucinations may occur. 
Addicts often take other drugs as well. 
Treatment is as for morphine addiction 
and is usualIy as unsuccessful. 


Cocaine 
This drug is taken by subcutaneous 
inj ection or as snuff which may cause 
perforation of the nasal septum. Ad- 
dicts are usually grossly psychopathic, 
often existing as female or male prosti- 
tutes, alcoholics, or multiple-drug takers. 


Cocaine produces elation, overachvlty, 
freedom from fatigue, facile thoughts, 
glibness and restlessness. When the ef- 
fects begin to wear off, apathy and 
depression drive the addict to take more. 
Short-term psychoses may be produced 
in which the addict is confused, deluded, 
hallucinated and paranoidal. Treatment 
by withdrawal or any other method is 
rarely successful because few cocaine 
addicts are willing to leave the sort of 
society in which the cocaine habit is 
practised. 


Marihuana 
Hashish or Indian hemp produces a 
euphoria that once experienced is usual- 
ly much desired. It tends to produce 
excitement, irresponsible behavior, a 
delirious state and violence. "Reefer" 
cigarettes containing it are said to be 
smoked by dance-band players to pro- 
duce an extra frenzy in their playing. 


Paraldehyde 
This preparation is occasionalIy taken 
in excessive amounts by alcoholics in 
spite of its persistent and unpleasant 
smell. It is important that alcoholics 
should not be prescribed paraldehyde, 
except during the acute phase of delirium 
tremens ",hen it is the safest hypnotic 
to give. 


Amphetan1ine and 
Dexamphetan1ine 
These preparations are taken to over- 
come fatigue and depression, to promote 
efficiency and alertness, and to acquire 
confidence. They may become drugs of 
addiction. Some p
ople develop a great 
tolerance for them. They may produce 
irritability, restlessness, overactivity, 
insomnia, exhaustion, aplastic anemia, 
and short psychotic reactions with de- 
lusions and halIucinations as prominent 
symptoms. \Vithdrawal produces anxiety, 
restlessness and insomnia. 


Time sterile indicator IS a dramatic 
chemical applied to a pressure sensitive 
paper tape which is used as a label. The 
tape can be applied to every type of glass- 
ware or instrument. The colorless TSI will 
turn from nothing to an indelible black word 
"Sterile" only after a specific standard 
sterilizing cycle of 15 minutes or more in 


158 


a sterilizing oven or autoclave. For further 
information write to: Professional Tape Co., 
Inc., 355 Burlington Road, Riverside, Illinois. 
* * * 
CBC radio service is within reach of 97 
per cent of Canadians and its television ser- 
vice within range of about 90 per cent. 
- CBC Information Services, Ottawa 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



A DOCTOR'S EDUCATION 
goes on . . . and on . . . and on 


Gl "',, 
'.\\ 

 q
.I'- 
-
( 

 - 


"]t's not unusual on Heinz, Mrs. Sampson" 


Another thing you learn . . . Heinz Meats for Babies are a 
uniquely acceptable source of meat protein. Here are maximum 
food values, preserved by the most modern cooking and can- 
ning methods. Delicate flavours and perfected textures win an 
immediate welcome from the baby. No other baby meats are pre- 
pared -with such well-practised care to ensure acceptability. 


Samples for tasting or testing are yours for the asking. 
Write now. asking for Heinz Meats samples. to HEINZ BABY FOODS. LEAMINGTON. ONT. 


BFM-560A 


H
irì
 MeDtQ fen 1;?obLeG 11 


THE GOOD THEY DO NOW-LASTS A LIFETIME 


FEBRUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, NO.2 


159 



it Step .1 or ,mrd at Thistletown 


Sn,: 
IooRE 


The emotionally disturbed child! A sorry thought, to be sure, but this author 
is no longer sad,- she paid a visit to Thistletown. 


J UST inside the boundary of l\Ietro- 
poIitan Toronto a winding road 
leads to the entrance of a large, pleas- 
ant building surrounded by 98 acres of 
partly wooded, slightly hi1ly country- 

ide. There. in the summer months 
normal-looking children can be seen 
playing. Behind these normal appear- 
ances, howeyer, there are many strange 
and serious anxieties, for these are 
emotionally disturbed children. 
The buÍlding is Thistletown Hospi- 
tal, constructed in 1929 as the coun- 
try branch of the Hospital for Sick 
Children, Toronto. On February 8, 
1957 the Ontario government announ- 
ced the purchase of ThistIetown, to be 
used as Canada's first psychiatric 
treatment centre for children. This 
purchase was the result of a survey 
made by Dr. \Y. R. Keeler, which re- 
vealed the serious lack of residence 
facilities in Canada for the treatment 
of emotional1y disturbed children. 
Throughout Ontario there are several 
outpatient services and small residen- 
tial centres such as, the Sunnyside 
Children's Centre in Kingston and 
the Protestant Children's Vil1age in 
Ottawa, hut these are essentiaIly for 
less severel\' disturbed children. Facil- 
ities were ñeeded which would provide 
the more extreme cases with constant 
observati(Jl1 and treatment in a pro- 
tected and understanding environment. 
ThistIetown was the answer though at 
the time of purchase it was still only 
an idea and a hope. 
In Tanuan', 1959 I saw it as a 
reality: and ,,:as considerably impressed 
by the progress that had been made 
since it was opened the year before. 
The interior of the building had been 
redecorated. A gymnasium and a swim- 
ming pool were being added. 
The building is now made up of 


Miss Moore was a student in Queen's 
C'niversity School of Nursing, Kings- 
ton, when this visit was made. 


160 


three wings. The first contains of- 
fices for doctors, social workers, an 
occupational therapist and the dentist. 
The other two wings divide naturally 
into four living areas. On the lower 
floor are two wards for boys and girls 
under twelve years. These contain 
several large rooms, with varying num- 
bers of beds. At the end of each "vard 
there is a spacious, cheerful playroom 
where the children spend a great deal 
of time with their counsellors. There 
are two similar wards on the upper 
floor that are not in use yet but will 
eventuallv house adoIescenLc;;. \"hen the 
hospital fs in fuIl operation it will ac- 
commodate 72 children; during my 
visit there were only 18. In the base- 
ment there are more r00111s for recrea- 
tion including two small gyms, a work- 
shop and a ceramics room. Here, qual- 
ified staff members teach the children 
to use their hands and to express 
themselves through building and mod- 
eI1ing. At the end of the hall there is a 
rather formidable looking room with 
barred windows and mats on the floor. 
This room is used when a child gets 
out control. Instead of leaving him to 
overcome his anxiety alone a doctor 
or counselIor either goes into the room 
with him or waits outside until he has 
calmed down enough to talk. In this 
way treatment is administered as soon 
after the disturbance as possible in- 
stead of waiting for four or five hours 
when the child will not realIv care 
about it. - 
1 was also shown the cafeteria 
where a counselIor was eating at each 
table with two or three children. J\ ext 
to it was an interesting playroom. 
Along one side was a wide strip of 
mirror; opposite was a similar sheet 
of glass resembling a window. The 
children could not see through it but 
in the little room next door the doc- 
tors could watch and hear their pa- 
tients at play. This enabled them to 
discO\-er factors about the children 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



. 
..: 
'-' 
 


.-. ".: ::,...;.:; 1'! .,; -:. 
:-
. 
-
 ".
,.. " :;',. .:
., . :i"'
'" ' 


"_..':t";
'r. ....
..'t..._ 
;".""
"":
.--:-".__

". 


o 


orbel'\CY 
re ater ab S 
· 9 , rcienCY 
a ter e , 
. 9 re '1'1'\95 
tal'\t\a\ sa 
. soþs 


....PPER 


TRADE MARK 


PO T-OPERATIVE 
PONGES 


NOW 3 SIZES: 


4" X 3" 
4" X 4" 
8" X 4" 


MADE IN CANADA BY 
f "MOTE: 
 


. . 

J".. ."
:'" ":'

:.' 
 ,...

: .
'
.;: .::.... 
 _
.... : 4 -..p - ....7 ...
.r_...:.__ ---: 
..p
_....:-...
,. .
..


 


..,... :' 
. . 
.z" 


.:."
:: f': - 
;
 \",:
.
.';.-
'.'_:5 



which might not be evident if the doc- 
tor was present. 
Thistletown is administered by the 
:rvlental Health Division of the Ontario 
Department of Health. The aim of the 
hospital is to provide a centre for the 
residential treatment of emotionally 
disturbed children from six to seven- 
teen years of age. There is often mis- 
understanding of the expression "emo- 
tionally disturbed" ; many people 
interpret it as meaning retarded. This 
is not correct. :rvlost of the children 
at Thistletown have relatively high 
IQ's, although some may be retarded 
as a result of their emotional disturb- 
ance. 
Admissiun to the hospital depends 
upon the severity of the child's dis- 
turbance, and the prcsence of some 
indication that he wiII bencfit from 
the hospital's program. 
\fter heing 
recommended by a psychiatrist the 
child is interviewed at an outpatient 
clinic, and accepted only after careful 
consideration by the doctors at Thistle- 
town. There is a very long waiting 
list. 
There is a great variety of emotional 
illness treated at Thistlctown. Some of 
these disturhances are: neuroscs, 
primary behavior disorders, certain 
types of delinquency, brain damage and 
epilepsy combined with cmotional dis- 
orders, and psychotic il1nesses of an 
types including autism or childhood 
schizophrenia. l\Iany of these behavior 
problems ha \'e heen accentuated by a 
lack of love or an unhappy home life. 
The disturbances cause various reac- 
tions; some of the children are agres- 
sive and e\'cn violent whereas others 
vÚthdraw from society and may not 
move or speak for several hours. 
Several types of treatment are used 
to try to gain understanding of these 
anxieties, and to prepare the children 
to return to their homes. J n individual 
psychotherapy the doctor talks with 
the child, in the hope that he will re- 
veal something of his difficulty. This 
approach is more effective at Thistle- 
town than at an outpatient centre be- 
cause the child is able to discuss any 
emotional upset at the time or soon 
after it has happened and is more likely 
to be a ware of his trouble. 
Particular emphasis is being placed 
on milieu therapy. In this the treat- 
ment depends upon all the child's 


162 


surroundings and the people who come 
in contact with him. Everyone on the 
staff is trained to understand and take 
an interest in each child so that he is 
constantly undergoing therapy. One 
part of this procedure which is especial- 
ly beneficial is the practice of having 
ward meetings; they take place at the 
end of each eight-hour shift, and any- 
one on the staff who is free may attend. 
The children are discussed individu- 
ally, and any recent incidents with, 
or unusual observations of a child are 
brought up. Since these children react 
very differently to different situations 
these sessions result in a better under- 
standing of the child, by everyone. 
Another type of treatment used is 
play therapy. The occupational thera- 
pist is especially interested in it. In 
the large sunny playroom she can do 
wonders with the children by means 
of various games. She told about one 
little boy named Jimmy who, at timcs, 
"vould be extremely aggressive and at 
other times would witlHIraw complete- 
ly into a wodd of his own. Her job 
was to help him face reality so that he 
would eventually arrive at the level 
where he could talk to the doctors and 
associate with others. She hegan by 
spending a certain length of time each 
day with him. At first he threw blocks 
at hcr, so she put these away and be- 
gan making paper puppets, such as a 
witch to rcprcsent a naughty child and 
an angel. a good one. After a while 
Jimmy began making the puppets him- 
self, unconsciously expressing his 
world of fantasy. By this means and 
later by more complex games, he took 
steps toward a return to reality. 
Another thing which I found very 
interesting was the treatment and in- 
terpretation of 11lisbchO'l'ior. During my 
visit it was discO\'cred that five boys 
had broken a window and had run 
away. I was surprised that no one 
seemed especially alarmed, but was 
told that this was quite a common oc- 
currence. The grounds are large and 
the town small so that the children 
never get very far. '''hen the children 
returned they talked to the doctor and 
each was given the punishment that 
would do him the most good. This 
action, which seemed punishable to me, 
was actualIy a step in the direction of 
recovery. The children had cooper- 
ated in a group, whereas previously 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



HI I I ECI' l 
I lET : R I CURES 
RE : ISE I I N I I I 


, 


. -..,{f'" J '\ 
,: IV..." 

 

 u
 I 

... . t.. \\
 "<... . - ,,
. \i\\V.\t, ., 
L , , "... \
\
'" /L.,. /1 , 
j \\\ .,a\ t " 
. \ \\" L... '"' 
 ", \'0' .' 
- 16t\\\ 
 r" .:3 :J So "f ,,1 
,.. \'" >v ø'
. 

.
 . . 
 
- 
' .p;' ..... 
 " , 
',- Ç1} ... ...; . #': '" 
" 
---' V\
dI c

 
- ? è 
{\ 
 \ _ 
,f6 n 
 , 'l,(t 
a:;::;:
 ( - ) L. \ 
, - I 
 
A"> W L '-- 
. :.;.,' /\.:.... .. 


..Ji Ó\
\c:, 
,fli 



,a\ O\i r. 
\'1., (
 f.1S 
00 (
\O.\f. 0\ 
\It ," 
: .', . food' 
t muSt Include cø10Tie 
ur doily dtt lJT partic. u1aT h \\st. 
. e our ""eight 
:u

. i
ica::t
-: 
e co\ot 11\ eø c . b\e 
POR1"..1!, 1'O;
'
 . :.n ,:.:.:::.... i



gT<"1\)' bo",...r. it'. .,dv\>B 
'
rn fGC




:
}e 
t:
:; l
\ue
f 

 ;y yOO Vl\sn . . . "ND SfiOOtl&!t 
pol"':
\ori" l


 foOÓ" .nY 
 ,...SUIl.NG CUPS 
l
ou_ 109.:\,\:: into 'ð equ a \ 
I. S1,,"'D
RD '" 
t.o di" S \
:1. C,.lt.l.fU\.\.1 . . . 
",t... 


1tM!
ÐS 
,"0\'1- :t US 1S tOf 
Ð
\\1 0\1: 


""Q"I. 

'I(iII:.'
 
'""'twm
 "it.-
 


VEGETABLE LIST 


Each of the following food choices contains little 
carbohydrate, protein or calories. 


1200 CALORIE DIET . Choice of ony nlmber 
1600 CALORIE DIET. Choice of any nlmber 
1800 (AlOltE Din (Mic.o'", lIumbe, 


In Raw Form, Size of Serving Unlimited: Cooked. 
Size Serving Yo to 1 cup. 





Pïus f:fr.:
;t 
:Ïedelion 
Brussels M ushrooma Mustard 
sprouts Okra Spinach 
g




':ver 
"iJi:hes 



:rr:

ns 
Celery Greens: String beans 
Chicory Beet greens Summer squash 
Cucumber Chard Tomatoes 
Escarole Collards Watercress 
OR You may choose from this vegetable list. Each 
of the following foods contains 7 grams carbohy- 
drate,2 grams protein, 35 calories. 


1200 CALORIE DIET . Choice of any 2 
1600 CALORIE DIET. Choice of any 4 
1..' t CALORIE DIET Choic(!.faì1y4 


One Serving Equals y:! cup. 



tß 


pf;
n 
Onions Rutabagas 


Squash, winter 
Turnips 


:."4 


BREAD LIST 


Each of the following food choices contains 15 
grams carbohydrate, 2 grams protein, 70 calories. 


1200 CALORIE DIET. Choice of any 3 
1600 CALORIE DIET . Choice of any 4 
1800CALORlfDtET (hofCéOf ony 3 


Amount to Use 
Bread, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 slice 
Biscuit, roll (2" diameter). . . . .1 
Muffin (2" diameter',... _.. ,.1 
Cornbread (l J.. 2 " cube) . . . . . . . .1 
Cereals, cooked, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Y2 cup 
Dry, flake and puff types.. . .. . 
i cup 
Rice, grits. cooked. . . . . Y:í cup 
Spaghetti, noodles, cooked.. , \
 cup 
l\-Iacaroni. cooked. . . . . . . . . . 

 cup 
Crackers, graham (2!A.j. aq.). _ _ .2 
Oysterettes (!A.j cup) . . . . . . . . . ,20 
Saltines (2. sq.)....... . ,:; 
Soda (2 \1" sq.) . . . . . . . . . . . .3 
Round, thin. . ,6 
Flour, .' . . .2 1 2 tablespoons 
Ve
:


l

d peas, dried, cooked ,!'2 cup 
(lima, navy. split peas, cowpea, etc.) 
Baked beans. no pork........ ':
 cup 
Corn, . . . . . . ' !'3 cup 
Popcorn. . . ,1 cup 
Parsnips . % cup 
Potatoes, white. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 small 
Potatoes, white, mashed, . . . Y2 cup 
Potatoes. sweet or yams. . . . . . . . 1..( cup 
Sponge cake, plain (1!A.j" cube). . .1 
Ice cream (omit two fat 
choices).. .................. 
 cup 


"" 


'Ä 


r 

 


1'" 


.. 
( 


MILK LIST 
Each of the following food choices contE 
grams carbohydrate, 8 grams protein, 10 grl 
and 170 calories. 


1200 CALORIE DIET . Choice, 
1600 CA
ORIE DIET . Choice of a 
1800 CALOR' DIET Choice 0' . 


A moun 
Wholp milk (plain or homogenized) . . 
*Skim n,ilk. . . , . . . . . .. . . . 
Evaporated milk. . ... 
Powdered whole milk, . . . 
*Non,fat dry milk solids. . . . . . . ' . . . 
Buttermilk (made from whole milk) . . 
*Buttermilk (made from skim milk) . . . . 
You can use the milk on your meal plan t 
in coffee, on cereal, or with other foods. 
*Skim milk products contain It<>sB fat. \Vhen used I 
whole milk add 2 fat choices to get the some food t
 
FAT LIST 
Each of the following food choices contains 
fat, 45 calories. 


1200 CALORIE DIET . Choice 
1600 CALORIE DIET . Choice of . 
1800 CAlORtE01[r .C1.ic& of.. 


Amou 
Butter or margarine (1 small pat) . ,1 tef 


:E': 
:

: :.:.:.:.:.: :::::::::::J m 


KNOX SPECIAl DIETS BASE I 


order your office requirements with coupon below 


KNOX GELATINE (CANADA) LIMITED CD.26 
Professiona I Service Department 
140 Saint Paul S1. West, Montreal, Quebec 
Please send me copies of the following Knox Special 
Diet Brochures: 
I Special Reducing Diet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ., . . . . dozen 
J New Variety in Meal Planning for the Diabetic........ .dozen 
Individualized Low Salt Diets.... _ _.' _.............. . dozen 
your name and address 


KNOX 
 
UNFLAVORED 
- 
32 . '. 
5-J..._ KNOX 
GELATI UNfLAYORID 

 
 
Q, \...
 

'RE ' GELÄTlNE 
--u;;:::
:: 
 


it 



Ie. . ". .............. .1 tablespoon 
diameter) . . . . . . . . . , . . I , 
ing . . . , . . , . . , . , , . . . . .1 tablespoon 
,........ .1 teaspoon 
.g f
t..::..:::. _:::::::
 
:'n":fl"on 
.....................5small 


5T 


following food choices contains 10 
lydrate and 40 calories. 


ORIE DIET . Choice of any 5 
ORIE DIET . Choice of any 5 
OR'fDIU . ChèÌ<eof on, S 


Amount to UB
 
,meter) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 small 

h"":::::::::::::::: 

 

Jium 
ed. ..............4halves 
. .............._....Y:!small 
'. ........ .1 cup 
...... ........1 cup 
.....................1 cup 
. . . '. _ _.' _. _ _. 73 cup 
6" diameter) . . . . . . . . . . I. 
. . . . .10 large 
. .2 
. .2 large 
, 1 small 
........31small 
<ice . . . . . . . . . , '-2 cup 
. 12 

l';n. ;";';di;'';': : : : . : : . : t
 cup 
. . . . . . . . . . . 
 small 
.. ..lsmall 
......31cup 



:
:

: :::.'. : : ::::: :::::::::::: : fi=

 
Pear. . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . .. . . . . . . . . .1 small 
iE:f.

 

.
': '. : : : : ' .: :: :: : : : 
lEÆum 
Prunes, dried. . . . . . . . . . .2 medium 
Rai8Íns, . . . . . . . . . .2 tablespoons 
Tangerine ....'... . .. .1 large 
Watermelon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 cup 
You may use your fruit fresh. dried. cooked. canned 
or frozen as long 88 no sugar has been added. 
MEAT LIST 
Each of the following food choices contains 7 grams 
protein, 5 grams fat, 75 calories. 


1211 0 'I DIET. Choice of any 4 
1600 CALORIE DIET . Choice of anv 6 
1800 CALORIE DIET . C!,oiCfOf any 6 


Amount to Use 


Meat and Poultry (medium fat) 
3,4 Oz. Average Serving (Beef, 
lamb. pork, liver, chicken, etc.) .1 ounce. 
Cold cuts (4!-1" x 1,") Salami, 
Minced Ham, Bologna, 
Liverwurst. Luncheon Loaf. . . .1 slice 
Frankfurter (8-9 per lb.) . . . . . . . .1 

fst
 'h'add

k: .ti';";';d
;: b
: .. .1 
3,4 Oz. Average Serving. . . . . . .1 ounce. 
Serving 
Salmon. tuna. crab. lobster. . . . U cup 
Shrimp, clams, oysters, etc.. . . .5 small 
Sardines.. .................3 medium 
Cheese, Cheddar type. . . . . . . . . .1 ounce 
Pe;


a

iie
'. '::.':::::::::::: :

t
bfes
ns 
*Equalsl Meal Choü:e;3oz.".,rvÎng ""."3 MealLilll Choü:e,. 


I 0 EXCHANGES 


1. are authoritative 1 
eliminate calorie counting 
J ovide a wide variety of food 
. assure a balanced intake 
Jtein; carbohydrate, and fat 


"BETWEEN-MEAL" SNACK LIST 


Each of the following "Between,Meal" 
snacks is made with Knox-the real un- 

i:
f

cte



';;

H i;

Pr
r.,i
8Kc



 
_1m 1..,nlJ
":IIIII:I_ ( 
Toke 
1600 CALORIE DIET (Knox Drink 
1800 CALORIE DIET ) 3 times doily 


Take Ihe Knox Hlgh,Prolein Drink V. hour 
before meals as a cold drink (wit" Fruit Juice.). 
Empty 1 envelope Knox Gelatine in % 


r
f 

:ni
J
iL;t o


i
ru

;bst

 
ffli
t
hi
J.;


 :à
 :


lìiq




u



: 
OR 
As a hol drink (witlo Bouillon'. Sprinkle 1 en- 
velope Knox Gelatine on '. cup cold water 
to soften. Add 1 bouiJIon cube and % cup 


:iì
n 


. a
:irth

;
gJ;laJ
I::d
 
% cup of any very hot broth may be used 
in place of bouillon. 
After you have reached your weighl goal. . . 
take Knox UBooster" Drink (with milk) to 
mainlaln welghl and 10 supply addillonal pro- 
I.ln. 1 (8 ox.) glass contains 15 grams prol.ln, 



r

;hi;s;,,
 t
n
e'ì

O K

:'ðe
:fu; 
with 3 to 6 tablespoons instant non-fat dry 
milk (varies with- brand). Fill with cold 
water. Stir briskly until milk thoroughly 
dissolves. Drink quickly. 


1. The Food Exchanges Lists referred to 
are based on material in "Meal Planning 
with Exchange Lists" prepared by 
Committees of the American Diabetes 
Association, Inc. and The American 
Dietetic Association in cooperation with 
the Chronic Disease Program, Public 
Health Service, Department of Health, 
Education and Welfare. 


.Knox Gelatine is an economical source 
of the a-amino acid lysine. 



each had kept to himself. Almost every- 
thing that happens at the hospital is 
converted into a contribution towards 
the children's recovery. 
School is held at ThistIetown in a 
classroom similar to a regular one. 
There is only one teacher at the hos- 
pital now, but eventually they hope to 
have a principal and five teachers. 
The rest of the staff consists of 
several psychiatrists, a psychologist, 
group and case social workers, a part- 
time dentist, an occupational thera- 
pist and approximately one counsellor 
or child care worker for each child. 
These counsel1ors work on eight-hour 

hifts since no one on the staff lives 
right in the hospital. It is felt that a 
change of environment is a necessity 
for the staff. 
The training program for the coun- 
sellors or child care workers is one 
of the main projects of ThistIetown 
and is an important part of the new 
plan. They come from varied back- 
ground and experiences; some have 
only high school graduation whereas 
others have university degrees or train- 
ing in a special field. A one or two 
year course is offered depending on 
the qualifications of the applicant. 
There are regular lectures on such 
subjects as child psychology, psychia- 
tric theory and group dynamics ac- 
companied by a great deal of practical 
work. Numerous graduate nurses have 
taken the course. There are also two 


GJ.('('tings fl'onl the IUN PI.(
sident 



 ew Year's Greetings to each of you!! 
It is a joy and a privilege to send a mes- 
sage of good will to our ICN members in 
all parts of the world. 
The past year has been a busy one. We 
are proud of the progress achieved but con- 
cerned about the magnitude of the task be- 
fore us. Weare encouraged by the increased 
opportunity to be of service but at times 
frustrated by the limitations of our resources 
to give that service. However, pride. con- 
cern, encouragement, and even frustration 
can become the stepping-stones to our future 
success. 
As nurses and as citizens the demands and 


166 


nurses who care for the physical health 
of the patients. 
It is intended that the treatment 
program ,yill be intensive and short, 
lasting about six to twelve months. 
However, the time limit is flexible 
enough to vary with the needs of the 
individual. \\Then the child has im- 
proved enough he returns home if his 
family conrlitions are satisfactory. If 
he is a ward of the Children's Aid he 
is placed in a suitable foster home. 
If, after the normal time limit, a pa- 
tient shows no sign of benefiting from 
the program he will be sent to another 
hospital for further treatment. 
ThistIetown is also being used for 
research. Long and short term pro- 
grams are heing developed. Data 
gathered will be available to research 
workers at the university. In both the 
research and counsellor training pro- 
grams Thistletown is paving the way 
for more hospitals of this kind. 
\ Vhat impressed me most about 
This!letown was the new approach 
which is being taken to this type of 
mental il1ness. I found the many 
original me
hods and attitudes most 
interesting and was amazed at their 
effectiveness. In Britain and the United 
States there are centres that have been 
using these methods for several years, 
but Canada has been far behind. 
Thistletown, therefore, marks a step 
forward in the treatment of emotional- 
ly ill children. 


responsihilities for the next year will, un- 
doubtedly, be even more complex. Let us 
dedicate ourselves anew to the furtherance 
of our mutual goals - having the courage 
to extend our programs, the wilIingness to 
give ourselves still further, and the faith 
that we \VILL succeed. 
Thank you for your loyal support of the 
ICN during 1959. The ICN will con- 
tinue to grow in usefulness as we have the 
benefit of your wisdom, loyalty, and friend- 
ship in the years to come. May 1960 bring 
you a rich measure of persona] happiness 
and professional satisfaction 
- AGNES OHLSON 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Time 
after 
time... 
in study 
after 
study 


HL I R I MVCETIN@ 


PROVES OUTSTANDINGLY EFFECTIVE AGAINST PROBLEM PATHOGENS 


IN VITRO SENSITIVITY OF GRAM-POSITIVE COCCI FROM 5,600 CONSECUTIVE CULTURES 
TO CHLOROMYCETIN AND TO THREE OTHER BROAD-SPECTRUM ANTIBIOTICS. 


760/0 CHLOROMYCETIN 


65" ANTIBIOTIC A 


64" ANTIBIOTIC B 


58" ANTIBIOTIC C 


.Adapted from Leming, B. H., Jr., &: Flanigan, C., Jr., in Welch, H., &: Marti-Ibãnez, F.: Antibiotics Annual 
1958-1959, New York, Medical Encyclopedia, Inc., 1959, p. 414. 


CHLOROMYCETIN (chloramphenicol, Parke-Davis) is available in various forms, 
including Kapseals@ of 250 mg., in bottles of 16 and 100. 
CHLOROMYCETIN is a potent therapeutic agent and, because certain blood dyscrasias 
have been associated with its administration, it should not be used indiscriminately 
or for minor infections. Furthermore, as with certain other drugs, adequate blood 
studies should be made when the patient requires prolonged or intermittent 
therapy. 


"f. .. oft 

Ið: PARKE, DAVIS & CO., LTD. 
'. 
 . ,,' 


MONTREAL 9, P.Q. 


olin 


eREC:. 'YRADEMARIt 


CP08960 


FEBRUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No.2 


167 



jln :Ølemoríam 


Mrs. Hughena Jean Black who gradu- 
ated from St. Joseph's Hospital, London, 
Onto in 1953, died on February 7, 1959. 
* * * 
Agnes (Beahan) Cumming, a graduate 
of St. Luke's General Hospital, Ottawa, 
died recently. 


* * * 
Mayme E. (Pritchard) Dinning, a 
graduate of St. Luke's General Hospital, 
Ottawa, died recently. 
* * * 
l\fargaret Drew, a Nova Scotia nurse 
who graduated from a Boston, lIassachusetts 
hospital in 1908, died on August 11, 1959. 
During \V orId 'AT ar I she served overseas. 
* * * 
Yvonnt" Thérèse (Cottreau) d'Entre- 
mont who graduated from the Children's 
Hospital, Halifax in 1956, died recently in 
a motor accident. She was on the staff of 
the Faulkner Hospital. Jamaica Plains, New 
York. 
* * * 
Jane Grant, a graduate of a :\Iinneapolis 
huspitaI in 1899, died on October 4, 1959. 
For a number of years she was in charge of 
the social service department of the Toronto 
General HDspital. Later she worked with 
the Visiting Nurses' Association in Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 
* * * 
Blanche Marier, a graduate of Hôpital 
du Sacré Coeur, Cartierville, P.Q., in 1943, 
died on September 26, 1959. She had en- 
gaged in institutional nursing. 
* * * 
Mary McKeil who graduated from Vic- 
turia General Hospital, Halifax in 1903, died 
on October 22, 1959. She was charter and 
honurary member of the RNANS and a 
charter member of her hospital's alumnae 
association. 
liss :\lcKeil was R2. 
* * * 
Eleanor McPhedran, a Canadian grad- 
uate of the New York Training School of 
Nursing in 1906, died on October 25, 1959. 
A former assistant matron of Calgary Gen- 
eral Hospital and matron of Ogden Con- 
valescent Hospital, :\Iiss 11cPhedran served 
in Canadian general hospitals in England 
and France during World \Var I. Follow- 
ing her return to Canada, she was appointed 
as matron of the Colonel Belcher Hospital, 
Calgary. Later she became matron of the 


IG8 


Central Alberta Sanatorium from which 
she retired in 1935 to become secretary of 
the Calgary branch of the V.O.).J. She was 
extremely active in the organization of the 
nurses of Alberta and became the first 
nurse to register with the AARN following 
its incorporation in 1916. She was appointed 
as the first nurse registrar of the associ- 
ation. In recognition of her contribution 
to nursing in Canada, :\Iiss McPhedran was 
awarded the Mary Agnes Snively Medal. 
* * * 
Mary Margaret (Curtis) Ruddy who 
graduated from the General Hospital, Osha- 
wa. Ont., in 19-H, died during 1959. She had 
engaged in institutional nursing prior to her 
marnage. 
* * * 
Blanche M. Shute, an Alberta nurse and 
faithful supporter of the A.-\RX, died re- 
cently. 


* 


* 


* 


Mary Sim, a graduate of O\ven Sound 
General and Uarine Hospital in 1905, died 
on November 19, 1959. She had engaged 
in private nursing for many years until ad- 
vanced age and ill health forced her retire- 
ment. She was 85 years of age. 
* * * 
Sister St. Francis Xavier of the Sisters 
of St. Francis of Assissi, Hôpital St. Fran- 
çois d'Assise, Quebec, died on November 
21, 1959. Sister had served as instructor and 
director of nursing education at Ste. Jeanne 
d' Arc Hospital, Montreal, and Hôpital St. 
François d' Assise, Quebec. 
* * * 
Gladys Lillian (Crozier) Stewart who 
graduated from Brockville General Hospital, 
Ont., in 1928, died recently. She had en- 
gaged in private nursing. 
* * * 
Dorothy Eileen (HeinmilIer) Swener- 
ton, a graduate of Toronto General Hospital 
in 1943, died on October 29, 1959, in Kam- 
loops, British Columbia, 
* * * 
Frances L. (Richards) "'atson who 
graduated from the Hospital for Sick Chil- 
dren, Toronto in 1956, died during 1959. 
She had engaged in institutional nursing. 


By all means use some times to be alone. 
- GEORGE HFRBERT 


THE CANADIAN :"JeRSE 



when patients complain of 
itching, scaling, burning 
scalps - they can be sure 
of quick, lasting control 
when they use 


.
 -<., 

 
.," - 
, 1fA,." 
\ 
 A 
..: I V .. 

; \ \. 

 


SELSUN 8 


for 
seborrheic 
dermatitis 


controls 81-87% of all 
seborrheic dermatitis, 92. 
95% of all dandruff cases. 
Once scaling is controlled, 
SELSUN keeps the scalp 
healthy for one to four 
weeks with simple, pleasant 
treatments. Available in 
4-fluidounce bottles 


ABBOTT 


ABBOTT LABORATORIES LIMITED 

10NTREAL 



 

 


@SELSUN Sulfide Suspension / Selenium Sulfide, Abbott 


FEBRUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No. 2 


169 



S"'Y "COKE" OR "COC'" COL...... BOTH TR...DE-M...RKS ME"'N THE PRODUCT OF COC.....COLA LTD. -THE WORLD S BEST-LOVED SPARKLING DRINK. 


L 


170 


'<' ," --.oci"'
', 



 


. 


f 


'
 
lit 


, 


B 


p 


p, 


---' 


J 


l 


I 
þ r' 


... 


"1 
"...J 


When too many tasks seem to crowd the unyielding hours, 


a welcome "pause that refreshes" with ice-cold Coca-Cola 


often puts things into manageable order. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Baby's Own Tablets 


effectively 
safely 
establishes 
a normal 


stool 


pattern 


. 
In 


,. 


. 


. 


constIpatIon 
relieves teething malaise, fretfulness 


SUBSTANTIAL CLINICAL DATA clearly 
demonstrate the efficacy of BABY'S 
OWN TABLETS in establishing a 
normal stool pattern in constipated 
babies from 2 months to 24 months 
of age . . . and in promptly easing 
the distress of teething. 
All 75 babies (except one) studied 
were relieved of straining at stool, 
gas distress, fretfulness, drooling. 
They became cheerful, ate well, slept 
well. 


COMPLETE SAFETY. . . No untoward 
reactions whatever were observed 
when given in suggested dosage: 
one tablet each night at bedtime. 
BABY'S OWN TABLETS provide Phenol- 
phthalein :t16 grain, mildly buffered 
with Precipitated Calcium Carbon- 
ate % grain, and Powdered Sugar 
q.s. Pleasant, convenient. 
WRITE for a sample supply and liter- 
ature citing references. 1-15 


G. T. FULFORD CO., LIMITED, Brockville, Ontario 


FEBRUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, NO.2 


171 




ød 'RerdeeH 


History and Trends of Professional 
:Sursing by Deborah MacLurg Jensen, 
R.N., B.S., M.A. 610 pages. The C. V. 
Mosby Company, St. Louis, Mo. 4th ed. 
1959. Price $5.25. 
Re'l'ic'H!ed b}' .Hiss Isabel Misener, Direc- 
tor, School of Nursing, Victoria General 
Hospital, H'imlipeg. 
In this edition, the author has aimed at 
a review of historical events and at stress- 
ing the widening role of the present profes- 
sional nurse in society. This has been done 
in a fine manner. One cannot read the book 
without feeling that nursing is being placed 
more and more among the leading "social" 
professions and that it is being solidly com- 
bined with education. 
I t is important for the nurse to know 
what the past has been, in order that she 
can understand the relationships and changes 
of today. For centuries, nursing and hospi- 
tals were outgrowths of charity. It was not 
until the social outlook changed that a 
broader view toward the health of the public 
was taken. The reformation, the industrial 
revolution, the machine age, the enfranchise- 
ment of women, all had an effect on nursing. 
One of the most important results was the 
entire reform of nursing education. This 
book deals primarily with that topic. The 
dominant figure in the development of pro- 
fessional nursing was Florence Nightingalc. 
She realized that knowledge and skill were 
necessary and that these could be achieved 
only by education. At the time of her death, 
the nurse had professional status, and there 
was an urgent need for organized schools 
of nursing. 
The period from 1870 portrays interest- 
ingly the early schools of nursing, their 
weaknesses and their aims, the improvement 
of educational standards, and organization 
within the profession. The author has pointed 
out such major changes as the growing 
awareness of the n
ed for research; the 
role played by the nurse in community 
health, and the gradual recognition by gov- 
ernments that nursing education is one of 
their responsibilities. 
The questions and study projects for the 
individual units are to the point. The sec- 
tion on legal aspects is concise and well- 
expressed. The graduate nurse is given ample 
help and suggestion for her planning for the 
future. The book is a maj Or contribution, 


172 


and a challenge to us to help in the con- 
tinual advancement of nursing education. 


:\Iicrobiolog
r by Louis P. Gebhardt, Ph.D., 
M.D. and Dean A. Anderson, M.S., Ph.D. 
476 pages. The C. V. 
Iosby Company, 
St. Louis, Mo. 2nd ed. 1959. Price $5.75. 
Re'l!ie'wed b}, Sr. Capt. Ethel KoUhI, Di- 
rcctor of Education, Grace Hospital, TV in- 
llipeg. 
This book is written to provide a broad 
general course for university and college 
students. It could be used with profit by 
students interested in microbiology as re- 
lated to public health, sanitation, industry, 
food preparation and food handling. 
The author has produced a very readable 
book that includes new and up-to-date ma- 
terial. The many applications to everyday 
living help to stress the practical as well as 
the scientific point of view. 
This book would make good reference 
reading for a nurses' library, particularly 
the sections on sanitation, industry, anti- 
biotics and pathogens. The latter is clear, 
concise and provides descriptions of organ- 
isms involved, the mode of disease produc- 
tion and the methods used to detect the 
causative agent. As a text for nurses I 
feel that: 
1. The application of basic principles 
to nursing situations is lacking or very 
brief: for example, provision for and main- 
tenance of aseptic technique in nursing 
measures to prevent cross infections. 
2, Technical material and specific tests 
occupy space out of proportion to a nurse's 
need. 
3. The sections on 1>ublic health organ- 
ization and problems is well written but ap- 
ply specifically to the United States. There 
is a very brief history of international or- 
ganization but no reference to Canada or 
other countries. 


Human Relations in 
lJrsing by \Yayland 
J, Hayes, Ph.D. and Rena Gazaway, R.N., 
B.S., lLA. 486 pages. \V. B. Saunders 
Company, \\t'est VVashington Square, Phila- 
delphia. 2nd ed. 1959. $5.25. 
Re'l!ie'll!ed b}' ltfrS. Hester KeYllen, as- 
sociate professor in public health nursing, 
University of Saskatclle'lC'an, Saskatooll, 
Sask. 
The ohjective of this bouk is "to help 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



nurses gain maximum insight concerning the 
human relatiunships involved in professional 
sen.ice." A high degree of skill in human 
relations is emphasized today as a desirable 
attribute of the professional person what- 
ever his field of technical competence. This 
is especially true in nursing which tradition- 
ally has held sympathetic personal attention 
to the patient as a central feature of the 
professional role. At times the pressure for 
efficiency in the performance of technical 
functions has resulted in an impression of 
lack of warmth in nurse-patient relation- 
ships and neglect of what is now referred 
to as "the patient as a person." 


I t is believed that one way to correct 
this lack and to provide a balanced appruach 
to the health and social problems of patients 
and families is through greater emphasis in 
nursing- education on the use of concepts 
from the social sciences. This textbook is 
designed for such use and could be considered 
as comparable to anatomy and physiology 
texts which, in the area of biological sciences, 
provide basic concepts to be applied in 
nursing practice. 


Part Olle provides an orientation to soci- 
ology with illustrations of basic concepts 
drawn from nursing as well as from previous 
common experience. Chapter seven - "So- 
ciety Implies People" - is typical of the 
style. Demography is presented as a body 
of knO\\ ledge essential to the understanding 
of problems of health and medical care, and 
to planning changes in nursing education and 
nursing service to meet the need of society. 
.\ minimum of statistics, based on United 
States data, is used and is presented in 
clear, comprehensible tables that clarify the 
concepts taught. 


Part Two provides analyses of nursing 
situations in terms of social factors in- 
volved as a means of encouraging a broader 
understanding both of the patient's problems 
and community health needs. Community re- 
sources to meet such needs are presented 
as basic principles rather than specific agency 
programs. Thus the information is directly 
applicable to any community. This part of 
the book could be a valuable reference for 
clinical conferences, the study of communi ty 
health organization or similar courses. 


This could be recommended as a valuable 
source book for graduate nurses who have 
not had a course in sociology and who wish 
to improve their understanding of the world 
in which we live and work. 


FEBRUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No.2 


Treatment 
mS!
!h!)ity* 


Mucosity often causes: 
CATARRH, "BAD BREATH" 
"DENTURE ODOR" 
POST-NASAL DRIP 
VULVAR IRRITATION 
and may be controlled with 


GLYC , · 


THYMOLINE@ 
An alkaline cleansing solution 
for soothing mucous membranes 


"Then excessive. sticky, mucus secretions 
harass the Oral or Genital passages, a rinse, 
spray or douche 
ith soothing GI}co,Thymo- 
line helps amazingl}. GI)co-Thymoline con- 
tains the follo\\Íng active ingredients: 
Alcohol 4 C(, 
Sodium Benzoate Eucalyptol 
Sodium,Bi,Carbonate ::\Ienthol 
Borax Thymol 
Sodium Salicylate Oil S\\eet Birch 
(-;Iycerine Oil Pini Pumilionis 
I t 
orks differently: 
1. It removes germ,ladden mucus secretions. 
2. It helps "tone,up" mucous membranes to 
resist infection. 
3. It aids healing amazingly. 
ok It neutralizes acidity 
ith an alkalinity 
quotient of pH 7.2 plus. 
5. It refreshes as it cleanses. 
6. It relieves soreness. 
That's 
hy leading physicians, including 
eminent Rhinologists and Gynecologists, rec- 
ommend Glyco,Thymoline so highly, for 
"mucosity" (abnormal, excessive mucus se- 
cretions). Glyco,Thymoline can be freely 
recommended 
ith complete confidence. 
Pleasant, deodorizing. refreshing, Glyco- 
Thymoline IS available at your local drug 
stores 
ithout a prescription. Sugge,.;t the 
large economy size. 


I-------------ì 
KRESS & OWEN CO. CANADA LTD. CN,A 
I 286 St. Paul Street W., Montreal I 
I Gentlemen: Please send me (free) sample I 
I of Glyco-Thymoline I 
I Address". ..... I 
LC
y=,,=,,
,=,:,,::, 
 
..
 :."="=.J 


173 



WE ARE SPECIALISTS IN THE SALE OF 


NURSING 
AND 
PRIVATE HOSPITALS 


HOMES 


ALL OVER ONTARIO 
LARGE AND SMALL 
FULLY FURNISHED AND IN OPERATION 
FROM $7,000 DOWN 
TERMS ARRANGED 


YOUR ENQUIRIES INVITED 
WALTER ENSKA T REALTY LTD. 
Business Brokers 
42 Sterling Street, Hamilton, Ontario 
Phone JA 2-0178, anytime 


The New Yorle Polyclinic 


MmlCAL SCHOOL AND HOSPITAL · Organized 1881 


The Pioneer Postgraduate Medica/Institution in America 
Announces the following Courses (Six Months DurationJ 
for qualified Graduate Nurses 


OPERATING ROOM NURSING 
MEDICAL SURGICAL NURSING 
OUT PATIENT DEPARTMENT NURSING 


Courses include lectures by the Faculty of the Medical School and the 
Nursing Department 
Stipend of $50.00 per month and full maintenance is provided 


For information address: 
Director of Nursing Education, 345 W. 50th St., New York, 19, N.Y. 


174 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



io ' 
- 

i 


L 


Emergency Resuscitator 


Known as the "Ambu," this emergency 
resuscitator can provide unlimited respira- 
tion with atmospheric air. For special cases 
the unit can be used in conjunction with an 
oxygen supply. The bag is self-inflating, 
owing to its spccial lining of foam rubber, 
and is so sensitive that the opcrator can 
easily detect obstruction in the airways of 
the patient. 
During artificial respiration the bag is 
rhythmically compressed forcing air through 
the mask-connection into the patient's lungs. 
A non-rebreathing valve ensures that the 
air forced to the patient passes to atmos- 
phere upon exhalation. Atmospheric air is 
sucked through an inlet valve into the bag 
when the operator releases pressure on it. 
The compactness and simple operation of the 
Ambu resuscitator makes it an indispensable 
part of the emergency equipment of hos- 
pitals, ambulances and first aid rooms. 
Complete information available from The 
British Oxygen Canada Limited, Horner 
Avenue, Toronto 14. 
* * * 
A comprehensive annotated bibliography, 
consisting of over 300 references on staphyl- 
ococcal infections, was featured in the De- 
cember issue of the A mericall ] oltrnal of 
Nursing. Culled from bacteriologic, medical, 
nursing, and public health literature, the 
list includes material which should be use- 
ful to anyone in the health field with an in- 
terest in setting and maintaining standards 
of asepsis. 
A limited number of reprints of the sec- 
tion are available at a cost of 25 cents. 
Copies can be secured by writing to the 
American] ournal of Nursing, 10 Columbus 
Circle, New York 19, N.Y. 


FEBRUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No.2 


1 


EXPERIENCED 
TRAVELERS DEPEND 
AND SAY' 


COOI('S 


LEADERS IN 
WORLD TRAVEL 


Your Official Travel Agents for the 
CNA Post-Convention Tour to 
Europe following the CNA Biennial 
Meeting at Halifax June 1960 - 
The Best in European Travel includ- 
ing the Passion Play at Oberam- 
mergau. Send your applications to 
the Canadian Nurses' Association 
in Ottawa. 


Cook's Offices in Canada 
MONTREAL - TORONTO - WINNIPEG 
CALGARY - EDMONTON - VANCOUVER 


Cook's Travelers Cheques 
Still only 75 C per $100.00 




l
 t 
,.' .' 
 
.,' · r "'C 
.-.. ,... 

" 


.') EFFiciency 
-
 Eco'norny 

 Protectioll 


- '1<
 


THAT ALL UNIFORMS 
CLOTHING AND 
OTHER BElONGINGS 
ARE MARKED WITH 


CASH'S NAMES 


Permanent, easy identification. Easily sewn on or 
attached with No-So Cement. From dealers or 
CASH'S Belleville 5, Onto 
CASH'S: 3 Doz. $1.80; 9 Doz. $3.00; NO-SO 
NAMES: 6 Doz. $2.40; 12 Doz. $3.50; 3St per tube 


THE MOUNTAIN 
SANATORIUM 
Tuberculosis Division of the 
Hamilton Health Association 
offers 
a two months postgraduate course in 
IMMUNOLOGY, 
PREVENTION AND TREATMENT 
of 


TUBERCULOSIS 


Write: 
DIRECTOR OF NURSING, 
BOX 590, HAMILTON, ONTARIO. 


175 



EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES 
---------------------------ì 
ADVERTISING RATES I 
Canada & Bern1uda - $7.50 for 3 lines or less; $1.50 for I 
each additional line. I 
U.S.A. & Foreign - $10.00 for 3 lines or less; $3.00 for each I 
additional line. 
.\.11 advertisell1ents published in both English and French I 
issues. Closing date for insertion or cancellation orders, I 
SIX 'VEEKS prior to date of publication. I 
English issue published the first of each mOl/tlz. I 
A ddress correspondence to: I 
THE CANADIAN NCRSE JOrRNAL I 
1522 SHERBROOKE STREET "EST I 
MONTREAL 25, QUEBEC 
---------------------------
 


ALBERTA 
Registered Nurses for modern 44-bed hospital. Minimum salary $325 per mo. with $5.00 
increments per mo. after each 6-mo. service. Full maintenance for $30 per mo. Group 
medical & hospitalization plan. Apply: Holy Cross Hospital, Spirit River, Alberta. 
General Duty Nurses (2-immediately) for 21-bed hospital, $250 per mo. plus room, board 
& laundry, 4-wk. vacation with pay after I-yr. service. Increments of $5.00 every 6-mo., 
sick time accumulative lIlz days per mo. Matrons position will be vacant next June. 
Anyone interested apply: E. A. Richardson, Matron, Municipal Hospital, Berwyn, Alberta. 
Graduate Nurses for General Duty in new 30-bed hospital 90-mi. from Calgary on 
Trans Canada Highway. 44-hr. wk., generous personnel policies. For particulars apply 
to: The Matron, Municipal Hospital, Bassano, Alberta. 
General Staff Nurses (immediately) for new modern hospital of 243-beds, 37-bassinettes. 
School of nursing has a present enrollment of 58 students. Temporary residence avail- 
able in new nurses' home. 40-hr. wk., with liberal personnel policies, Apply to: Director 
of Nursing, Municipal Hospital, Medicine Hat, Alberta. 
BRITISH COLUMBIA 
Director of Nursing for new 125-bed hospital in Central British Columbia. Excellent 
opportunity for individual with organizational ability & initiative. Preference given to a 
graduate of a course in Nursing Administration. Suite provided in new nurses residence 
at nominal charge. Salary open. Apply to: W. G. Townend, Administrator, Prince George 
& District H 
spital-,- Prince George, British Columbia. 
Operating Room Supervisor for modern 154-bed General Hospital. Please reply stating 
age, qualifications & experience. Salary based on above. General Duty Nurses. basic 
salary $285, generous personnel policies, nurses' residence. Apply to: Director of Nurses, 
Trail- Tadanas Hospital, Trail, British Columbia. 
Registered Nurses (3) for 30-bed hospital. Starting salary $285 per mo. with $10 yearly 
increment. Past service recognized for salary purposes. Board & room $40, lIIz day sick 
leave per mo. 40-hr. wk. 11 statutory holidays .& 28 days vacation after I-yr. service. Com- 
fortable nurses' residence next door to hospital. Rotating shifts. Please apply to: The 
Matron, Community Hospital, Grai1d Forks, British Columbia. 
Registered Nurses (3) for 30-bed hospital in Central B.G. on the Jasper-Prince Rupert 
Highway, 70-mi. from Prince George. Salary $290 per mo., 10 legal days with pay per 
year; lIlz-days sick leave per mo., 28-days vacation after I-yr. Laundering of uniforms 
by hospital; modern nurses' residence $50 per mo. Kindly apply giving qualifications & 
references to: Sister Superior, St. John Hospital, Vanderhoof, British Columbia. 
General Duty Nurses for small active hospital. Salary $250 for unregistered, $260 
registered with yearly increments. Nurses' home available. For further particulars write, 
The Administrator, Lady Minto Hospital, Ashcroft, British Columbia. 
General Duty Nurses - O.R. Nurses with postgraduate or equivalent for 146-bed General 
Hospital. Personnel policies in accordance with B.C.R.N.A. Rooms available in nurses' 
residence. Nurses Aides - with vocational training. Salary $177-$201 per mo. We do not 
have a residence for our Nurses Aides. Apply to: Director of Nursing, General Hospital. 
Chilliwack, British Columbia. 
General Duty Nurses for 200-bed General Hospital with School of Nursing. Salary 
$275-$327. Pre-planned shift rotation, B.C. registration essential. 4-wk. vacation after 
I-yr. Apply: Director of Nursing, Royal Inland Hospital, Kamloops, British Columbia. 


176 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



General Duty Nurse for wel]-equipped 80-bed General Hospital. Initial salary $285, 
maintenance $47.50. 40-hr. 5-day wk., 4-wk. vacation with pay. Apply: Sacred Heart 
Hospital, Smithers, British Columbia. 
General Duty Nurses: starting salary $299 if 2 yr. experience, $285-$342 in 4 yr. Non 
registered $270 Maintenance $50, 10 statutory holidays, 4-wk. annual vacation. Ph day 
sick leave per mo. very active town, world famous Cariboo cattle country, annual 
stampede. Apply: Director of Nursing, War Memorial Hospital, Williams Lake, British 
Columbia. 
-- 
General Duty & Operating Room Nurses for 434-bed hospital with training school; 40-hr. 
wk., statutory holidays. Salary $280-$336. Credit for past experience & postgraduate 
preparation; annual increments; cumulative sick leave; 28-days annual vacation. B.C. 
registration required. Apply: Director of Nursing, Royal Columbian Hospital, New 
Westminster, British Columbia. 
Graduate Nurses for 70-bed acute General Hospital on Pacific Coast. Starting salary 
$275 with regular increases. Board & room $25 per mo., 5-day wk., 28 days vacation plus 
10 statutory holidays. Apply: Matron, St. George's Hospital, Alert Bay, British Columbia. 
Graduate Nurse for 31-bed hospital, salary $275 per mo., B.C. Registered Nurses $285, 
with semi-annual increments of $5.00-$305; 40-hr. wk., 4-wk. vacation, Ph-days sick 
leave per mo., Lodging $Il per mo. Fare from Vancouver refunded after 6-mo. For 
personnel policies & information apply to: Administrator, General Hospital, Ocean 
Falls, British Columbia. 
Fully Trained Nurses (2) Trained Practical Nurses (2) for 60-bed United Church Mission 
Hospital in northern British Columbia. Opportunity for Christian service. Apply: Medical 
Superintendent, Wrinch Memorial Hospital. Hazelton, British Columbia. 
MANITOBA 
Registered Nurses (for general floor duty). Salary $290 per mo. less $25 for full main- 
tenance, yearly increments, 44-hr. wk. For further information apply to: John Hiscock, 
Secretary-Treasurer, Baldur Medical Nursing Unit, Baldur, Manitoba. 
Registered Nurse (Immediately) for lO-bed hospital, with possibility of being Matron in 
the near future, if interested. Salary for R.N. $310 per mo. with increments of $5.00 
every 6-mo. for 4 years. Matron's salary $370 per mo. with same increments For further 
particulars apply to: Mrs. Sheila McEwan, Secretary, Birch River Medical Nursing Unit, 
Birch River, Manitoba. 
Registered Nurses (2) for 16-bed hospital. Salary $300 per mo. gross, $45 per mo. deducted 
for board & room. 40-hr. wk. with 4 annual increments of $10.00, 3-wk. vacation with 
pay after 1 ful] year employment, 4-wk. after 2 full years. Sick leave one day for each full 
month of employment plus 1 day for each full 6-mo. employment cumulative to 30 days. 
Living quarters in hospital. Apply to: Matron or A. C. Laughlin, Secretary, Wilson Memorial 
Hospital, Melita, Manitoba. 


NEW BRUNSWICK 
Superintendent & Assistant Superintendent for modern 25-bed hospital. Apply stating 
qualifications etc., to: Board of Management, Tobique Valley Hospital, Plaster Rock, 
New Brunswick. 
Clinical Instructor for IlO-bed modern hospital. Personnel policies under revision to be 
effective in 1960. Apply: Superintendent, Charlotte County Hospital, St. Stephen, New 
Brunswick. 
Registered Staff Nurses for 14-bed hospital, 8-hour day. In progressive island commu- 
nity. Apply to: Matron, Grand Manan Hospital, North Head, Grand Manan, New 
Brunswick. 


NEWFOUNDLAND 
Laboratory Technician (1, Fully qualified) for 120-bed General Hospital. Salary according 
to Newfoundland Government scale. I way transportation paid. Customary vacation 
with pay after 12-mo. service plus all statutory holidays. Apply to: H. C. Vincent, Business 
Manager, Notre Dame Bay Memorial Hospital. Twillingate, Newfoundland. 
NOVA SCOTIA 
Registered Nurses for Floor Duty (Immediately) 40-hr. wk. Nova Scotia R.N.A. salary 
scale. Apply to: Superintendent of Nursing, Western Kings Memorial Hospital, Berwick, 
N ova Scotia. 
General Duty Registered Nurses for well-equipped modern 32-bed hospital, excellent 
personnel policies. Apply: Superintendent, Queens General Hospital, Liverpool, Nova 
Scotia. 
General Duty Nurses for modern 35-bed hospital situated on beautiful South Shore Good 
personnel policies. Excellent living quarters. Apply Superintendent, Fishermen's Memor- 
ial Hospital, Lunenburg, Nova Scotia. 
General Staff Nurses for 400-bed Medical & Surgical Sanatorium, fully approved student 
affiliation & postgraduate program. Ful] maintenance. Recreational facilities. Vacation 
with pay. Sick benefits after I-yr. Blue Cross coverage. Attractive salary; 40-hr. wk. For 
further particulars apply Supt. of Nurses, Nova Scotia Sanatorium, Kentville, N.S. 


FEBRUARY. 1960. Vol. 56. No. 2 


177 



ONTARIO 
DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING. required by City of Ottawa, Health Department. 
Should possess University degree with major in Administration and Supervision in Public 
Health Nursing and have experience in all aspects of Public Health Nursing services. 
Duties include planning, coordinating of Public Health Nursing services and supervision 
of nursing staff. Existing salary range $5,310 to $6,270 with annual increments of $240. 
Good personnel policies with full fringe benefits. For further information apply to 
Dr. R. A. Kennedy, Medical Officer of Health, City Hall, III Sussex Drive, Ottawa. Ontario. 
Assistant Director of Nursing. Registered Nurses for General Duty for new hospital. 
Good salary, 21 days vacation, 8 statutory holidays, accommodation available in 
residence. Apply: Director of Nursing, Miss K. King, Ross Memorial Hospital, Lindsay, 
Ontario. 
Assistant Superintendent for 73-bed General Hospital with planned expansion. Regis- 
tered Nurse with postgraduate training and/or experience in supervision desired. 
Salary depending upon qualifications & experience. For further particulars contact: 
Superintendent, General Hospital, Kenora, Ontario. 
Head Nurse (Evening) Salary $300, 5-day wk., 28 days vacation. Apply: Director of 
Nursing, Huntsville District Memorial HospitaL Huntsville, Ontario. 
Head Nurses (2) for Medical Units - previous supervisory experience essential, good 
personnel policies. Apply to: Director of Nursing, The Doctors Hospital, 45 Brunswick 
Avenue, Toronto, Ontario. 
Registered Nurse as Superintendent (Immediately) for 30-bed hospital, stating previous 
experience & salary expected. Furnished 3 room apartment provided. Apply to: Secre- 
tary, Englehart & District Hospital Board, Box 609, Englehart, Ontario. 
Registered Nurses for Canadian Army. Officer status. Salary starts $275 - 6-mo. $375 - 
3-yr. $409. Regular Staff duties & opportunities for specialization; 30 day leave per year 
with pay, free medical & dental care; full pay when hospitalized; excellent pension 
plan for career officers, retirement 45-49. Opportunities for travel. For particulars apply: 
Army Headquarters, (D Man M2) Ottawa, Ontario. 
Registered Nurses for Nursing Unit & Operating Room in 86-bed General HospitCJ:l. Good 
salary & personnel policies. Apply: Administrator, Trenton Memorial Hospital, Trenton, 
Ontario. 
Registered Nurses for expanding General Hospital, Medical, Surgical, Operating Room & 
Obstetrical services, at Ajax on Highway 401, 20-mÍ. east of Toronto, hourly bus service to 
hospital. R.N.A.O. salary schedule, increments every 6-mo., sick & vacation time after 
6-mo., 371/z-hr. work wk., pension plan, living in accommodation. Apply to: Director of 
Nursing, Ajax & Pickering General Hospital, Ajax, Ontario. Nurses from Europe & United 
Kingdom apply to: Canadian Department of Labor, 61 Green Street, London, W.l, England. 
Registered Nurses & Certified Nursing Assistants for 160-bed hospital. Starting salary 
$265 & $185 respectively with regular annual increments for both. Excellent personnel 
policies including 5-day wk. & residence accommodation available. Assistance with trans- 
portation can be arranged. Apply: Superintendent, Kirkland & District Hospital Kirkland 
Lake, Ontario. 
Registered Nurses & Certüied Nursing Assistants for 26-bed hospital. R.N. salary $290- 
$335. 28-day vacation after I-yr. GN.A. salary $210-$240, 2-wk. vacation after I-yr., 3-wk. 
after 2-yr. Credit for past experience $5.00 increment every 6-mo. 44-hr. wk., 8 statutory 
holidays. Room & board residence $28.50 per mo. I-day sick leave per mo. Apply to: 
Mrs. G. Gordon, Superintendent, District Memorial Hospital. Box 37, Nipigon, Ontario. 
Registered Nurses for Surgical Floor in 163-bed Sanatorium. Excellent personnel poli- 
cies. Residence accommodation available. Apply: Director of Nursing, Sudbury & 
Algoma Sanatorium, P.O. Box 40, Sudbury, Ontario. 
Registered Nurses for General Duty in modern 18-bed. Private Hospital in iron mmmg 
town. 180-mÍ. north of Sault Ste Marie, Ontario. Excellent accommodation & personnel 
policies. Starting salary $268 minimum to $303 maximum for experience, less $20 per 
mo. maintenance. Transportation allowance after 6-mo. service. Operating Room Nurse. 
starting salary $288 minimum with postgraduate course, $323 maximum with 3-yr. ex- 
perience or more. Apply: Superintendent, Miss O. Keswick, Lady Dunn HospitaL 
Jamestown, Ontario. 
Registered Nurses for General Duty in all departments - including operating room, 
premature & newborn nursery. Good salary & personnel policies. Apply: Director of 
Nursing, Victoria Hospital. London, Ontario. 
Registered Nurses (2) for General Duty in modern 90-bed hospital. salary $255 per mo. 
3 annual increments, accumulative sick leave. Excellent recreational facilities in town 
near cities & resorts. Room & meals at reasonable rates. Apply: Director of Nursing, 
Dufferin Area Hospital. Orangeville, Ontario. 
Registered Nurses for General Staff & Operating Room in modern hospital (opened .in 
1956). Situated in the Nickel Capital of the world, pop. 50,000. Salar
:. $270 per mo
 wIth 
annual merit increments, plus annual bonus plan. 40-hr. wk. RecognItIon for expe
Ience. 
Good personnel policies. Assistance with transportation can be arranged. Apply DIrector 
of Nursing, Memorial Hospital, Sudbury. Ontario. 


178 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



NURSING WITH INDIAN AND 
NORTHERN HEALTH SERVICES 


... 
+ 


+ 


. HOSPITALS 
+ NURSINC STATIONS 
... OTHER HEAlTH CENTRES 


.. 
+ 


... 


+ 


+ 


+ 

 


+ 


... + 
+.- A.,. 
. 
,:.. 



 ++:+ + 
- . + ... 
+.. -. ... +... ... 
-+ -... · J" 


... 
+....t.., 
.. 


... .. 
a,\. ... 


... ... 
:. 
+ + 
. 
+ 
- +... 
..,. 


OPPORTUNITIES 
REGISTERED HOSPITAL NURSES, PUBLIC HEALTH NURSES, 
AND CERTIFIED AUXILIARY NURSES 


for Hospital Positions and Public Health Positions in Outpost Nursing 
Stations, Health Centres and Field Positions in the Provinces, Eastern Arctic, 
Northwest Territories and the Yukon Territory. 


SALARIES 


11) Public Health Nursing Supervisors: up to $5,460 depending upon 
qualifications and location. 


c:::: 


74 

- 

-=:: 


12) Directors of Nursing in Hospitals: up to $5,400 depending upon 
qualifications and location. 



: 


- 13) Public Health Staff Nurses: up to $4,050 per year depending upon 
qualifications and location. 


(4) Hospital Staff Nurses: up to $3,750 per year depending upon 
qualifications and location. 


(5) Certified Nursing Assistants or Licensed Practical Nurses: up to 
$200 per month depending upon qualifications and location. 
. Room, Board and Laundry in residence at reasonable rates. 
Statutory holidays. Three week's annual leave with pay. Generous sick 
leave credits. Hospital-Medical and superannuation plans available. 
· Special pay and leave allowances for those posted to isolated areas. 
For interesting challenging, satisfying work apply to - Indian and 
Northern Health Services at one of the following addresses: 


(1) Regional Superintendent, 4824 Fraser Street, Vancouver, B.C. 
(2j Reg ional Superintendent, 11412-128th Street, Edmonton, Alberta. 
(3) Regional Superintendent, 735 Motherwell Building, Regina, Saskatchewan. 
(4) Regional Superintendent, 803-9 Confederation life Building, 457 Main Street, Winnipeg, 
Manitoba. 
(5) Regional Superintendent, 4th Floor, Booth Building, 165 Sparks Street, Ottawa, Ontario. 
(6) Zone Supervisor of Nursing, Box 493, North Bay, Ontario. 
(7) Zone Superintendent of Indian Health Services, P.O. Box 430, Upper Town, 3 Buade Street, 
Quebec 4, P.Q. 
(or) Chief, Personnel Division, 
Department of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa, Ontario. 


FEBRUARY, 1960. Vol. 5&, No. 2 


179 



Registered Nurses (Several) for immediate & future vacancies in modern 42-bed hospitaL 
Starting salary: $265 per mo. plus shift allowance. 40-hr. wk. 4 wk. vacation after 1 yr. 
Apply: Superintendent of Nurses, New Liskeard & District Hospital, New Liskeard, Ontario. 
Registered General Duty Nurses for modern hospital. building expansion under way 
increasing to 100-beds this year. Starting saìary $250 per mo., $215 for Graduates. 40-hr. 
wk., group life, accident &. sickness insurance lree to employees. Opportunities for 
advancement, pleasant community. Apply: Director of Nursing, Leamington District 
Memorial Hospital, Leamington, Ontario. 
Assistant to Director of Nursing Service to work afternoon .& evening shifts rotating 
bi-weekly, S-days per wk., in 100-bed active General Hospital. Excellent personnel 
policies & salary scale. Employer participation in pension plan. Personal interview will 
be arranged. Forward enquiries to: Director of Nursing, The Cottage Hospital, Pem- 
broke, Ontario. 
Registered Nurses for lOO-bed active General Hospital. Good salary, personnel policies 
include 5-day work wk., 14-days paid sick leave accumulative, 3-wk. vacation .& 7 
statutory holidays. Employer participation in pension plan. Apply to: Director of 
Nursing, The Cottage Hospital, Pembroke, Ontario. 
General Duty Nurses for an accredited 64-bed hospital. Starting salary: $250-$260, Good 
personnel policies with sick leave benefits, holidays .& paid vacations. Apply Director of 
Nureing, Douglas Memorial Hospital, Fort Erie, Ontario. 
General Duty Nurses for IOO-bed hospital, up-to-date facilities in a beautiful location 
on the shore of Lake Erie. Salary $267 per mo. with recognition for P.G. courses, 40-hr. 
wk. effective January 1, 1960. Residence available. Apply: Director of Nursing, General 
Hospital, Port Colborne, Ontario. 
General Duty Nurses Male ér Female & Certified Nursing Assistants (Immediately) for 
86-bed hospital, 40-hr. wk., 8 statutory holidays & other employee benefite. Collingwood 
is situated on Georgian Bay ér ie noted as a vacationland with 7-mi. sand beach along 
with great skiing on the Blue Mountains in winter. For further informatioR apply: 
Director of Nursing Services, General 6: Marine Hospital, Collingwood, Ontario. 
General Duty Nurses Excellent salary scales .& personnel policies. Apply to: Director of 
Nurees, Parry Sound General Hospital. Parry Sound, Ontario. 
McKellar General Hospital. Fort William. Ontario has openings in all departments for 
General Staff Nurses. Basic salary $270 per mo., 40-hr. wk. Good personnel policies for 
other benefits. Residence accommodation available. Apply to: The Director of Nursing. 
General Staff Nurses (4) for convalescent area of lO-beds. MU3t rotate on all shifts, 
8-hr. 5-day wk., good personnel policies, pension policy in effect., 3-wk. annual vacation, 
8 etatutory holidays. Salary open at present. Apply: Director of Nursing, General Hospi- 
tal, Stratford, Ontario. 
Public Health Nurse (Qualified) Position open in a completely generalized program. 
Salary range, pension plan .& other personnel policies given on request. Applicant 
must have car. Apply to: Dr. W. H. Cross, Muskoka District Health Unit, Bracebridge, 
Ontario. 
Operating Room Nurses for general operating room work which includes cardiovascular 
neurosurgery, genito-urinary & orthopedic surgery. Good salary & personnel policies. 
Apply: Director of Nursing, Victoria Hospital, London, Ontario. 
Operating Room Nurses for 300-bed General Hospital.. basic salary $265 for days, with 
consideration given to postgraduate .& equivalent experience, extra for shift work 
& call, 5-day wk. 3-wk. vacation after I-year, 12 days sick leave per year. Apartments 
available near hospital. Apply to: Director of Nursing, St. Joseph's Hospital, SARNIA. 
Ontario. 
QUEBEC 
Assistant Head Nurses; Afternoon Supervisor excellent personnel policies. Apply Direc- 
tor, Shriners' Hospital for Crippled Children, 1529 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, Quebec. 
Registered Nurses for modern 60-bed General Hospital, 40-mi. south of Montreal. Salary 
$260 per mo. in effect by February 1960, 5 semi-annual increases; monthly bonus for 
permanent evening 6. night shifts, 44-hr. wk., 4-wk. vacation. Board & accommodation 
available in new motel-style nurses' residence. Apply: Superintendent, Barrie Memor- 
ial Hospital, Ormstown, Quebec. 
Registered General Duty Nurses for 28-bed General Hospital in Huntingdon, Quebec, 
45-mi. from centre of Montreal with excellent bus service. Gross salary $235 with full 
maintenance in nurses' home at $35; 3 increases at 6-mo. intervals to $250; 44-hr. wk., 
8-hr. rotating shifts; I-mo. annual vacation; 7 statutory holidays: 2-wk. sick leave, Blue 
Cross paid. Apply: Mrs. D. Hawley, R.N., Huntingdon County Hospital, Huntingdon, Que. 
BERMUDA 
Chief Dietitian for 140-bed hospital. Training school affiliated with Montreal hospitals. 
Fare paid. For particulars write Matron, King Edward VII Memorial Hospital, Bermuda. 
Registered Nurses for General Duty Staff. Salary co
mences at 146-0-0 per rr:o. with full 
maintenance. Transportation allowance. For full partlculars apply Matron, Kmg Edward 
VII Memorial Hospital, Bermuda. 


180 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



+ 


THE 
CANADIAN 
RED CROSS 
SOCI ETY 


offers interesting and 
challenging positions in 
OUTPOST NURSING 
PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING 
BLOOD TRANSfUSION 
SERVICE 


Salaries are in proportion to 
experience and qualifications. 
Transportation arranged 
under certain circumstances. 


Bursaries available for 
postgraduate studies. 


Group insurance, pension 
plan and other benefits. 


for information please contad: 


NATIONAL DIRECTOR, NURSING SERVICES, 
THE CANADIAN RED CROSS SOCIETY 
95 WElLESLEY STREET EAST, 
TORONTO 5, ONTARIO 


+++++++++++++ 


Registered Nurses willing to 
serve as volunteer Home Nursing 
Instructors will be welcomed by 
the Red Cross Branch 
in your community. 


FEBRUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No.2 


THE 
VANCOUVER 
GENERAL 
HOSPITAL 


requires 


PEDIA TRIC, 
OPERATING ROOM & 
PSYCHIATRIC NURSES 


General staff positions 
also available. 


Salary: $280 - $336 general 
staff . 


Commencing salary $294 for 
approved experience of 2-yrs. 


Salary: Operating Room 
Nurses, $286.25 - $343.25. 


A clinical differential of $10 
a month in addition for ap- 
proved postgraduate course. 


4-week vacation per year. 


Please apply to: 


Personnel Department, 
Vancouver General 
Hospital, 
Vancouver 9, 
British Columbia 


181 



Registered Nurses for Operating Room with operating room postgraduate courses and/or 
e
perience, for 140-bed hospital. Travel allowance paid. For particulars, write Matron, 
Kmg Edward VII Memorial Hospital, Bermuda. 
SASKATCHEWAN 
Supervisor (Teaching) to implement program for auxiliary personnel in accredited 144- 
bed hospital. 74-bed new wing recently opened. Gross salary $300 for Saskatchewan 
registration, $280 for non-Saskatchewan registration. Apply to: Superintendent of Nurses, 
Victoria Union Hospital, Prince Albert, Saskatchewan. 
Operating Room Supervisor for l77-bed hospital to commence duty January or February, 
1960, in preparation for taking over the duties of Supervisor in May, 1960. Postgraduate 
in O.R. technique preferable but not essential. Good personnel policies. For full parti- 
culars please apply to: The Director of Nursing, Swift Current Union Hospital, Swift 
Current, Saskatchewan. 
Registered Nurses (2) Certified Nursing Assistants. Salary $280-310 & $180-$210 respec- 
tively, 40-hr. wk., PIz-days sick leave per mo., 3-wk. paid vacation, transportation allow- 
ance, direct applications to: B. 1. Ellis, Secretary, Union Hospital, Coronach, Saskat- 
chewan. 
Registered Nurses for new 18-bed hospital with new nurses' residence opening May 
1960. We have 4 Doctors on our Medical Staff also Canadian Mental Health Services & 
Canadian Arthritis & Rheumatism Services. 30 days annual vacation, this includes 
statutory holidays. Starting salary $260 per mo. which shall be increased in January 
1960. Apply: John Uhryn, Administrator, Union Hospital, Davidson, Saskatchewan. 
General Duty Nurses, combined Lab. - X-Ray Technician. Salary according to S.H.A. 
salary schedule & S.S.C.L.X.T. schedule. Apply to: The Matron, Bengough Union Hospi- 
tal, Bengough, Saskatchewan. 
Graduate Nurses for General Duty in accredited 144-bed hospital, 74-bed new wing 
recently opened. Gross salary effective January I, 1960 $270 or $250 according to regis- 
tration. 40-hr. wk., 3-wk. annual vacation, 8 statutory holidays, accumulative sick leave. 
Pension plan available. Apply to: Superintendent of Nurses, Victoria Union Hospital, 
Prince Albert, Saskatchewan. 
Graduate Nurses (2) for 8-bed hospital in southern Saskatchewan. Starting salary $280 
less $35 maintenance. 3-wk. vacation, plus statutory holidays, 40-hr. work week. Travel 
fare advanced if necessary. Apply to: Mrs. D. 1. Knops, Secretary-Treasurer, Union 
Hospital, Rockglen, Saskatchewan. 
U.S.A. 
Registered Nurses for modern 191-bed JCAH fully accredited General Hospital. expand- 
ing to 374-beds by 1960. Located on beautiful San Francisco Peninsula, 20-min. drive 
from the heart of the city. Openings in all services. Excellent personnel policies. Many 
extra benefits & opportunities for advancement. Top salaries. Apply: Personnel Director, 
Peninsula Hospital. 1783 El Camino Real, Burlingame, California. 
Registered Nurses General Duty for 230-bed approved teaching hospital. resort city. 
Salary $330 plus $22.50 shift differential, provision for housing allowance. Apply: Direc- 
tor of Nursing, Cottage Hospital, Santa Barbara, California. 
Registered Nurses Surgery & General Duty for newly expanded 200-bed hospital locat- 
ed in Southern California. Starting salary $315 per mo. with $10 differential for obstet- 
rics, surgery & night duty, 40-hr. wk. Progressive community near Disneyland. Contact: 
Director of Nurses, Miss E. F. Horton, Santa Ana Community Hospital, 600 East Wash- 
ington Avenue, Santa Ana, California. 
Staff Nurses 600-bed general & tuberculosis teaching institution in central valley City. 
Accredited State & Junior Colleges in immediate vicinity, liberal personnel policies. Full 
maintenance available. Write - Director of Nursing Service, Fresno County General 
Hospital, Fresno 2, California. 
Staff Nurses for 300-bed General Hospital. Attractive personnel policies plus differential 
for specialties, afternoon & night duty. Opportunities for advanced education. Apply to: 
Director of Nursing Service, Kaiser Foundation Hospital, Oakland 11. California. 
General Staff Nurses (Grow & develop with us) new 400-bed hospital under construction. 
Fully approved. Intern-resident program. Developing teaching center. Starting salary 
$330 per mo., $15 per mo. merit increases at 6, 12, 24 & 36-mo. 40-hr. wk., 2-wk. paid 
vacation, paid sick leave to 30 days; 7 paid holidays. One of Southern California's most 
outstanding locations. Apply: Director of Personnel, Seaside Memorial Hospital, 1401 
Chestnut Avenue, Long Beach 13, Calif ornia. 
General Staff Nurses (Openings on P.M. & night shifts) for 440-bed hospitaL Starting 
salary $355 per mo. plus $25 differential. Tenure salary increases. Liberal vacation plan, 
7 paid holidays, 40-hr. wk. Social security, hospitalization insurance & retirement pro- 
gram. For complete information write: Personnel Office, Sutter Community Hospitals, 
2820 L Street. Sacramento. California. 
Operating Room Nurses (2 Openings) for large General HospitaL Starting salary $380 
per mo., pIus $25 P.M. & night difÍerentbl. Tenure salary increases. Liberal vacation 
plan, 7 paid holidays, 40-hr. wk. Social security, hospitalization insurance &. retirement 
program. Write to Personnel Office, Sutter Communit{ Wospitals, 2820 L Street, Sacra- 
mento, CaliÍornia. 


182 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



TORONTO GENERAL HOSPITAL 


requires 


NURSING STAFF 


Variety of Opportunities, Valuable Experience in this large teaching 
centre. Attractive Personnel Policies. Five Day Week. The Toronto General 
Hospital has opened its new building which contains centralized Operating 
Rooms; Recovery Rooms; Surgical Supply Service; Obstetrics and Gynecology; 
Neurology and Neurosurgery; Admitting and Emergency; Rehabilitation and 


Physical Medicine; Urology and Ophthalmology. 


for information write to: 


Director of Nursing, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto 2, Ontario. 


NURSING COUNSELLORS 
required by 
Civil Service Health Division 
Department of 
National Health and Welfare 
at Ottawa 
$3,900 - $4,560 


Appointees will have charge of 
smaller health units in the Civil 
Service Health Division. 
Applications are invited from Reg- 
istered Nurses, with a diploma or 
certificate in Public Health Nursing 
from a University School of Nur- 
sing, with at least five years of 
graduate nursing experience. 


for further details and application forms, 
write to: 


CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION, 
OTTAWA, ONTARIO 


Please quote competition 59-842. 


FEBRUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No. 2 


NEW MOUNT SINAI 
HOSPITAL 


Toronto 


Modern 400-bed Hospital 
requires 
REGISTERED NURSES 
and 
Certified Nursing Assistants 
40-hour week - Pension plan 
Good Salaries and Personnel Policies 
Residence Facilities Available 


Apply 
DIRECTOR OF NURSING 
NEW MOUNT SINAI HOSPITAL 
550 UNIVERSITY AVENUE 
TORONTO 


183 



General Duty Nurses for 50-bed General Hospital located in college town in mount- 
ainous portion of Colorado. Salary $300 per mo. with periodic increases. Fringe bene- 
fits include meals, uniform laundry, sick leave &: vacation. Registration requires 3-mo. 
training in Psychiatry 6. Pediatrics on a segregated service. Contact: Superintendent 
Community Hospital. Alamosa, Colorado. ' 
Operating Room Supervisor for 230-bed progressive J C A H General Hospital in rapid- 
ly growing town of 40,000. Salary $4,700 - $6,000 pending professional background. 
40-hr. wk., week-ends free; liberal policies. Fully accredited N L N school of nursing of 
50 students; faculty status B.S.. desired and/or postgraduate study required. Located 
65-mi. from New York city in foot hills of Berkshires. Write: Mrs. Elsa 1. Brown, Assistant 
administrator, Nursing, Danbury Hospital, Danbury, Connecticut. 
Registered General Duty Nurses for 154-bed General Hospital with expansion program 
under way. Along the shores of Lake Michigan, 25 mi. from Chicago. Salary: $365 for 
days, $395 for evenings, $385 for nights, 5 day wk. Good personnel policies. Apply Per- 
sonnel Director, Highland Park Hospital Foundation, 718 Glenview Ave., Highland Park, Ill. 
General Duty Nurses for 320-bed General Hospital. Only a few blocks from Lake 
Michigan Beach & Lincoln Park; near Chicago Loop. Hospital accredited by J.C.A.H. Ô. 
school of nursing accredited by N.L.N. Apartments available close to hospital. Liberal 
personnel policies. Must be eligible for Ill. registration; openings on aU shifts. Write: 
Director of Nursing, Augustana Hospital, 411 W. Dickens Ave., Chicago 14, Illinois. 
Operating Room Nurses (Days &: P.M.) 154-bed General Hospital located in beautiful 
residential suburb along the north shore of Lake Michigan just north of Chicago. Modern 
ranch style nurses' homes with attractively furnished private bedrooms. 40-hr. wk. 
Salary: $390 days, $420 evenings, other employee benefits. Contact: Personnel Director, 
Highland Park Hospital Foundation, Highland Park, Illinois. 
Registered Nurses - Salary open, commensurate with experience, differential for even- 
ings &: night service. Openings in Obstetrical &: Medical-Surgical areas. Must be eligible 
for registration in the State of Michigan. Apply to: Personnel Department, Woman's 
Hospital. 432 E. Hancock Avenue, Detroit 1, Michigan. 
Registered Nurses for 85-bed voluntary non-profit hospital in growing community of 
11,000. Basic salary $295 per mo. with increments of $5.00 every 6-mo. up to 2-years; 
40-hr. wk.; 7 paid holidays, sick leave accumulative to 48-days; $17.50 premium for 3-11 
shift, $15 additional for 11-7 shift. Apply to: Director of Nurses, St. John's Hospital of 
Red Wing, Red Wing, Minnesota. 
Registered Nurses for fully accredited 291-bed hospital with all services, starting salary 
$330-$360 per mo., including ICU. Retirement plan paid, insurance & other fringe benefits. 
Write: Personnel Director, Washoe Medical Center, Reno, Nevada. 
Registered Nurses (free transportation) Spend your winter in the Sunny Southwest, in 
New Mexico - "The Land of Enchantment". Vacancies for staff duty in Medicine, 
Surgery, Obstetrics, Pediatrics & Operating Room. Starting salaries $300 per mo., $15 
differential evenings & nights. Free transportation via 1st Class Air to Albuquerque & 
return in exchange for I-yr. employment contract. Apartment available at $17 per mo., 
excellent job benefits, no shift rotation. Write or call: Director of Nursing, Presbyterian 
Hospital Center, 1012 Gold Avenue, S.E., Albuquerque, New Mexico, Phone CHapel 
3-5611. 
Graduate Nurses (Staff & Operating Room) for 88-bed modern accredited General Hos- 
pital. Liberal personnel policies, college town 30,000, 85% sunshine belt, altitude 3,860. 
Dry, mild, all year climate. Apply: Director of Nurses, Memorial General Hospital, Las 
Cruces, New Mexico. 
Graduate Nurses for 450-bed non-sectarian acute General Hospital with NLN fully 
accredited school of nursing. Liberal personnel policies include tuition aid for study at 
Western Reserve University. Opening of new main building has created attractive posi- 
tions for Staff Nurses in medical, surgical. obstetric & pediatric divisions. Apartments 
available in immediate neighborhood. Apply: Miss Louise Harrison. Director of Nursing 
Service, Mount Sinai Hospital, 1800 East 105th. Street, Cleveland 6, Ohio. 
Staff Nurses for large modern tuberculosis hospital in suburban Cleveland. Nurses eligible 
for Ohio registration start at $355 per mo. with semi-annual increments. Extra pay for relief 
& night duty. Opportunities for advancement. Married nurses with families or two (2) 
single nurses may live in attractive, completely furnished 2-bedroom houses at low, low 
rent including utilities. 5-day wk., paid vacation <S: holidays. Liberal sick leave cumulative 
to 90-days. Retirement pIan. Approved by Joint Committee on Accreditation of Hospitals. 
Write: Director of Nursing, Sunny Acres Hospital. Cleveland 22, Ohio. 
Registered Nurses (Scenic Oregon, vacation playground, skiing, swimming, boating & 
cultural events) for 295-bed teaching unit on campus of University of Oregon medical 
school. Salary to start: $339. Pay differential for nights & evenings. Liberal policy for 
advancement, vacations, sick leave, holidays. Apply: Multnomah Hospital, Portland I, 
Oregon. 
Staff Nurses (all services) for University of Texas Medical Branch, teaching hospital 
(air conditioned). Good personnel policies. Base salary, rotation: $290 per mo. Evenings 
or nights $304 per mo. Apply: Director Nursing Service, University of Texas Medical 
Branch, Galveston, Texas. 


184 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



PEDIATRIC SUPERVISOR 


for 20-bed Pediatric Unit 


DUTIES TO INCLUDE ADMINISTRATION OF THE UNIT AS WEll 
AS TEACHING OF STUDENT NURSES. ESPECIAllY ATTRACTIVE 
SALARY OFFERED. 


For details apply to: Director of Nursing 


GENERAL HOSPITAL, CORNWAll, ONTARIO. 


THE WINNIPEG 
GENERAL 
HOSPITAL 


is recruiting 


GENERAL DUTY NURSES 
FOR ALL SERVICES 


Please send applications direct to: 


THE DIRECTOR OF NURSING, 
THE WINNIPEG GENERAL 
HOSPIT AL, 
WINNIPEG 3, MANITOBA 


FEBRUARY, 1960. Vol. 56, No. 2 


VICTORIAN ORDER OF 
NURSES FOR CANADA... 


requires 


PUBLIC HEALTH NURSES 


for Staff and Supervisory positions in 
various parts of Canada. 
Applications will be considered from 
Registered Nurses without Public 
Health training but with University 
entrance Qualifications. 


1-------------1 
I 
ALARY, STAT'GS AND PROMO- I 
I TIONS ARE DETERMINED IN I 
I RELATION TO THE QUALIFlCA- I 
TIOXS OF THE APPLICANT. 
L____________...J 


Aþþ/'j,to: 
Director in Chief, 
Victorian Order of Nurses 
for Canada 
5 BL-\CKBCRX AVENUE 
Ottawa 2, Onto 


185 



ALBERTA 
Registered General Duty Nurses for busy 45-bed hospital, with program to start building 
this year, a completely modern 70-bed hospital with 100-bed service facilities. Salary 
$275-$305, 40-hr.wk. 21 days vacation after I-year service plus 9 statutory holidays, 
Ph-days sick leave per mo. accumulative up to 90 days. $35 per mo. deduction for room, 
board &: laundry For further information, apply to: Matron, Municipal Hospital, Peace 
River, Alberta. 
Public Health Nurse (Qualified) for rural Health Unit in Alberta. Salary range from 
$3.300 - $3,780 with annual increment of $120, transportation is provided on duty, 
provision made for sick leave &: holidays, pension plan is available Apply to: Dr. K. A. 
B arrett, Medical Officer of Health. Minburn- Vermilion Health Unit, Ver milion, Alberta . 
Instructors Classroom & Clinical for May, 1960 or later. Starting salary $320 without degree 
&: $355 with degree. Good personnel policies. Apply to: Director of Nursing Education, St. 
Michael's School of Nursing, Lethbrid ge, Alberta. 
General Duty Nurses (2) for modern 34-bed hospital. Salary $235 per mo. plus full main- 
tenance, 3 annual increments at $10 per mo., I-mo. per year holiday pay, 2-wk. sick leave, 
40-hr, per wk. straight shifts. If employed for I-yr. a refund of train fare from any point in 
Canada will be given. For further particulars apply to: Municipal Hospital, Two Hills, 
Alberta, Phone 335. 
MANITOBA 
Registered Nurse - Salary $295 less maintenance, 44-hr. wk., excellent staff accommo- 
dation. 80-mi. west of Winnipeg on No. 1 highway. For further particulars apply to: 
Mrs. M. C. Roberts, Secretary, North Norfolk-MacGregor Medical Nursing Unit, Mac- 
Gregor. Manitoba 
NEW BRUNSWICK 
Science Instructor for the Moncton Hospital School of Nursing which has a yearly 
enrollment of 40 students. Salary based on qualifications, 40-hr. wk., good personnel 
policies. Apply to: Director of Nursing T h 
 Moncton Hospital. Moncton, New Brunswick. 
ONTARIO 
Registered Laboratory Technician for new 58-bed hospital. all new equipment in the 
laboratory. Apply to: The Superintendent, Prince Edward County Memorial Hospital. 
Picton, Ontario. 
Graduate Nurses 6. Certified Nur!ling Assistants for new 58-bed hospital. Apply to: The 
Superintendent, Prince Edward County Memorial Hospital. Picton, O ntario 
U.S.A. 
Registered Nurses. General Duty & Operating Room (All areas 6. shifts available) for 
165-bed JCAH Hospital, new 50-bed addition to be opened in M
rch. Starting salary 
$305 General Duty $320 O.R 40-hr. wk.. 2-3 wk. paid vacation, sick leave, nurses' resi- 
dence available at reasonable rates. Excellent shift differentials. Apply: Director of 
Nursing, Memorial Hospital. Cheyenne, Wyoming. 
Graduate Staff Nurses (Opportunities in the United States) for well equipped 400-bed, 
non-sectarian General Hospital affiliated with Medical SchooL New salary rates $370- 
$400 days 6. $400-$430 afternoons 6. nights per mo., 40-hr. wk. comfortable, low cost 
living accommodation in attractive residence buildinq. Write to: Director of Nursing 
Service, Dept. C.J.N., Mount Sinai Medical Center, 2750 West 15th, Place, Chicago 8, 
Illinois. 
Nurses in obstetrics, pediatrics. medicine 6. surgical nursing. We invite inquiries from 
all Canadian Nurses considering employment in the United States. For full particulars, 
write: Director of Nursinq Service, Indiana University Medical Center, 1100 West Michi- 
gan Street, Indianapolis 7 Indiana. 
BRITISH COLUMBIA 
Registered Nurse for Private Boy's Camp (July & August). Use of camp facilities, riding, 
swimming, canoeinq etc. Maximum amount of leisure time. Opportunity to assist with camp 
activities. Salary: $150 per mo. plus comfortable accommodation &. meals. Apply Rocky 
Mountain Boy's Camp, Invermere P.O. British Columbia. 


PUBLIC HEALTH NURSE 
(qualifiedJ 
for 
City Health Department January 1, 
1960 excellent working conditions, 
including pension plan, hospitali- 
zation benefìts, etc. 


APPLY TO: 
MEDICAL OFFICER OF HEALTH, 
CALGARY, ALBERTA. 


GUYS-MAUDSLEY 
NEUROSURGICAL UNIT 
LONDON, ENGLAND 


Applications are invited for the post of 
Theatre Sister and Staff Nurses in the 
above Unit. Good previous experience is 
necessCTY. 


Applications to; 


THE SUfERINTENDENT OF NURSING, 
MAUDSLEY HOSPITAL, DENMARK HILL, 
LONDON, S.E.5, ENGLAND. 


186 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



,jIIJ>>-" 


'-j'f" 
.:- - 


- 
, 
.. ", 

 
 :'I 
.. 
.. 
 .. 

...J ' "" 
'l
 
 
f ,. rt 
,.,,--
 
:: ." ð 


NURSES WHO LIVE 
HERE NEVER STOP 
LEARNING. . . 
GROWING 


".. 
 


",'., ".
,,,;';:,: 
, <# I I "!, , 

 e ,... ,.:t- " 
, " Ii! If --, .. . 
. \ 1, I . ^ I . . ' .< .. 
, 1 .'1 I 

: , _ << I I '. " . .. 

 ,f t. .If! If -': .. 
 - 
'I :-t
 r
'ð:." "'<.""!:., -- ð 
:::. ,1 i 
 r' 
 ..:- . , 
..:; , 111 r;-.t. 
 _ "i.. 
'.., e l ' 
, 


. . . THEY WORK AT 


COOK COUNTY 
HOSPIT Al 


, 
: 
:,'
 ,;" 7\ 
 ',
:':
'
 
 
 
-t-' tw' 
u ,'jii; lh 


!!' . 


;. !II! 5J
' 
... .. -" . 


_.
 


I , 


. 


. . . in one of the largest 
Most Stimulating Medical 
Centers in the World 


. . 

 


Residence. Cook County School of Nursing 
Here's an opportunity to gain unique and valuable experience in a public hospital - world's 
largest for acute medical conditions. Cook County Hospital offers you the stimulation of working 
with more than 2,500 other doctors and nurses in one of the world's largest and most exciting 
medical centers. Housing is available at nominal cost. Salaries begin at $340-$372.50 for a 37'/2 
hour week. And you're only minutes from Chicago's fabulous Loop and local universities. 
Graduate Nurses! Write today to Director, Cook County School of Nursing, Dept. c., 1900 West 
Polk Street, Chicago 12, Illinois. 


CALIFORNIA STATE HOSPITALS CALLING... 
REGISTERED NURSES FOR IMMEDIATE EMPLOYMENT 
· STARTING SALARIES $376 WITHOUT EXPERIENCE, 
$395 WITH ONE YEAR PSYCHIATRIC NURSING 
· STIMULATING AND CHALLENGING CAREERS 
· CHOICE OF LOCATION 
· PROMOTIONAL OPPORTUNITI ES 
· REGULAR SALARY INCREASES 
· LIBERAL EMPLOYEE BEN EFITS 


. 


Eligibility for California license 
and 
Possession U.S. Declaration of Intention Required 


. 


Write Mrs. Katharine Steele 
DIRECTOR OF NURSING SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF MENTAL HYGIENE 
1320 KAY STREET, SACRAMENTO 14, CALIFORNIA 


FEBRUARY, 1960. Vol. 56. No. 2 


187 



JEWISH GENERAL HOSPITAL 
MONTREAL, QUEBEC 


NURSING OPPORTUNITIES 


Completion of expansion program makes available attractive 
positions for Registered Nurses in administration and general duty 
and also for Certified Nursing Assistants. Excellent personnel 
policies. Salary in accordance with the Association of Nurses of the 
Province of Quebec recommendations and commensurate with 
experience and education. Limited number of bursaries available 
for post-basic study after one year's service. Residence accommo- 
dation in very pleasant surroundings. Within 50 miles of Laurentian 
holiday and ski resorts. For further information, please write: 


DIRECTOR OF NURSING, 
JEWISH GENERAL HOSPITAL 
3755 COTE ST . CATHERINE ROAD 
MONTREAL, QUEBEC 


CLASSROOM & CLINICAL 
INSTRUCTORS GENERAL 
STAFF NURSES 


required 


The General Hospital of 
Port Arthur School of 
Nursing 


Salary schedule in conformity 
with R.N.A.D. recommend- 
ations. 


Partial fare refund after l-yr. 
in service. 


WRITE, 


DIRECTOR OF NURSING, 
GENERAL HOSPITAL OF PORT ARTHUR, 
PORT ARTHUR, ONTARIO. 


188 


REGISTERED NURSES 
AND 
CERTIFIED NURSING 
ASSISTANTS 


SUNNYBROOK HOSPITAL, TORONTO 
DEER LODGE HOSPITAL, WINNIPEG 
QUEEN MARY VETERANS HOSPITAL, MONTREAL 
WESTMINSTER HOSPITAL, LONDON 
LANCASTER HOSPITAL, SAINT JOHN 
STE. ANNE DE BELLEVUE VETERANS 
HOSPITAL, P.Q. 
Pension plan; three weeks' paid vaca- 
tion: three weeks' cumulative sick 
leave; 5 day week; low cost living in 
staff residence-for Nurses. Applica- 
tion forms are available at Civil Ser- 
vice Commission Offices, National 
Employment Offices and main Post 
Offices. 
For further particulars contact the Civil 
Service Commission Office in the pro- 
vince where the position in which you 
are interested exists- 
ONTARIO - 25 St. Clair Ave. East, Toronto 
MANITOBA - 266 Graham Ave., Winnipeg 
NEW BRUNSWICK - Post Office Bldg., 
Canterbury St., Saint John, N.B. 
QUEBEC - 685 Cathcart St., Montreal 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



NURSES NEEDED IN NORTH 


For new modern 16-bed hospital, to start February 1 st. 1960, or sooner. 
Starting salary $260 per month, less $35 for full maintenance. Will pay train 
or bus fare one way if applicant agrees to stay one year. One month vacation 
with pay after 1 year service. 


Apply to: 
MANNING MUNICIPAL HOSPITAL, MANNING, ALBERTA. 


DIRECTOR -- PRENATAL CLASSES 


To direct prenatal Classes and study program of the Prenatal Education 
Committee, sponsored by the Social Planning Council of Metropolitan Toronto. 
Requirements: Registered Nurse, preferably with certifìcate in public health 
nursing; preparation and experience in administration and experience in the 
area of maternal and child care. 
Salary: minimum $5,000. Starting salary commensurate with specifìc qualifìca- 
tions and experience. 
Apply to: 
CONVENOR, SELECTIONS COMMITTEE, c/o MRS. W. A. E. McBRYDE, 
29 SUSSEX AVENUE, TORONTO 5, ONTARIO. 


UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL 
SASKATOON, SASKATCHEWAN 
Requires 
General Staff Nurses for Medical, Surgical, Obstetrical and Pediatric Services. 
Forty hour week. Salary $270 to $310 gross per month. Differential for 
evening and night duty. Residence accommodation if desired. 


Apply to: 
DIRECTOR OF NURSING, UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL, 
SASKATOON, SASKATCHEWAN 


GRADUATE STAFF NURSES - YOU WILL LIKE IT HERE 


Opportunities for men & women on the service of your choice. A 953-bed 
teaching hospital with a friendly atmosphere, well planned orientation pro- 
gram, active graduate nurse club, cultural advantages & excellent transpor- 
tation facilities. 
Starting salary: $325 per mo., 6 holidays, sick leave, 3 wk. vacation. 


For further details write: 
Director - Nursing Service, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Ohio. 


FEBRUARY, 1960. Vol. 56. No. 2 


189 



REGINA GENERAL HOSPITAL 
REGINA, SASKATCHEWAN 
invites 
Applications for the Position of 
DIRECTOR OF NURSING 
BOO-bed, fully accredited General Hospital with large School of Nursing embarking 
on a two year teaching, plus one year interne, student nursing course effective 
September 1960. Organization provides Associate Directors in Nursing Service and 
Nursing Education, 
Benefits cover Pension Plan, Group Life Insurance, sick leave, four weeks vacation. 
Living accommodation available if desired. 


Inquiries and applications to be forwarded to: 
MR. C. E. BARTON, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR 


ONTARIO SOCIETY 
FOR CRIPPLED CHILDREN 
REQUIRES FOR ITS 
Five Summer Camps 
(Strategically located throughout Ontario) 
GRADUATE NURSES AND 
NURSING ASSISTANTS 


For further information apply to: 
SUPERVISOR OF CAM?S, 
ONTARIO SOCIETY FOR 
CRIPPLED CHILDREN, 
92 COLLEGE STREET, 
TORONTO 2, ONTARIO. 


REGISTERED NURSES 
AND 
CERTIFIED NURSING 
ASSIST ANTS 


REQUIRED FOR 
44-bed hospital with expansion 
program, 40-hr. wk. Situated in 
the Niagara Peninsula. Transpor- 
tation assistance. 


For salary rates & personnel policies 
APPL Y TO: DIRECTOR OF NURSING, 
HALDIMAND WAR MEMORIAL HOSPITAL, 
DUNNVILLE, ONTARIO 


WOODSTOCK GENERAL HOSPITAL 
Woodstock, Ontario 


requires 


Registered Nurses 
for Operating Room, Obstetrical, 
Medical and Surgical units. 


For further information write: 


THE DIRECTOR OF NURSING, 
GENERAL HOSPITAL, 
WOODSTOCK, ONTARIO. 


190 


REGISTERED NURSES 


required for 
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES 
B.C. CIVIL SERVICE 
Starting salary $270-$292 per month 
depending upon experience, rising to 
$325 per month. Applicants must be 
Canadian citizens or British subjects 
and registered, or eligible for regis- 
tration in British Columbia. 


For application forms apply IMMEDIATELY to 'he: 
PERSONNEL OFFICER, B.C. CIVIL SERVICE 
COMMISSION, ESSONDALE, B.C. 
COMPETITION NO. 59:608 


SUPERVISOR CENTRAL SUPPLY 


Required by 
CITY HOSPITAL, SASKATOON, SASK. 
1350 beds) 
Qualifications - Registered Nurse, supervisory 
experience. 
Duties - To supervise well orgonized central 
supply deportment with a lorge staff of 
nurses oides. 
Orientation of nursing students and others to 
the department. 
liberal vacotion with pay and occumulative sick 
leave benefits. 


Apply to: 
DIRECTOR OF NURSING 
CITY HOSPITAL, SASKATOON, SASK. 


NURSING SUPERVISORS 


required for 


MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES, 
ESSONDALE, PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 
Salary: $324 - $389 per month 


Duties ore those of nursing supervisors in modern 
psychiatric & geriatric units. 
Applicants must be British Subjects, registered 
nurses, with troining in 0 mentol hospital setting 
& supervisory experience. 


For further information & application forms, 
apply 10: 
THE PERSONNEL OFFICER, B.C. CIVIL SERVICE 
COMMISSION, ESSONDALE, BRITISH COLUMBIA. 
IMMEDIATELY. COMPETITION No. 59:1.52 


THE CANADIAN NURSJI: 



GENERAL DUTY NURSES 
FOR ALL DEPARTMENTS 


Gross salary $276 monthly ($127 bi-weekly) with annual increment $10 
monthly ($4,60 bi-weekly) for three years, if registered in Ontario; $256 
monthly ($117.80 bi-weekly) until registered. Rotating periods of duty, 40-hr. 
per wk., 8 statutory holidays. 14-days vacation & 12 working days leave for 
illness with pay after 1-yr, Pension plan available. Ontario Hospital Insurance 
with Blue Cross supplemental & Physicians' Services Incorporated, partial 
payment by hospital. 
APPL Y 
DIRECTOR OF NURSING, GENERAL HOSPITAL, OSHAWA, ONTARIO. 


THE PETERBOROUGH CIVIC HOSPITAL 


REQUIRES 
NURSES FOR GENERAL DUTY IN All SERVICES. 


For further information write: 


THE DIRECTOR OF NURSING 
PETERBOROUGH CIVIC HOSPITAL, PETER BOROUGH, ONTARIO 


SUBURBAN TORONTO 
GRADUATE NURSES & CERTIFIED NURSING ASSISTANTS 


Are invited to enquire re: employment opportunities in a well staffed new 
125 bed hospital in suburban west Toronto. General duty salary range: 
$270-$320 per mo. Certified Nursing Assistants $200-$220 per mo. 5 day 
week. Residence accommodation optional. Personnel manual forwarded on 
request, Enquire to: 


DI'RECTOR OF NURSING, HUMBER MEMORIAL HOSPITAL, 200 CHURCH STREET, WESTON, 
TORONTO 15, ONTARIO - CH 4-5551 


REGISTERED NURSES 
FOR THE OPERATING ROOM, OBSTETRICAL AND MEDICAL 
SURGICAL UNITS OF A 3S0-BED GENERAL HOSPITAL 


Gross salary $260 - $290 per month if registered in Ontario. 
Differential of $10 for evening and night duty. 
40-hour week. Sick leave cumulative to 30 days. 
3 weeks vacation and eight statutory holidays. 


Apply: 
DIRECTOR OF NURSING SERVICES, 
METROPOLITAN GENERAL HOSPITAL, WINDSOR, ONTARIO 


FEBRUARY. 1960. Vol. 56. No.2 


191 



\ 


... 


TABLETS 
the wonder 
combination 
for 
RELIEF 
IN HALF 
THE TIME 


Acetylsalicylic acid ........3'12 gr. 
Phenacetin ............... 2V2 gr, 
Caffeine Citrate . . . . . . . . . .. V2 gr. 
Available in Handy Tubes of 12 
Economy Sizes of 40 and 100 
é CMWð B.B'1'I.OMt&Co. 
MONTREAL, CANADA 


I 


192 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



new 
lor 


\\ 
 - --- 

 '- )/,--=-- 
_
___ I / '_ .
 

 l 

-

\ 
( ( I l 
ä> :\ 
T -

 l) .
 
 
\. --","Yt 

 --:--- 


two new delivery room devices 


c::::::=<[ . 


PLASTIBELL disposable circumcision bell 
may be applied at birth in 2 to 3 minutes. 
Minimizes chance of hemorrhag- 
ing. Hemostats and scissors are 
only instruments required. No 
dressings or postoperative care 
needed. Lightweight bell drops off in 5 to 8 
days leaving clean, well-healed line of excision. 


CORD-CLAMP seals any size umbilical cord 
over safe quarter-inch area, elimi- 
nates hemorrhaging and seepage. 
Easily applied with one hand, 
requires no tools. Maintains con- 
stant pressure as the cord shrinks. 
No belly band or dressings needed. 
Blind catch and serrated edges 
prevent accidental release or slipping. Auto- 
clavable and disposable. 


f 


11 


W,ite fo, samptes and liter.ture f ßO iliS!

 
160 BAY ST., TORONTO 1, ONTARIO 


"If ^ Df"'U 
at:C\ . "....1 ">1:: No ':t 


193 



INDEX TO ADVERTISERS 


MARCH, 


Ahhott Laboratories Ltd. _ , . . . .. 255 


Bland & Co. 


Canadian Tampax Corp. Ltd. ... 257 
Carnation Co. Ltd. ., _ . _ . . . . . .. 245 
Clearasil Inc. . . .. .., . . . . . .. 259 


Dept. of National Defense - 
K avy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 249 
Dominion Corset Co. Ltd. ..... 2-1-3 


Foster Parents Plan Inc. ...... 197 
Char1es E. Frosst & Co. . . . . . .. 241 


Gerber Products of Canada Ltd. . 2-1-7 
The Good Lite Mfg. Co. . . . . . . .. 258 
Hol1ister Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 193 


Identical Form, Inc. .......... 262 
Imperial Tobacco Co. of Canada 
J .tel. ....................... 266 


1960 


Johnson & Johnson Ltd. ...... 263 


205 


The Kendall Co. (Canada) Ltd. 261 
Kress & Owen Co. Canada Ltd. 267 


J. n. Lippincott Co. ..... Cover IV 


C. V. :\Iosby Co. ....... . . . . . .. 253 


Ortho Pharmaceuticals (Canada) 
Ltd. ....................... 251 


Parke Davis & Co. Ltd. . . . . . . .. 239 
J. T. Posey Co. ....... . . . . . . .. 265 


The Ryerson Press 


266 


Sa vage Shoes Ltd. ............ 258 
Swift Canadian Co. Ltd. ....... 206 


Uniforms Registered ..... Cover III 


\Vhite Sister Uniform Inc. Cover II 


* 


* 


* 


Subscription Rates: Canada & Bermuda: 6 months $1.75; one year, $3.00; two years, $5.00. 
Student nurses - one year, $2.00; three years, $5.00. 
U.S.A. & foreign: one year, $3.50; two years, $6.00. 
Single copies 35 cents. 
In combination with the American Journal of Nursing or Nursing Outlook: one year, $8.00. 
Make cheques and money orders payable to The Canadian Nurse. 
Change of address: Four week's notice and the old address as well as the new are necessary. 
Not responsible for Journals lost in mail due to errors in address. 
Authorized as Second-Class Mail, Post Office Department, Ottawa, 
Member of Canadian Circulation Audit Board. 
Advertising Representati'l.!cs: \"1. F. L. Edwards & Co., Ltd., 34 King St. E" Toronto I, Onto 
Walter Slack, 801 Public Ledger Building, Philadelphia 6, Pa. 


1522 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal 25, Quebec 


194 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



THE 


CANADIAN NURSE 


VOLUME 56 


MARCH 1960 


1 96 BET\\"EE
 OCRSELVES 
1 98 NEW PRODUCTS 
200 RAXOO)l COMMENTS 
207 HAST THOU FAITH?".. 


209 A COM)lUXITY :MENTAL HEALTH CLINIC 
213 ILLNESS AND ApPLIED PSYCHOLOGY" 


NUMBER 3 


, E. A. E. M aCLCllllOlI 


F. Grwlberg 
Sr. J. O'l-oide 


216 THE CHILD IS 
IENTALLY RETARDED H. and B. de Groot 
219 
IE
TAL HEALTH AND 
IATERNITY CARE. .E. J. Robertson 
223 THE PL'BLIC HEALTH NURSE AND 

IENTAL HYGIENE., 


227 THE 11A
AGEMENT OF CRISIS IX 
HUMAX SITUATIONS... 
230 KURSING ACROSS THE NATION 
231 A REVIEW OF THE PILOT PROJECT 
234 THE PSYCHIATRIC NURSE AS 
AN OBSERVER.. 
238 REACTIO
S TO VISITORS IN A 
PSYCHIATRIC UNIT., 
248 HEBEPHRENIC SCHIZOPHRENIA 
252 NURSING PROFILES 
254 IN 
IEMORIAM 
256 BOOK REVIEWS 
268 EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES 
287 OFFICIAL DIRECTORY 


N. Philpott 


. .\1. F. /lfcHugh 


H. /lfussalle1ll 


. E. Ratkowitsch 


The views expressed 
in the various articles 
are the vie'ws of 
the authors alld 
do not necessarily 
represent the polic}' 
or views of 
THE CANADIAN NCRSE 
Ilor of the Canadian 
Nurses' Associatioll. 


B. H. Nelson 
Sr. /II arie Elise 


Journal Board: 
lrs. A. 1. 
lacLeod, chairman, Sr. 
1. Fehcitas, Misses H. Carpenter, R. Chittick, S. Giroux, 
E. Gordon, K. MacLaggan, A. Girard, president C)lA; Misses M. P. Stiver, M. E. Kerr. 
Editorial Advisers: Alberta, Miss Irene 1\1. Robertson, 11831,87th Ave" Edmonton; British Columbia, Miss 

larion E. Macdonell, 1807 \Y. 36th Ave., V anCOl1 ver 13; Manitoba, Miss Sheila L. Nixon, 
25 Langside St., \Vinnipeg; New Brunswick, Miss Shirley Y. Alcoe, 180 Charlotte St., 
Fredericton; Newfoundland, 
1iss Isabel Sutton, 66a MulIock St., St. John's; Nova Scotia, 
Mrs. Hope :\lack, P.O. Box 76, Hantsport; Ontario, Miss Jean \Vatt, RN.A.O" 33 Price St., 
Toronto; Prince Edward Island, Sr. M. David, Charlottetown Hospital; Quebec, Miss Geneviève 
Lamarre, Hôpital de l'Enfant J ésus, Quebec City (French), Sr. 
1. Assumpta, St. Mary's Hospital, 

lontreal (English); Saskatchewan, Miss Victoria Antonini, S,R.K.A., 2066 Retallack St., Regina. 
Executive Director: :\largaret E. Kerr, M.A., RX. 
Assistant Editors: Jean E. MacGregor, B.X.,A.X.; Gabrielle D. Coté, 
L\.,R)l" Pamela E. Poole, B.X.,R.X. 
CirC141atio,
 iHanager: \Vinnifred :\lacLean. Production Assistant: Elizabeth :\1. Hanlon. 
Advertising Assistant: Ruth H. Baumel 


MARCH, 1960 · Vol. 56. NO.3 


1522 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal 25, Quebec 


195 




etøeen ()
 


As a preface to and preparation for the 
forthcoming biennial convention in Halifax 
next June, it seemed to the J ourllal' s edi- 
torial staff that there would be interest 
and value in providing an opportunity for 
each of our national committee chairmen to 
describe succinctly the program her com- 
mittee had developed during this biennium. 
The chairmen's replies to our letters of invi- 
tation to serve as guest editors in successive 
issues were prompt and enthusiastic. Sister 
Mary Felicitas wrote about the nursing ser- 
vice program last month. You can read the 
comments of Miss E. A. ELECTA MAc- 
LENNAN, chairman of the Committee on 
Legislation, in this issue. 
Miss Helen Carpenter is scheduled to un- 
veil some of the problems that have to be 
considered by the Finance Committee as our 
National Association strives to match an 
income based on the per member assessment 
approved in 1952 against the demands made 
in 1960. 
The least static aspect of nursing in 
Our national scene is the education of stu- 
dent nurses. Two-year programs, plus in- 
ternship or without it, are very much to the 
fore. As chairman of the Committee on 
Nursing Education, 
fiss Hazel Keeler will 
make a valuable contribution to your un- 
derstanding of the whole situation in her edi- 
torial in May. 
The opening sentence of the foreword to 
a very useful little book "The Nurse Speaks" 
by Roy C. Nelson, Ph.D., reads: "The 
changing concepts of the role of the profes- 
sional nurse in the hospital, in health 
agencies, in industry, and as a citizen in 
the community have emphasized the fund- 
amental importance of the great need for 
increasing experience in the art and science 
of communication." If the writer had used 
"public relations" instead of "communica- 
tion," the program of our national Commit- 
tee on Public Relations would have been 
summed up in that one sentence. :Uiss Ethel 
Gordon will gave us her account of her 
committee's activities in the June issue. 
* * * 


The application of all of our knowledge 
of people and their minds, in order to pre- 
vent mental illness, is the basic theme of 
a mental health program. Such a program 
strives to prevent or eliminate crippling emo- 
tions and attitudes, to re-adjust unhealthy 


196 


aims and ideals in order to secure for every- 
one the fullest potentialities for happiness 
and usefulness. 
N one of us can choose our ancestors so 
each comes into the world with a complex 
inheritance. Over and above our inborn ca- 
pacities, everything that ever happens to us, 
everything we do or think or feel, impinges 
upon or modifies our personalities, and 
shapes our destiny to a greater or lesser 
degree. On the positive side, therefore, we 
must remember that every person needs to 
feel that he is loved, that he is important 
to others and to himself; to feel secure in 
his emotional relationships, self-confident in 
his social environment. He must learn to face 
the reality and perils of his physical environ- 
ment and to adj ust to these unhampered 
by abnormal fears and anxieties. 
Unhappily, psychiatric symptoms occur 
all too frequently in the rush and turmoil 
of present-day living conditions. \\Then all 
of our endeavors to assist an individual to 
maintain good mental health fail, what then? 
Most of this issue is devoted to the con- 
sideration, by various authors, of how best 
we may serve our feIlows in the preservation 
of mental health. \Vhen the lapse occurs we 
have an equally important function in seek- 
ing the restoration of that health. 
* * * 



fiss HELEN :\1 USSALLEM has prepared a 
brief summation of her intensive work in 
organizing, conducting and reporting on the 
first authoritative investigation of the status 
of a few of the schools of nursing in Canada. 
No full-fledged evaluations leading to ac- 
creditation were made or intended. Rather, 
it was a preliminary to such a broad pro- 
gram. 
After reading Miss MussaIlem's summary 
here be sure that you write for a copy of 
the full report from your own provincial 
nurses' association. Just in case you forget 
the street address (foolish thought 
 ) you 
will find all of the provincial association 
headquarters listed in the Official Directory 
on page 287. 


A. total of more than 1,600,000 Canadians 
have received one or more free blood trans- 
fusions since the Canadian Red Cross service 
was established in 1947. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



SO FRIGHTENED 
AND PATHETIC- 
HOLDING A PIECE 
OF A DOLL 


This is Elena. Italian. age 3
. Her father 
is dead. Her mother, ill and worn cannot 
find work. 1Vith her own tired hands and 
with old pieces of wood and tin, she put 
together a pitiful shack. You can imagine 
how bitter cold it is in winter. Last year, 
Elena. tr:ving to warm herself at their 
brazier went too close and fell in. painfully 
carhonizing her little left hand. Her mother 
writes: She cried so very much that I 
promised m)'self that for the coming )'ear 
m)' child would har.Je warm clothes and a 
doll. JVhere can I find such things for my 
little one? How can I protect her and help 
her? IV on't you help little Elena or a 
child like her? Your help today means 
their hope for tomorrow." 


,... 
.. ""\ 


..... 



 


" 
 



 


"" 


\ 


. 
! 


. 


You, alone, or as a member of a group, can help 
these children by becoming a Foster Parent. You will 
be sent the case history and photograph of your child 
upon receipt of application with initial payment. Your " 
child is told that you are his or her Foster Parent. All 
correspondence is through our office, and is translated 
and encouraged. We do no mass relief. Each child, treated as an individual, receives food, 
clothing, shelter, education and medical care according to his or her needs. 
The Plan is a non-political. non-profit, non-sectarian, independent relief organization, 
helping children in Greece, France, Belgium, Italy, Viet Nam, Korea and Hong Kong. Inter- 
national headquarters is in New York. Financial statements are filed with the Montreal 
Department of Social Welfare. Full information is available to any competent authority. 
Your help is vital to a child struggling for life. Won't you let some child love you? 
All contributions deductible for Income Tax purposes. 


'F0IIet j)
' 'PJø.. 1M. 


P ARTL\L LIST OF 
SPO
SORS AXD 
FOSTER PARE
TS 
Honorable and Mrs. 
Hugh John Flemming, X.B. 
Honorable and Mrs. 
Georg-e He
s, Toronto, Onto 
Dr. R. P. Baird, 
Kitchener,Ont. 

Ir. and Mrs. Peter D. Curry, 
\\ïnnipeg, 
Ian. 

lrs. L. B. Cutler, 
Vancouver, B.C. 
Alfred Rive, 
Canadian Embassy, 
Dublin, Ireland 
H:\ICS Kootenay. 
Kiwanis Club, 
Peterborough, Onto 
Dr. and Mrs. John M. Olds, 
Twillingate, :-; Rd. 


MARCH, 1960 · Vol. 56, No.3 


FOSTER PARENTS' PLAN, INC" DEPT. CN,3-1-60 
P.O. Box 65, Station "B", Montreal, Que., Canada 
A. I wish to become a Foster Parent of a needy cl,ild for one year. 
I f possible, sex.................,.........................,..,...... ........................ ............ 
I will pay $15 a month for one year 1$180.001. Payments will be 
made quarterly ( I, yearly ( I, monthly 1 I. 
I enclose herewith my first payment $...................,........... ......'............. 
B, I cannot "adopt" a child, but I would like to help a child by 
contributing $..'....m .......m'm.................,...........,............,.......,..,..... ....... 


Name .. 


Address 


City 


. Prov.........., 


Date .............,.' 


Contributions are deductible from Income Tax_ 
L____________________ 


197 



1teeu- p
 


PUBLISHED THROUGH COURTESY OF Canadian Pharmaceutical Journal 
AND IN COOPERATION WITH THE PHAR
IACEUTICAL FIRMS. 


MIDICEL ACETYL SUSPENSION 
Indications-For use in the treatment of bacterial infections, 
Description-Each 5 cc, provides: n 1 acetyl sulfamethoxypyridazine equivalent to 
250 mg. of Midicel (sulfamethoxypyridazine). Butterscotch-flavor. 
Administration-Children: 30 mg. per kg. of body weight (l teaspoonful per 18 pounds) 
first day, followed by IS mg. per kg. of body weight daily, but not to exceed adult dosage. 
Adults: I gm. (4 teaspoonfuls) first day, followed by 112 gm. daily. In severe infections 
dosage may be increased. 
Manufacturer-Parke, Davis & Co., Ltd., Montreal 9. 
NACTON 
Indications-For prolonged inhibition of gastric acid secretion in peptic ulcer. 
Description-Each scored tablet contains 2 mg. of (l-methyl-2-pyrrolidyl) methyl 
benzilate methyl methosulfate. 
Administration-Usually, one or two 3 times a day and at bedtime. 
Manufacturer-Bencard, P.O. Box 99, Weston, Ont. 
NARDIL 


Indications-Depressive states. 
Description-Phenylzine dihydrogen sulfate, tablets IS mg" monoamine oxidase inhi- 
bitor, acting selectively on the brain. 
Administration-Initially, one tablet 3 times daily. After maximum benefit has been 
achieved - usually 2 to 5 weeks - slowly reduce dosage over several weeks to IS mg. 
once daily. 
Manufacturer-Warner-Chilcott Laboratories, 727 King St. W., Toronto. 
NEO-ARISTOCORT 
Indications-A wide range of inflammations and infections of the eye and ear. 
Description-A combination of Neomycin and Aristocort triamcinolone acetonide 
ointment. 
Administration-For ocular therapy, should be applied in the lower conjunctival sac 
2 or 4 times daily or as often as every 2 hours, In otic diseases, the same dosage schedule 
should be followed. 
Manufacturer-Lederle Laboratories, 5550 Royalmount Ave" Montreal 16. 
OILATUM SOAP 
Indications-For diseased skin where a mild soap is indicated. Also indicated for 
sensitive and dry skin conditions. Excellent for infant use. 
Description-Superoiled soap. Instead of grease it is extended with readily absorbed 
pure vegetable oil. It soothes and lubricates sensitive or dry skin as would a cosmetic 
cream. Lathers well, even in hard water. 
Administration-Presented as a routine cleanser for sensitive or inflamed skins, 
being particularly effective when minimal water is used in forming the lather, and when 
prolonged flushing with water is avoided during removal. Due to its high free oil con- 
tent, Oilatum Soap is contraindicated in dermatoses characterized by overactivity of 
the sebaceous glands, 
Manufacturer-Stiefel Laboratories Inc., N,Y, 
PARAFON 
Indications-Musculoskeletal disorders characterized by pain, stiffness, limitation of 
motion, spasm. 
Description-Each tablet contains: Paraflex (chlorzoxazone) 125 mg" Tylenol (ace- 
taminophen) 300 mg. 
Administration-One or two tablets 3 or 4 times daily. 
Manufacturer-McNeil Laboratories (Canada) Ltd" 357 College St., Toronto 2B. 
P ARAFON WITH PREDNISOLONE 
Indications-Fo
 relief of pain, stiffness and limitation of motion associated with 
arthritis. 
Description-Each tablet contains: Paraflex (chlorzoxazone) 125 mg., Tylenol (ace- 
taminophen) 300 mg" Prednisolone I mg. 
Administration-One or two tablets 3 or 4 times a day. 
Manufacturer-McNeil Labora 
 ries (Canada) !-.td--.:, 357 College St., Toronto 2B. 
TEENAC OINTMENT 
Indications-Adjunctive therapy in the treatment and control of acne. Also of benefit 
where there is superficial infection such as impetigo, heat rash, secondary infection of 
diaper dermatitis, postular folliculitis or where drying of the skin is desirable. 
Description-Mercuric sulfide red 0.5%; sulfur, colloidal, 1.5/'0, containing urea and 
in a grease-free thixotropic tinted base. 
The Journal prescJlts pharmaceuticals for information. Nurses fmdcrstaJfd that only a physician may prescribe. 


198 


THE CANADIAN NVRSE 



'!1 g]j 
1. 



 


SCHOOL for GRADUA IE NURSES 
McGILL UNIVERSITY 


PROGRAM FOR GRADUATE NURSES lEADING TO THE 
DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF NURSING 


Two-year program for nurses with McGill Senior Matriculation or its equivalent. 
Three-year program for nurses with McGill Junior Matriculation or its equiva- 
lent. In the first year students elect Public Health Nursing or Teaching and 
Supervision in one of the following clinical fields: Medical-Surgical Nursing, 
Psychiatric Nursing, Maternal and Child Health Nursing. 
In the second year students elect to study in one of the following fields: 
Nursing Education, Administration in Hospitals and Schools of Nursing, 
Administration in Public Health Nursing. 


PROGRAM FOR GRADUATE NURSES lEADING TO A DIPLOMA 
Students are granted a diploma on the completion of the first year of the 
degree program. All first-year students elect to study in a particular field as 
stated above. 


PROGRAM IN BASIC NURSING lEADING TO THE DEGREE OF 
BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN NURSING 
Five-year program for high-school graduates who have passed in the required 
papers of the McGill Junior School Examination or their equivalents. This 
program combines academic and professional courses with supervised nursing 
experience in the McGill teaching hospitals and selected health agencies. 
This broad background of education, followed by graduate professional 
experience, prepares the nurses for advanced levels of service in hospitals 
and community. 


For further information write to: 


DIRECTOR, McGill SCHOOL FOR GRADUATE NURSES, 
1266 PINE AVE. W., MONTREAL 25, QUEBEC. 


THE MOUNTAIN 
SANATORIUM 
Tuberculosis Division of the 
Hamilton Health Association 
offer5 
a two months postgraduate course in 
IMMUNOLOGY 
PREVENTION AND TREATMENT 
of 


TUBERCULOSIS 


Write: 
DIRECTOR OF NURSING, 
BOX 590, HAMilTON, ONTARIO. 


MARCH. 1960 . Vol. 56. No.3 


CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 
OF WASHINGTON, D.C. 


OFFERS 
Registered Nurses a 16-wk. supple- 
mentary program in pediatric nursing. 
Admission dates, May 3, August 30, 
1960, January 3, May 2, and August 
29, 1961. 


For complete in/ormation write to. 


DIRECTOR OF NURSING 
2125-13th STREET, N.W., WASHINGTON 9, D,C. 


199 



QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY 
SCHOOL OF NURSING 


COURSES OFFERED 


U"dergraduat, 
Degree Course, 5 years leading to 
BNSc. De
ree 


Gr.duate Nurses 
a. Degre Course, two years. 
b. Diploma Courses, one year. 
Public Health Nursing 


or 
Teaching and Supervision in Schools 
of Nursing. 


For information apply to: 


DIRECTOR 
SCHOOL OF NURSING, 
QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY 
KINGSTON, ONTARIO 



andom eomments 


Dear Editor: 
In looking over the December issue of 
the ] o/mzal, I noted the table of Antidotes 
on page 1095. I thought it might be of use 
to bring to your attention the fact that the 
treatment listed for No.4, Hydrocarbons, 
is not recommended by the Poison Control 
Centre at the Montreal Children's Hospital. 
As a matter of fact, they are most emphatic 
that vomiting must not be induced nor the 
stomach contents aspirated. They recommend 
instead high liquid intake, and, as soon as 
hospitalized, chest x-ray, antibiotics and 
careful observation. Apparently the danger 
of pneumonia is yery great and it is on this 
that the first aid and medical treatment are 
based. 


E. C, Quebec 


Dear Eùitor: 
It was with interest I read the article 
by Alice C 
Ii1ls in the :K ovember issue of 
The Canadian Xurse, "The Role of the 
Nurse Midwife in Great Britain." Since tak- 
ing a midwifery training at Queen Charlotte's 


200 


Hospital, London, Eng. in 1937, it has been 
my regret that Canadian mothers do not 
have the same maternity service, that all 
comparable countries have, in the service of 
a nurse midwife. 
The mothers are very safe in the hands of 
these highly qualified nurses - well trained 
to deliver a baby when the birth is normal, 
obtaining prompt medical aid at any signs 
of abnormalities. 
I am luoking forward to the time when an 
article on "The Role of the Nurse Midwife 
in Canada" appears in The Canadian Nurse. 
Lets have more articles on this important 
subject. 


E. lL H" Ontario 


Dear Editor: 
Please note the error in the formula on 
page 2-1- of the January, 1960 issue in the 
article "Test Construction in Nursing Edu- 
cation." This should read: 
80 


L== 


c
m ) /: 
\Vm. H. Lucow, 
Ianitoba 


9 


Dear Editor: 
_\bout a year ago, after months of illness 
in our family, I became depressed and was 
advised to develop a new hobby. I chose to 
collect small pieces of silver cutlery from 
interesting places around the world. I have 
found the correspondence very interesting 
but have had a problem finding someone in 
different countries, for instance Uruguay, 
who reads and writes English. 
I noticed in the December issue of The 
Canadiall Nurse in "Between Ourselves" that 
the ] ounzal has subscribers in 103 countries. 
Could you tell me how I could obtain a list 
of names and addresses of nurses in these 
lands. For over a year I have been trying 
to obtain names of p
ople to whom I could 
write through our government represen- 
tatives abroad, missionaries, Rotary Club, 
and the Friendship Club of England. 
Any help will be appreciated. 
Mrs. J. L. Ross, 
Thornton, 
Ontario, Canada. 
fJPerJzaps some of our readers ill differcnt 
countries 'lC'ould like to help Jfrs. Ross ill 
her search. Ed. 


Sickroom supplies are loaned free by the 
Canadian Red Cross loan cupboards in 549 
communities of Canada, 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



DALHOUSIE 


UNIVERSITY 


School of Nursing 
COURSES OFFERED 


1. Degree Course in Basic Professional Nursing 
Candidates for the degree of Bachelor of Nursing are required to complete 
2 years of university work before entering the clinical field, and one year 
of university work following the basic clinical period of 30 months. On 
completion of the course the student receives the Degree of Bachelor of 
Nursing and the Professional Diploma in either Teaching in Schools of 
Nursing or Public Health Nursing. 
2. Degree Course for Graduate Nurses 
Graduate nurses who wish to obtain the degree of Bachelor of Nursing are 
required to complete the three years of university work. 
3. Diploma Courses for Graduate Nurses 
(a) Public Health Nursing 
(b) Teaching in Schools of Nursing 
(c) Nursing Service Administration 


For further information apply to: 
DIRECTOR, SCHOOL OF NURSING 
DALHOUSIE UNIVERSITY, HALIFAX, N.S. 


POSTGRADUATE 
COURSES 
FOR 
REGISTERED NURSES 
Notre Dame Hospital 
of Montreal 
· GENERAL MEDICINE 
· GENERAL SURGERY 
· OPERATING ROOM 
· OBSTETRICS 
Classes: September and March 
Duration: 6 months 
Substantial remuneration 
Meals and laundry provided. 


For further information write to: 


LA DIRECTRICE DU NURSING 
HOPITAL NOTRE-DAME 
1560 EST, SHERBROOKE, 
MONTREAL, QUEBEC. 


MARCH, 1960 · Vol. 56, No, 3 


ST. JUSTINE'S HOSPIT Ai 
OFFERS 


Postgraduate courses for 
REGISTERED NURSES 


in 
· Pediatrics 
· Obstetrics 
in cooperation with the Marguerite 
Youville Institute, and leading to 
a university certificate. 


· Premature Nursery 
in cooperation with the Minister of 
Health of the Province of Quebec. 


For further information write to: 


LA DIRECTRICE DU NURSING, 
HOPITAL SAINTE-JUSTINE, 
3175 CHEMIN STE-CATHERINE, 
MONTREAL 26. 


201 



NOVA SCOTIA SANATORIUM 
KENTVILLE N.S. 


Offers to Graduate Nurses a Three- 
Month Course in Tuberculosis Nursing, 
including Immunology, Prevention, 
Medical & Surgical Treatment. 


1. Full series of lectures by ::\[edical 
and Surgical staff. 


2. Demonstrations and Clinics. 


3. Experience in Thoracic Operating 
Room and Postoperative Unit. 


4. Full maintenance, salary & all staff 
privileges. 


F or information apply to: 


DIRECTOR OR NURSING, NOVA SCOTIA 
SANATORIUM, KENTVILLE, N.S. 


COURSES 
FOR 
GRADUATE NURSES 


in various clinical fields. 


Terms begin May 2, 1960, 
July 25, 1960 and October 
1 7, 1 960. 


Room, meals, laundering of 
uniforms, and honorarium 
provided. 


Apply to: 
DIRECTOR, 
COOK COUNTY SCHOOL 
OF NURSING, 
DEPT. C., 1900 WEST POLK ST ,. 
CHICAGO 12, ILLINOIS 


WILLS EYE HOSPITAL 
Philadelphia, Penna. 


The largest eye hospital in the 
United States offers a six-month 
course in Nursing Care of the Eye to 
Graduates of Accredited Nursing 
Schools. Operating Room Training is 
scheduled in the course. 
· Full maintenance and a stipend of 
$205 per month for the first four 
months. $215 per month for the last 
two months, pIus maintenance. 
· REGISTRATION FEE is $20 
· Course starts March 15 & Septem- 
ber 15. Ophthalmic Nurses in great 
demand for hospital eye departments, 
operating rooms & ophthalmologists' 
offices. 


For information write to: 


Director of Nurses, 
Wills Eye Hospital, 
1601 Spring Garden Street, 
Philadelphia 30, Penna. 


202 


THE JOHNS HOPKINS 
HOSPITAL 
SCHOOL 01 NURSING 


Offers to qualified Registered Nurses 
a 16-week supplementary course in 


OPERATIVE ASEPTIC TECHNIC 


with instruction and practice in the 
general surgical, neurosurgical, plastic 
orthopedic, gynecologic, ophthalmolo- 
gic, urologic and ear, nose and throat 
operating room services. Maintenance 
and stipend are provided. 


F or information write to.- 


DIRECTOR, SCHOOL OF NURSING 
THE JOHNS HOPKINS HOSPITAL 
BALTIMORE 5, MARYLAND, U.S.A. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



UNIVERSITY OF SASKA TCHE\\'" AN 
School of N ul'sing 


It 
 


.
 .... 



 


U "'1 


.,. - 
-. 
<<-'i/d" 
-- --'"--' 
· . rr
.,. 

J ' . .... ,'ft 
IJ .' -:;;- 
f, UII',. ,..H 
" ._ 
 ... 

, · 'ì, ... 
.
 :
.I ',. ' 
n ., Ù', f i'..,
 ," f.. ..!....::..

 f
 
II .
 It .. ,. .. .."-' 
U I!,! i ø,.. 
n." . "I 
U,"' .- 
. " .; I . ø 
. f . · 
j' 
 t 



 



.. 


-..t' 


,t 


, <, 


.... " 



 

: 
 ". 


. 

... 

'".. L.-i 


y
" 


in cooperation \yith 
UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL 


PROGRAMS FOR GRADUATE :NlJRSES 
Teaching and Supervision 
To meet the needs of nurses wishing to prepare for positions of respom;i- 
bility in either teaching or supervision in Schools of Nursing. 


Public Health Nursing 
To meet the needs of nurses wishing university preparation for staff \,"orl
 
in public health nursing agencies. 


Administration of Hospital Nursing Service 
To meet the needs of nurses preparing for head nurse, supervisory or 
matron positions. 
This program is supported by the \V. K. Kellogg Foundation. 
Diplomas are granted on successful completion of the above programs and 
credits earned may be applied toward the degree of Bachelor of Science in 
Nursing. 


PROGRAMS FOR mGH SCHOOL GRADUATES 
Leading to the Degree in Nursing 
Students with senior matriculation may pursue a combined academic 
and professional program leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in 
Nursing. In the final year students will elect to study Teaching and 
Supervision or Public Health Nursing. This broad educational background 
followed by graduate professional experience enables nurses to progress 
rapidly into positions of responsibility. 
Leading to the Diploma in Nursing 
A three year hospital program is conducted for students meeting the 
entrance requirements of the University. 


For further i1lforlllation or inquiries about scholarshiþs, U'rtte to: 
DIRECTOR, SCHOOL OF NURSING, UNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHE\VA
, 
SASKATOO
, SASKATCHE'VA
 


MARCH. 1960 . VoL 56. No 3 


203 



THE WINNIPEG GENERAL 
HOSPITAL 


Offers to qualified Registered Grad- 
uate Nurses the following opportu- 
nity for advanced preparation: 


A six month Clinkal Course in Oper- 
ating Room Principles and Advanced 
Practice. 


Courses commence in JANUARY and 
SEPTEMBER of each year. Maintenance 
is provided. A reasonable stipend is 
given after the first month. Enrol- 
ment is limited to a maximum of six 
students. 


F or further information please 
write to: 


DIRECTOR OF NURSING 
GENERAL HOSPITAL 
WINNIPEG, MANITOBA 


MOUNT HAMILTON 
HOSPITAL 


offers a three-month Postgraduate 
Course in Obstetric Nursing to quali- 
fìed Registered Nurses. 


Additional lectures in Teaching and 
Administration will be given in con- 
junction with McMaster University. 


FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE 
A V AI tABLE. 


Course to commence 
January, April, September. 


For further information apply to: 


MISS ELIZABETH FERGUSON, R,N., 
SUPERINTENDENT OF NURSING, 
MOUNT HAMILTON HOSPITAL, 
HAMILTON, ONTARIO 


204 


ROYAL 
VICTORIA 
HOSPITAL 


SCHOOL Of NURSING 
MONTREAL, QUEBEC 


Postgraduate Courses 


1. (a) Six month clinical course in Obstet- 
rical Nursing. 
Classes - September and February. 


(bl Two month clinical course in Gyne- 
cological Nursing. 
Classes following the six month 
course in Obstetrical Nursing. 


(c) Eight week course in Care of the 
Premature Infant. 


2. Six month course in Operating Room 
Technique and Management. 
Classes - September and March. 


3. Six month course in Theory and Practice 
in Psychiatric Nursing. 
Classes - September and March. 


Complete maintenance or living-out allow- 
ance is provided for the full course. 


Salary - a generous allowance for the 
last half of the course. 


Graduate nurses must be registered and in 
good standing in their own Provinces. 


For information and details of the courses, 
apply #0:- 
Miss H. M. Lamont, B.N. 
Director of Nursing, 
Royal Victoria Hospital, 
Montreal, P.Q. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



./
 
< 


I 



 . ::;)_1 
. 
 
} 
, . ".'''' \ 
 



:. 


I 
,,\ 


No, 1658 


CATALOGUE ON REQUEST 


There are few 
pleasures so sin1ple 
and yet so 


. . 
InexpenSIve as 


ordering 


Bland's Tailored 
Uniforms 


There's nothing 
quite as good, and 
they keep their good 
looks for years. 


Made and sold only by 


BLAND & COMPANY 


2048 UNION AVENUE, MONTREAL, CANADA 


MARCH. 1960 · Vol. 56. No.3 


205 



r 


i 


... 
 .... 


100% MEATS 
EGG YOLKS 
MEAT DINNERS 


206 


Time for meat 
in the diet? 


6C..:-,-- ... - ''!I u,) 


1:\ ,Swifts'; t I 
I.t BËËF .' 
"AND aa,. _O
 .". t 
l..:.. 
 '""- ..-i>.: . j 



. 


. . 1r'...
. 
-. , 


, < """"'
 



:. 


'< 
 4 


: 
- 

 
1(..".., J>-'rí -:fj 
t:.:'
 =,>::
2
.
'/
iì
.

 
. ".'IY.. 


.. '1 Swift's 
 ø t 
"
 f pi"
 
. SEE 5TRA!
 
fOR 8M',:, 


1",;", 
\ "', 


. . . then it's 
time to trust 


SWIFT 


. . the meat 
êp ecialist ! 


To help your little patients 
enjoy the maximum of 
mea t's many benefits, 
Swift prepares this vital 
growth food in its most de- 
licious and easily assimila- 
ted form. 
All Swift's skill goes into 
selecting extra lean meat 
with its higher protein con- 
tent . . . processing care- 
fully to retain nutritional 
values . . . straining the 
meat finer. And assuring 
flavours so appetizing they 
aid in establishing sound 
eating habits early. 
Only Swift specializes in 
delicious, nourishing meats 
and meat dishes for babies. 



 Swift's 
 

 Premium J5 


The two most trusted 
words in meat. . . 


THE CANADIA;\f l'\l"RSE 



THE CAnADIAn nURSE 


A 
IN 


MONTHLY 
ENGUSH 


JOURNAL FOR THE 
AND FRENCH BY THE 


NURSES OF 
CANADIAN 


CANADA PUBLISHED 
NURSES' ASSOCIA TlON 


VOLUME 56 


74 STANLEY AVENUE, OTTAWA 


NUMBER 3 


MONTREAL, 


MARCH 


1960 


Hast Thou Faith 
 


\Vhen our President took office she 
gave us the word "Faith" to be our 
watchword for the 1958-60 biennium. 
As we near the end of this period we 
might ask ourselves a searching ques- 
tion. Have we kept faith, with our pro- 
fession, our public, and ourselves? 
I have adapterl my title from the 
New Testament. In Hebrews, Chapter 
XI and Yerses 1 and 3, we read: "Now 
faith is the substance of things hoped 
for, the e\-idence of things not seen," 
and "Through faith we understand that 
the worlds were formed b\T the word 
of God." I know of no field of endeavor 
that surpasses nursing for the extent 
to \\-hich achie\-ements and successes 
are measured through "the evidence of 
things not seen." 
In the field of hospital nursing ser- 
vice we can cite innumerable instances 
of patients whose recovery can only 
be described as miraculous. \Ve at- 
tempt to pinpoint the reason for these 
achievements. improved techniques, 
higher standards, better qualification, 
more clearly defined functions, a broad- 
ening concept of responsibility. But 
above and be\-ond all our efforts we 
'en
e amI a
knowledge an Unseen 


MARCH. 1960 . Vol. 56. NO.3 


Power supporting our best though 
meagre efforts - "things not seen." 
\ V e are said to be suffering from 
a wave of commercialism to the neg- 
lect of professional idealism and the 
mission to serve. \ V e do not accept this 


.--.- 


v. 


.
........ 


(Wright Shldios) 
E. A. ELECTA l\IAcLENNAN 


207 



cntIcIsm as valid but we need to look 
careful1y at any of OUr actions which 
might have given rise to such a sug- 
gestion. 
Nursing has experienced a rapid, 
mushroom growth. This phenomenal 
growth has brought about many crises 
of development in innumerable types of 
situations al1 at one time So that we 
have tended to cunfuse traditional roots 
with habitual ruts. 
As a profession v.;e have endeavored 
to direct this grov.;th into desirable 
patterns of professional performance. 
In the Act of Incorporation of the 
Canadian Nurses' Association one of 
the chief objects of the 
\ssociation 
is stated: "To dignify the profession 
of nursing by maintaining and im- 
proving the ethical and professional 
standards of nursing education and 
. " 
serVIce. 
The pioneers of modern nursing 
recognized that if nursing was to sur- 
vive and develop as a profession 
fundamentals must be protected, stand- 
ards determined and maintained. 
Through legislation, careful1y designed 
and continuously revised to meet 


changing needs, the nurses of yesterday 
provided protection to the public from 
unsafe practices. 
\ V e can see many problem areas and 
acknowledge their grave implications 
for the future of the profession but 
\vith a strong and vigorous profession 
as our heritage need we fear the future? 
The General Secretary of the Inter- 
national Council of Nurses has said: 
"The Past is inspiring, the Future is 
chal1enging, the Present is our respon- 
sibility." The forward look should be 
kept. -The past is gone except for the 
lessons it may teach. Neither docks nor, 
men run back\vard successfullv. The 
future should be faced with cori'fidence 
for it promises growth, greater satis- 
faction and ever-widening opportun- 
ities for enjoyment of life and for ser- 
vice to mankind. "Faith is the substance 
of things hoped for, the evidence of 
things not seen" and "Through faith 
we understand that the worlds were 
formed by the word of God." 
HAST THOU SUCH FAITH? 
E. A. ELECTA l\IAcLENNAN 
Second Vice President 
Canadian Nurses' Association 


The humanities, by their very nature, 
shou1<i enter continually into life at every 
period. If this could be accomplished, our 
professional nursing students would approach 
their life work in such a way that they 
might realize the larger background signifi- 
cances of living. For the humanities have to 
do with the living of life, and living the good 
life can be accomplished only by having as 
an ideal the most complete possible self- 
realization as our goal . . . this is a high 
goal and yet if aims are low, achievements 
are not likely to be high. 
The students in a professional school 
are experienced in practical affairs. They 
have a gratifying appreciation of actual 
values. They know when things are valid and 
not mere entertainment and idle talk. Stu- 
dents want something of real value, some- 
thing that will command their respect, 
something they would be willing to use as 
guidance in life and able to use as a means 
of adj usting to their place in our society. 
Because the students in a nursing school 
do not usual1y go on with other English 
studies they should be given a rich course 
in literature from the point of view of 


208 


scholastic philosophy, with a special em- 
phasis on critical principles. These principles, 
once mastered, may be applied to any imagin- 
ative symbolic structure, whether it be a 
book. movie, radio or television play. 
Literature by the very greatness of its 
scope and by its interpretive and reflec- 
tive nature seems to be the chief means of 
learning about our world and about the men 
in it. When taught in the "wide and lumin- 
ous view" of the humanities, literature is 
seen to be as varied and diversified as life 
itself, The world of poetry and fiction pre- 
sents to us the world of human beings . . . 
this critical study of literature confers a 
blessing of understanding as well as a lesson 
in the participation of life. 
- CLARA M. SIGGENS 
* * * 
In the seven years since television 
started in Canada, Canadians have bought 
nearly 4,500,000 radio sets - 3,500,000 TV 
sets were sold in the same period. 
- CBC Information Services, Ottawa 
* * * 
Solvency is entirely a matter of temper- 
ament and not of income. - LOGAN SMITH 


T!::':.: C.',::L'.DTAI'T NC:-:'SE 



A Community Mental IIralth Cliniu 


F. GRUNBERG, .:\I.D., D.P.:\!. 


The function of such a community clinic is to serve as an edu..cational factor in 
the prevention of mental illness and as the 1nedium through which 
rehabilitation can be continued follo'l('Îng discharge front, hosþital. 


fl O
Il\rUXITY or social psychiatry is 
tJ one of the new trends in this medi- 
cal speciality. \\T e are witnessing at 
present the development of community 
psychiatric services all over Xorth 
America and Europe. In the past two 
years in Saskatchewan two full-time 
mental health clinics were established 
- one in Swift Current, the other in 
Prince Albert. 
:Mental i11ness, more than any other 
form of illness, elicits very strong 
societal reactions in the community. 
The history of these reactions and 
attitudes n{ns a parallel course to the 
history of psychiatry as a medical 
speciality. It can be divided into four 
phases: 
1. The dark age or the phase of 
superstition during the middle ages in 
which the mentally i11 person was not 
regarded by society as being sick. He 
was thought of as a sinner, possessed 
by the devil and deserving punish- 
ment. Developing a mental illness at 
that time carried very grave risks for 
one's life. 
2. K ext came a phase of custodial 
care in which society no longer equated 
mental illness with crime or sin. How- 
ever. the community did not look upon 
the "insane" as an indi,"idual suffering 
from disease in need of treatment and 
care. He was still considered a threat 
and nuisance. It was expected that he 
shou!d be removed to an institution 
where he would be looked after for 
the rest of his life. Society did not 
ha\"e any therapeutic expectations 
from these institutions and the medical 
profession as a whole paid a minimum 
of attention to this problem. 
3. The hospital treatmcnt phase is 


Dr. Grunberg is director of the Men- 
tal Health Clinic, Swift Current, Sask. 
This paper was delivered at the conven- 
tion of the Saskatchewan Psychiatric 

urses' Association last year. 


MARCH. 1960 . Vol. 56. No, 3 


relatively recent. As medical men real- 
ized these people were individuals 
suffering from a disease that was 
amenable to treatment, a more humani- 
tarian climate developed. The belief 
grew that patients admitteà to a men- 
tal hospital had a right to some form 
of therapy so that they could go back 
and find their place in the community. 
However, a complete break with the 
past is not easily achieved. Society 
inherits old prejudices that are very 
hard to ki1l. Part of this inheritance 
was the physical setting and economic 
philosophy of the custodial care phase 
with the result that most mental pa- 
tients are stilI cared for in huge, mo- 
nolithic institutions, far removed from 
their families and communities. True, 
the cost per day per patient remains 
lower than his counterpart in the gen- 
eral hospital. 
It was during this phase that psy- 
chiatry developed as a medical special- 
ity, that the concept of the untrained 
psychiatric attendant was changed to 
the utilization of the prepared psy- 
chiatric nurse, with treatment and re- 
turn of the patient to the community 
as the ultimate objective. 
Treating these patients in hospital 
has increased our knowledge and im- 
proved therapeutic methods. \Ve know 
how to diagnose and treat them from 
the moment they enter the mental 
hospital until they leave it. We remain 
verv much in the dark, however, as 
to 
yhat happened to each patient dur- 
ing the weeks, months, years preceding 
admission. \Ve are very ignorant about 
what happens to him after his discharge 
until he is readmitted again. \Vith the 
present methods of treatment, 80 per 
cent of our admissions can be dis- 
charged with some improvement, but 
we have to face the fact that over 30 
per cent of our total intake are read- 
missions. \\T e do not know why cer- 
tain patients have to be readl11itt
d and 



others do not. It is very probable that 
we shall never find an answer to this 
dilemma so long as our philosophy 
remains patient-hospital centered with 
complete disregard for the patient-com- 
munity problems. 
\"'1 e have very detailed and accurate 
descriptions of the evolution of dis- 
eases, such as schizophrenia, manic 
depressive psychosis, in the mental 
hospital but we have very little data 
on how those same illnesses develop 
and evolve in a non-hospital environ- 
ment. vVhat is not often recognized 
is that the mental hospital environment, 
like most other kinds of hospitals, is 
very artificial, with little in common 
with ordinary living in a community. 
It is artificial at the physical level, at 
the interpersonal level, yet on the basis 
of adjustment to that environment we 
very often decide if a patient should 
remain in hospital or might return to 
the community. 
A new concept in vogue in some 
mental hospitals, is known as "milieu 
therapy." Studies of hospitals that have 
tried to become therapeutic communi- 
ties rather than custodial institutions 
have shown that acute behavior dis- 
turbances, withdrawal and regression 
can be considerably reduced by paying 
more attention to the interpersonal 
needs of patients and staff. Unfortuna- 
tely, very little attention has been paid 
to the question of whether this exper- 
ence in the hospital therapeutic com- 
munity has helped the patient to adjust 
subsequently in his real community, 
which is by no means necessarily the- 
rapeutic, Milieu therapy has definite 
positive aspects and is undoubtedly 
preventing secondary deterioration as a 
consequence of institutionalization but 
the fact remains that the large men- 
tal hospital, totally divorced from the 
community that it is supposed to serve, 
is stilI only a moment in the course 
of a mental illness. Patients begin to 
be ill long before they enter the hospi- 
tal and continue to be ill long after 
they leave it. \Ve do not yet know the 
fu11 extent of mental illness in the 
community. 
4. This
 leads us to the fourth phase 
in the history of psychiatry: the care 
of the mentally ill in the C01111llUnity. 
I shall discuss the role and the func- 
tions of a community mental health 
clinic in relation to the mental hospi- 

. 


tal. Let us first examine the situation 
in an area with no local outpatient 
psychiatric facilities that is served only 
by distant psychiatric wards or mental 
hospital. The community has to rely 
on its own resources to cope with five 
types of problems: 
(a) The severely disturbed patient 
whose deviant or aberrant behavior can- 
not be tolerated by the community. These 
patients are usually acutely psychotic 
and are committed to mental hospital 
by the family physician and sometimes 
by the courts. Many oi them respond 
to treatment and are able to come back 
and find their places in society. There 
are, however, a significant number of 
patients who, although symptomatically 
improved when they leave hospital, re- 
lapse within weeks or months and are 
referred back to hospital. A sort of 
ping-pong game takes place between the 
expelling community and the receiving 
mental hospital, causing a great deal of 
frustration and discouragement to both. 
(b) There are the moderately emo- 
tionally disturbed people including the 
neurotics, the so-called inadequate per- 
sonality. They constitute a free-floating, 
unhappy population who run from gen- 
eral practitioners to chiropractors, minis- 
ters, social workers, friends, seeking 
desperately for some form of help. Some 
are undoubtedly helped by the various 
members of the community but many 
are running around in circles from frus- 
tration to frustration, thereby causing 
much unhappiness around them. 
(c) Creating much concern in a com- 
munity are the emotionally disturbed 
children, the "problem families." Doc- 
tors, teachers, social workers and others 
do what they can to cope with a situ- 
ation that is often beyond their actual 
resources. 
( d) There are the children and adul ts 
who are markedly retarded mentally, 
Teachers of special classes and public 
health nurses try to cope with the prob- 
lem. In the long run, the usual result 
is that these individuals are placed in 
institutions. 
(e) Finally, there is the psychiatric 
geriatric problem. Last year 37 per cent 
of the total first admissions to Saskat- 
chewan's two provincial mental hospitals 
were patients aged 65 or over. About 
one-third of the geriatric population 
accommodated in institutions is in men- 
tal hospitals. The establishment of a 


THE CANADIAN :'\'URSE 



few local nursing homes and sheltered 
accommodations in the community al- 
leviate to some extent this intractable 
problem, but the fact rcmains that the 
mental hospitals must carry a large 
share, more than the actual incidence of 
mental disorders in this age group 
would justify. )'Iany old folks are sent 
to mental hospitals because they have 
nowhere else to go. 
These are the main mental health 
problems that any community has to 
face. Devoid of local psychiatric facili- 
ties, the community tries to cope with 
the problem in a rather disorganized 
and uncoordinated way. Hospitalization 
to a distant mental hospital is often 
the ultimate outcome. A community 
mental health clinic moving into such 
an area does not enter a vacuum but 
rather a "no man's land" between the 
communitv and the distant mental hos- 
pital. A strategy has to be adopted 
within the community itself to avoid 
duplication of services between doctors, 
public health nurses, social workers, 
ministers, ,,,ho are all working indivi- 
dua1ly and often at cross purposes in 
trying to meet the need. Furthermore. 
some pattern has to be developed to 
establish communication and coordin- 
ated efforts between the communitv 
and the hospitals. I sha1l concentrate 
on this aspect of the problem because 
this is \\.here nurses are most con- 
cerned. 
There 1
 a question any nurse must 
ask herse1f when a new patient is ad- 
mitted to her ward: "\Vhy has this 
man been sent to hospital ?" Her only 
source of information apart from the 
patient, are the two medical certificates 
which rea1ly tell very little. The patient 
is very often too i1l, too frightened in 
this strange hospital environment, to 
give any clear account of what hap- 
pened so questions remain unanswered. 
The nurse ,,,ill. of course, do her ut- 
most to make the patient feel comfort- 
able and help him to adjust to the 
ward. He will be seen by a psychia- 
trist, who has no more background 
information than the nurse. A diagnosis 
will be madt;> and a course of treatment 
will be decided. \Vithin two or three 
weeks, when the patient's treatment is . 
well unden\'ay, some relative may 
travel sometimes hundreds of miles to 
visit him. Usually this takes place dur- 
ing a weekend ,,,,hen most of the psy- 


MARCH. 1960 . Vol. 56, No.3 


chiatrists and social workers are off 
duty so the fundamental questions re- 
main unanswered. The patient will 
improve, will adjust to the ward rou- 
tine, will participate in occupational 
activities and, after a while, everybody 
will be satisfied that he is ready for 
discharge because he has made such a 
good adjustment to the hospital en- 
vironment. 
This patient might have been living 
in a social setting that could have been 
conducive to his i1lness and might need 
some modifications. His family may ex- 
pect the hospital treatment to achieve a 
much more radical change in his per- 
sonality and will not look at his re- 
turn in a realistic manner. They might 
not even want him back. These are all 
fundamental problems that cannot be 
answered by only observing the ad- 
justment of the patient on the ward. 
These questions cannot be dealt with 
adequately when there is no commu- 
nication between the hospital and the 
community. The extremely high read- 
mission rate in most mental hospitals 
is the well known result. 
\,\Then the Swift Current 1\1ental 
IIeaIth Clinic was established, I be- 
came acutely aware of these problems. 
I considered that the establishment 
of communications with the mental 
hospital and psychiatric wards serv- 
ing our area was a priority task. Short 
of local psychiatric in-patient facilities, 
I decided to develop the clinic program 
to be an active link between the com- 
munity and the hospitals and to offer 
the services that the distant hospitals 
could not undertake. 
One of the primary functions of 
a community mental health clinic is 
to screen and prevent the hospitaliz- 
ation of mental patients. It has been 
noted that most patients become ill 
long before there is any thought of 
sending them to hospital. At first. the 
i1lness is not recognized as such, either 
by the patient or by his family. Exter- 
nal circumstances, which are no more 
than ordinary stresses of life, are 
blamed. The patient ,,,ill be advised 
"to pull himself together . . . not to 
worry. . . to take a holiday." 
This temporizing wi1l go on until 
the whole situation becomes intolerable 
to the patient and his family. vVhen 
this happens, the community decides 
that the patient is mentally i1l and that 


211 



he should be sent to a mental hospital. 
This illustrates the fact that the social 
variable is as important as the clinical 
variable in the hospitalization of a men- 
tal patient. A community mental health 
clinic can, by early diagnosis, intensive 
outpatient treatment and social mani- 
pulation, prevent hospitalization of a 
mental patient to a distant mental hos- 
pital. If, however, the patient has to 
be admitted to hospital, its staff will 
be provided with the necessary back- 
ground information and will be aware 
of the real issues involved so that the 
treatment can be conducted logically 
and comprehensively. 
The second important function of 
a community mental health clinic is 
the rehabilitation of the discharged 
or convalescent patient fol1owing hos- 
pital psychiatric treatment. A word 
that is often used as a substitute for 
rehabilitation, and which I find very 
improper, is "after-care." This im- 
plies a very old-fa
hioned idea that 
only hospital treatment cares for the 
mental1y ill and that post-discharge 
attention is something different from 
treatment and somewhat less impor- 
tant. Thomas A. C. Rennie, a pioneer 
in social psychiatry states: 
Many years ago a patient reported 
to me a phrase which illustrated the 
needs of rehabilitation. Upon his dis- 
charge from a psychiatric hospital after 
months of intensive therapy and restor- 
ation to his previous level of mental 
health functioning, he was advised by 
his physician: uN ow go home and find 
YOur niche." 
Finding the niche is, in large part, 
the problem of rehabilitation. The usual 
treatment process itself gives no gua- 
rantee of successful accomplishment of 
this admonition. As pointed out by 
Professor Aubrey Lewis: 
Rehabilitation is so much related, in 
most people's minds, to the hospital in- 
patient that it is rather difficult to ac- 
custom oneself, as I think one must, to 
the repudiation of any idea that rehabi- 
litation stands for a distinct stage - the 
post-hospital stage - in the patient's 
progress back to normal life. I don't 
believe it does. Treatment must come 
partly from outside the hospital . . . 
and must from the outset be guarded 
and restrained by considerations affect- 
ing ultimate resettlement . . . The at- 
tempt to distinguish sharply between 


212 


rehabilitation and treatment seems futile 
and pointless. 
What are then the aims of reha- 
bilitation? They are defined by the 
National Council on Rehabilitation as 
"the restoration of the handicapped 
to the fullest physical, mental, social, 
vocational and economic usefulness of 
which they are capable." Personally, 
I feel that this definition is nothing 
less than the ultimate and most am- 
bitious aim of treatment. 
As far as mental illness is ëoncerned, 
we unfortunately know very little on 
how to achieve these goals. A com- 
plete and comprehensive plan of psy- 
chiatric rehabilitation remains to be 
devised. It is obvious that the mental 
hospital totally divorced from commu- 
nity action cannot fulfil this function. 
There is no question that the reha- 
bilitation of the mentally ill can only 
take place by work in and with the 
community. It implies a reorientation 
of our treatment goals and it is defi- 
nitely more ambitious than removing 
a set of symptoms and achieving a 
good level of adjustment to the hos- 
pital ward. It has to start as soon as 
the patient is admitted to hospital and 
involves everyone - the psychiatrist, 
the psychiatric social worker, the the- 
rapist and the psychiatric nurse. It is . 
obvious that the mental hospital is 
handicapped when dealing with patients 
from distant communities but the com- 
munity mental health clinic, being "on 
the spot" can serve as the necessary 
link. It can and it must point out to 
the hospital treatment team, the area 
in the patient's behavior requiring mo- 
dification for his future resettlement 
in the community. At the same time, 
it has to modify the social environment 
while the patient is in hospital and 
prepare the community for his return. 
Upon his discharge, an extensive fol- 
low-up program has to be applied, with 
the aim of providing considerable sup- 
port to the patient and his family. The 
first few months following discharge 
from hospital are very often crucial 
for the future adjustment of the patient. 
In Swift Current, we have attempted 
to apply these principles by establish- 
ing a very close liaison with the psy- 
chiatric wards and mental hospital 
serving our area. Vve have also tried 
to obtain the cooperation of the local 
general practitioners in having their 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



patients screened at the clinic hefore 
referral to hospital. The response on 
the whole has been very good. A large 
proportion of patients have been seen 
at the clinic before going to hospital. 
For all the other cases, the clinic's 
social worker has made a point of 
contacting the families shortly after 
admission and a social history is s\vift- 
1)" forwarded to the hospita1. She abo 
visits the mental hospital once a month 
and holds conferences with the hospi- 
tal staff regarding the current hospi- 
t
lized patients from the Health Re- 
gIOn. 
In brief, the clinic staff works inten- 
si\-ely \\'ith the families and community 
while the patient is treated in hospital. 
Upon discharge, eyery patient with his 
family automatical1y receives an ap- 
pointment to attend the :Mental Health 
Clinic. If the patient cannot travel, an 
initial post-discharge home visit is 
made by the clinic's psychiatric social 


worker and. if necessary, by the psy- 
chiatrist. After this initial assessment, 
it is decided \vhether the case should 
continue to be followed by the clinic 
or referred to the district public health 
nurse \dlO will keep the clinic posted 
on the patient's progress, or early signs 
of relapse. Of course, the privacy of 
all patients is respected. A few have 
refused to maintain contact with the 
clinic, but those ins!ances are very 
rare. 
This program is still at an early stage 
and proceeds very empirical1y. There 
are, howeyer, some encouraging indi- 
cations that the readmission rate in 
the Region is decreasing while the 
discharge rate is increasing. This 
strengthens my conviction that psy- 
chiatric treatment has to be given at 
the community leve1. Coordinated ef- 
forts between the mental hospital and 
the community mental health clinic 
are not only desirable but a must. 


IUness and lpplied Psychology 


SISTER JOSEPH OnDE, F.C.S.P., 1I.A. 


H ere is a searching look at illness. What nurse has not spent, at least a few 
'll'toments, with like thoughts? 


I LLKESS represents a human conflict. 
One might say that it dates back 
to the beginning of creation and the 
departure of man from the Garden of 
Eden. It is a form of individual con- 
flict, a drama that plays itself out in 
the human being who has come to 
grips with i1lness - an unique experi- 
ence for each one of us. Sickness then 
is a form of human and individual con- 
flict that reflects upon the physical 
and emotional integrity of the person. 
According to A. Cuvelierl doctor- 
psychologist, modern occidental man 
is particularly sensitive to the effects 
of illness. He accepts the progress of 
aging and the inevitability of death 
with great difficulty. The same author 


Sister Joseph Ovide is director of the 
school of nursing, Yerdun General Hos- 
pital, Montreal. 


MARCH, 1960 · Vol. 56, No.3 


maintains that modern man seeks es- 
cape from himself and his fundamental, 
intrinsic spirituality, that he seeks an 
existence in the lives of others. \Vith- 
drawing from his inner self, he be- 
comes the slave of people and things 
around him and finds his reason for 
being in collective activity. Looked at 
in the light of this, illness with its en- 
forced isolation and inactivity can lead 
to genuine personality disintegration. 
The subjective impressions of having 
been crushed and made lesser can 
awaken feelings of insecurity, frustra- 
tion, even guilt. These complex feel- 
ings will serve to promote emotional 
conflict. 
In the system of emotions, the two 
poles are anger and fear. Anger in- 
duces aggression, attack. movement to- 
wards an adversan', while fear makes 
the individual withdraw into himself. 


213 



There is movement invoh'ed in fear 
as wel1. hut it is one of recoi1. with a 
vague lJersonality break-up. As a result 
we encounter two behavior types in 
the emotionally ill. On the one hand 
there is aggressiveness or a sort of 
questing as the individual seeks for 
love and protection. He may even use 
rudeness, violence or similar measures 
since the\' attract attention. In contrast 
fear tends to result in avoidance of 
contacts ,,,ith the individual taking re- 
fuge in solitude. daydreaming or even 
illness. 
Fear, anxiety and obsession are 
manifestations of mental distress. They 
are defense mechanisms. Through such 
a mechanism, the patient introduces a 
point of least resistance into his per- 
sonality which may be pierced by an 
outburst of distress as he first becomes 
conscious of a threat to his ego. 
The type and the origin of mental 
distress varies according to the exist- 
ing lines of strength of the individual 
psyche and the diverse conditions af- 
fecting the patient emotionally. l\Iore 
precisely, the fundamental types of 
mental distress - hardship, neglect. 
mutilation, conscience give rise grad- 
ually to more advanced forms. Primary 
forms are arou
ed throughout the 
course of life in situations that involve 
separation, hardship, il1ness, abrupt 
change to a new life. It is as if these 
situations touched a chord in the con- 
fused memory of the indi,'idual related 
to earl\' emotional trauma. 

 er
ous tension. that brings ahout 
the conflict of iI1ness, monopolizes al1 
or part of the emotlonal resources of 
the individua1. Cnder the pressure 
of irrational foret's he automaticallv 
reacts through the various defenc
 
mechanisms. These mechanisms, if un- 
analyzed and uncontrol1ed, can cause 
the patient to regress to an infantile 
stage. Such regression opposes pro- 
gress and fosters mental retardation. It 
hinders fnB development of the per- 
sonalitv. On the other hand, the emo- 
tional1ý well-developed individual puts 
his reasoning powers into action to 
help him face reality, analyze its mean- 
ing and gain control over it. Defence 
reactions in this instance are quickly 
transformed into conscious, reliable, 
acceptahle and objective behavior as the 
result of rea"oning and confidence. Tn 
the weB-adjusted personality the con- 


214 


flict of illness does not become deeplv 
rooted since it is only a passing phase. 
The ego, in conformity with the laws 
of nature, gradually rises again, uni- 
fied and whole. 


The Attitude and the Role of the 
Nurse 
The nurse with the patient must he 
free from personal conflicts. Her own 
suffering and failures must be resolved; 
her anxieties and passions weII-con- 
troIled. She must be free from egocen- 
trism so that she can accept the patient 
as he is, believe in his worth as an 
individual, and in his own estimation of 
his responsibilities towards himself, 
and others. 
The nurse must possess the fol1ow- 
ing traits in addition: 
L Emotional 11/aturity: She must 
be capable of objectivity. She must be 
able to meet and accept others as they 
are. She must help the patient to attain 
a greater degree of healthy maturity, 
hut without e),.pecting too much from him 
since illness sometimes weakens the ego. 
2, S ellse of 'llalues: The nurse with a 
true sense of values will never neglect 
the person for the benefit of technique, 
spiritual well-being for material well- 
being. 
3. S elf-fulfillmcnt: The nurse's per- 
sonal sense of fulfillment is the mark of 
a personality that has achieved satisfying 
sublimation of anxieties. 
4. C omþctellcc: The nurse must know 
how to profit from study and from ex- 
perience. She must keep an open mind 
to the discoveries of contemporary psy- 
chology, The variety of information and 
the efforts being made towards correlat- 
ing it can assist her greatly in under- 
standing her patient and in caring for 
him. \Ye must rememher ho\\'evfT that 
psychology can not explain human nature 
completely ami its theories must not he 
taken as final certainties. Cnquestion- 
ing acceptance in this field would be as 
unfortunate as scorn or indifference. 
True learning points the road to wis- 
dom, to temperateness and humbleness, 
and this, in turn, leads to a deeper un- 
derstanding of the human being. 
5. Prcsti.Qc: The nurse needs autho- 
rity but it should be acquired in recogni- 
tion of superior ability - the only true 
source of prestige. 
6. Desirable Attitude: It is extremelv 
important that the nurse should have a 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



healthy, objective attitude tÙ\\ ards the 
patient. Recent scientific research bv 
Stoller and Geertsma:? confirms this and 
demonstrates most effectively the un- 
fortunate results of negative attitudes 
in doctor-nurse or nurse-patient relation- 
ships. The study was carried out on 
a group of students in psychiatric medi- 
cine. It showed that the students were 
very much interested in the theory of 
mental illness but their anxiety increased 
in proportion to increased responsibility 
ior and contacts with patients. It was 
then that the doctor-nurse relationship 
became crucial and tended to produce 
emotional responses inappropriate both 
professionally and scientifically. Subjec- 
tive reactions composed of anxiety, neg- 
ative attitudes, rej ection and blame 
prompted the student to judge rather 
than e7..'aluate the patient's condition. 
Their projection mechanisms prevented 
objective, positive thinking. 
The nurse's ba
ic attitude, then, 
i
 of prime importance. It is developed 
out of respect for human worth. :More 
specifical1y, in the face of agressive 
behavior, she must avoid an aggressive 
response 
ince the patient is real1y 

eeking understanding. In this respect 
demands ma y be made upon her to 


which she obviously cannot accede in 
order to avoid an over-emotional at- 
titude on the part of the patient that 
may emphasize his tendency to regress. 
\\'hen the patient's attitude is one of 
withdrawal from realitv, the nurse 
must avoid showing coÍdness or in- 
difference in order not to intensify 
this. She win see to it that the patient 
is kept in touch with everyday events, 
that he is on good terms with his 
familv and friends. This serves to build 
up h
s feeling of security. _-\ sincere 
interest in the patient, an accurate es- 
timation of his worth as a person and 
tolerance of his tyrannical behavior 
win most often be- the best response 
and most effective remedy against feel- 
ings of frustration. 
To what source can the nurse look 
for help in developing this ideal atti- 
tude, this genuine unselfishness and 
true poise? \T aluable as psychology 
may be, it can not replace the spirit 
of true 100'e in accepting and serving 
Our patients. This is the only possible 
answer. 


Reference 
1. The Journal of U cdical Education, 
V o\. 33, X o. 8, p. 585, 1958. 


\Ve all wish to be loved alone. . 
Iutual- 
ity is the essence of love. There cannot be 
others in mutuality. It is only in the time- 
sense that it is wrong. It is when we desire 
continuity of being loved alone that we go 
\\ rong. For not only do we insist on believ- 
ing romantically in the "one-and-only" love. 
mate, mother .. we wish the "one-and-only" 
to be permanent, ever-present and continuous 
There are just one-and-only moments. 
To return to them, even if temporarily, is 
valid. 
The pure relationship is limited in space 
and in time. In its essence it implies ex- 
clusion. It excludes the rest of life, other 
relationships, other sides of personality, other 
responsibilities, other possibilities in the 
future. It excludes growth . . . One learns 
to accept the fact that no permanent re- 
turn is possible to an old form of relation- 
ship: and more deeply still, that there is 
no holding of a relationship to a single 
form. Because it is not lasting, let us 
not fall into the cynic's trap and call it an 
illusion. Duration is not a test of true or 


MARCH. 1960 . Vol. 56. No.3 


false. \' alidity need have no relation to time, 
to duration, to continuity. It is on another 
plane, judged by other standards. It re- 
lates to the actual moment in time and place, 
\\That is actual is actual only for one time 
and only for one place. 


- Gift from the Sea, 
:\NNE 
IORRO\V LINDBERGH 
* * * 


Such truth as opposeth no man's profit 
or pleasure is to all men welcome. -HOBBES 


The Canadian Red Cross will have to 
collect 500,000 bottles of blood in 1960 to 
meet transfusion therapy demands of Cana- 
dian hospitals. 


215 



The Child is Mentally Retarded 


HERO DE GROOT, :M.D. and BREG DE GROOT 


This is the story of parents, by parents - for nurses. It is the story of their 
problem and how they are coping with it. They are not alone with 
it nor did they cope 'With it alone. 


I N 1947 we became the very proud 
parents of twin boys. \Ve already 
had a girl, almost three years old and 
you can imagine how happy we were 
with those two little babies! 
As is the custom in Hol1and the 
children were born at home. Only when 
the doctor expects complications is 
the delivery done in a hospitaL We 
did not expect any complications. VvT e 
were even completely unaware of the 
fact that two babies were on their 
way instead of one. The boys arrived 
one month too soon and were rather 
small, one five pounds, the other only 
three. There was no nurse; no time 
to put the kettle on the stove. We did- 
the delivery ourselves, then called on 
the neighbors for assistance. We tele- 
phoned for a taxi so that the smaller 
baby could go to the hospital to be put 
into an incubator. 
\Vhen all these details had been 
looked after we settled down and en- 
joyed a good laugh. In this light- 
hearted way began the biggest "thing" 
in our lives. Two days later the smal- 
ler boy developed such severe convul- 
sions that no one expected him to live. 
When he did recover it was obvious 
that he would not be normal, that his 
brain had been severely damaged. How 
retarded he would be we could not 
know. 
\Vhat helped us most during the first 
difficult days was that everyone ac- 
cepted our little boy as just another 
bï.by. It was a great moment when 
the matron of the hospital in which 
we worked entered the room with a 
huge basket full of baby clothes, food 


Dr. de Groot is a practising physi- 
cian and surgeon in Regina. Mrs. de 
Groot, was engaged in social welfare 
in Holland. She has had to overcome 
many obstacles in order to establish the 
Harrow de Groot School for Retarded 
Children in Regina. 


216 


and flowers. She, like everyone else, 
considered the event a very happy one 
and had come to rejoice with us. We 
did not sit down to discuss what would 
happen to him eventual1y; how mentaIly 
handicapped he would be. Nobody 
mentioned the fact that at some time 
we might have to put him in an insti- 
tution. In short, we did not try to live 
his entire life and foresee all future 
problems at once. He was our child, 
just like the other two - to love, to 
cherish, to feed and to keep clean. 
This is the point at which the doctor 
and nurse can be of much support to 
the parents. It is a deep sorrow for all 
parents when they have a child who 
wiIl never leave the parental home to 
start a life of his own and to continue 
on the road on which they have given 
him a start. On the contrary, his life 
is the end of the road. For him, man\' 
of the dreams we normal1y have f
r 
our children will not come true. 
In realizing this, parents tend to 
feel that their own world has come 
to an end. They do not know how to 
cope with all of the many problems 
they foresee. They want to solve them 
all at once. The nurse can do for them 
what the matron and many others did 
for us. She can reassure the parenb 
that they do not have to solve all of 
these problems at once. They can 
give their haby what he needs at this 
moment. 
This does not mean that we should 
never si t down to discuss a long range 
program for the child who has special 
needs, but it need not be done right 
at birth. The nurse can do so much for 
the parents to help them to feel at ease 
with their child. Through the nurse's 
attitude parents receive fresh courage 
to give this child all of their love, 
strength and wisdom so that he too 
may grow up to live as useful a life 
as he is capable of doing; to do his 
share of the work of the world, a very 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



modest share maybe, but a necessary 
one. Whatever the future holds for him 
does not change the fact that he is, 
right now, only a baby with the same 
needs as all other babies, He may not 
be very strong physically; he may 
need a different kind of formula and all 
kinds of special care. Our little boy 
was completely encased in a cast for a 
year so that his back would grow 
straight. In most cases the care is 
such that parents are capable of giv- 
ing it and should be encouraged to do 
so because the child is entitled to it. 
We have no patience with those who 
advise parents of a :Mongolian child, 
for instance, to send him to an institu- 
tion as soon as possible after birth so 
that they will not become too attached 
to him. As if attachment had not start- 
ed nine months before! 
As doctors and nurses it is our job 
to fight disease - to "do something 
about it." \Ve try to cure. Acceptance 
without fight is foreign to our nature. 
Although we have to accept this child 
the way he is, we do not have to accept 
the fact that so many children are born 
or become mentally handicapped. Be- 
cause we do not accept this fact, more 
and more research is done. Parents 
who are unsatisfied with the lack of 
educational and recreational facilities 
for their children get together and 
"do something" about it. 
The acceptance of the child the way 
he is, with his limitations and his 
possibilities, brings with it the ac- 
ceptance of all the many difficulties 
that will Occur as he grows up, for ex- 
ample, the type of school for their 
child and his later years spent, per- 
haps, in an institution. When the child 
does not make progress in school, some 
parents are convinced that he does not 
want to work. They need to be helped 
to accept the fact that it is not a lack 
of will but rather that the child cannot 
do the work. So often the parents of a 
retarded child force him into the har- 
ness of behavior and abilities of an 
average child, force him toward 
achievements of which he is not cap- 
able, thus doing irreparable harm to 
his development. The only way to fur- 
ther the developmen t of the child is 
to allow him to grow up under the 
most favorable and most suitable cir- 
cumstances in other words - allow 
him to grow up along his own lines. 


MARCH, 1960 · Vol. 56, No.3 


Although retarded children have 
many different needs, they have one 
that they share with aU mankind - 
to be wanted and to be loved the way 
they are. We older, more sophisticated 
people learn to accept the fact that we 
may be loved for the accessories we 
have acquired through life - wealth, 
position, etc. These children do not 
realize this and they feel rejected. 
There are many forms of rejection and 
this hurts them more than anything 
else. 
Although she is not trained to deal 
fully with this great problem, the nurse 
can be of assistance in her contact 
with parents. She can help them to 
overcome false shame. She can point 
out what can be done. She can inform 
them of how they may obtain profes- 
sional assistance. Only after very ex- 
tensive examinations have been carried 
out can a suitable course be planned 
for the child. 
Some parents are not content with 
the point of view of one doctor and 
have the tendency to "shop around" 
for other opinions. This is often.frown- 
ed upon by the medical profession. 
However, in many cases it helps the 
parents to adjust themselves slowly. 
As long as it does not ruin them finan- 
cially, it is one means of easing their 
consciences because many parents 
struggle with feelings of guilt. The 
sooner the parents are able to accept 
the fact that this child will develop at 
a much slower rate than other children 
and will need special guidance, the 
better it is for the child. It is not for 
us to condemn parents for what ap- 
pears to be a lack of confidence in their 
doctors. We should support them and 
help them to find security in the judg- 
ment of their medical and other ad- 
VIsers. 
There are many books, pamphlets, 
films, etc, in which parents, teachers, 
nurses and others can find extensive 
information on all aspects of retarda- 
tion. There are also many excellent 
books on home training, for example, 
"Y ou and Your Retarded Child" by 
Dr. S. Kirk. 
The nurse herself needs to be aware 
of what is being done for retarded 
children in her own community and 
elsewhere. There exists in Canada a 
national association for retarded child- 
ren which has provincial and local 


217 



chapters. In Saskatchewan, for 111- 
stance, the provincial Association for 
Retarded Children organizes seminars 
for parents of retarded children who 
live in rural areas of the province. 
This provides an excellent opportunity 
for parents to become better acquainted 
with the facts of retardation, to observe 
different techniques and last, but not 
least, to meet other parents who are 
facing the same problems. 
Earlier in this article it was men- 
tioned that we do not readily accept 
the fact that so many children are born 
mentalIv retarded or become retarded. 
Most of the research on mental retard- 
ation is done in the field of medicine. 
The program is extensive. More and 
more, the importance of keeping de- 
tailed prenatal and obstetrical records 
is stressed. This is a field in which 
the nurse can be of great assistance. 
The United States Public Health Ser- 
vice is undertaking a five-year study 
of 40,000 pregnant women in an effort 
to find the canse of cerebral palsy, 


mental retardation and other birth in- 
juries. Although so much stilI needs 
to be done progress is being made. 
A specific type of mental deficiency, 
that is usually severe and is caned 
"phenylpyruvic oligophrenia" (phenyl- 
ketonuria, P.K.U.) is diagnosed by a 
simple papers trip test (Phenistix). 
This mental condition is associated 
with a metabolic error that, recent stu- 
dies have shown, can he corrected bv 
a restricted diet. Most of the childre;l 
whose diagnosis is made early and who 
are placed on a special diet within the 
first two years of life, improve and 
show more or less normal development. 
In order to diagnose this metabolic 
disorder before the harm is done, many 
hospitals and weB-baby clinics now 
include this very simple urine test rou- 
tinely in their examinations. 
This is just one of many new de- 
velopments and must serve as an ex- 
ample of how important it is to be 
aware and up-to-date, so that human 
suffering can be prevented. 


In tlbr Good Old Days 


((The Calladian Nurse, MARCH, 1920) 


Caring for the Sick Poor 
In spite of the remarkable development 
of hospitals and training schools, there has 
been constantly before us an unsolved prob- 
lem in nursing which is becoming more pres- 
sing each year - that of providing care in 
the homes of the poor and the people of 
moderate means. 
The real difficulty lies in the fact that 
our government system is faulty in so far 
as it relates to the care of the poor and 
the sick . . . It is not a system of justice 
- the maj ority of our charitable organiz- 
ations and hospitals must be maintained by 
private philanthropy. 
Is it not possible that the answer lies 
in organization and inauguration of a system 
of home nursing on a large scale, which re- 
cognizes the trained nurse of present high 
standards, or even higher, as an essential 
factor, and supplements her by the employ- 
ment of experienced assistants and household 
workers? 
This idea has been tried with conspicu- 
ous success in several cities, notably Detroit 
. The hospitals are always available 


2U! 


and desirable for those who are seriously 
ill. This system, carried out on a large 
scale adequate to the size of the problem, 
seems at the present time to be the best 
solution. 


* * * 


Registration of Graduate Nurses 
Another province has been able to get 
legal recognition of the profession by suc- 
ceeding in passing an Act for the Registra- 
tion of Graduate Nurses. Quebec is the 
latest to get this. . Now all Canada, with 
the exception of Ontario, Nova Scotia and 
Prince Edward Island, has an opportunity 
to standardize their schools and to insure 
the public that when they employ a re- 
gistered nurse, she has had a proper training 
and should be capable of good work. 


Years of love have been forgot in the 
hatred of a minute. - EDGAR ALLAN POE 
* * * 


Worry, the interest paid by those who 
borrow trouble. - GEORGE W. LYON 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Mental Hralth and )Iateruity fare 


ESTHER J. ROHERTSO
, .:\1..-\. 


A new life is 011 its 'It'ay! Ho'i.t, this persoll-to-be ((!ill dc'veiop is influcnccd 
physically and emotionally months before he mnkcs his debut. 
Surses are one of the 1110St important of the illfiltcllcillg factors. 
H ow do 'l('e meet the challenge r 


G OOD maternity care means more than 
medical and nursing services which 
have as their objective a live mother 
and baby. It means services planned 
to promote the physical, mental and. 
emotional \vell-being of mother, baby 
and familv. Scientific research and 
refinement
 in maternity care have 
reduced many of the physical risks in- 
\'olved in child-bearing. \Vhen adequate 
n1èdical sen'ice
 and facilities for ob- 
ste
ricaI care are available, the modern 
mother usually ends her pregnancy in 
good physical health. This is an im- 
portant objective but it is not enough 
unless good mental and emotional 
health are also included. How may 
we as nurses help the mother complete 
her pregnancy with confidence and 
satisfaction as wel1 as with safety? 
.\re we providing her with the care, 
the information and the type of sup- 
port she need
? 
Fortunatelv within recent \'ears, the 
mental healtli of the mother-has been 
given more consideration. There is in- 
creasing recognition of the fact that 
mental and emotional reactions to child- 
hearing and motherhood may influence 
the physical course and outcome of the 
pregnancy. \Vhat the mother thinks and 
feels has a great deal of significance 
for nursing during the maternity cycle. 
The birth of a child is one of the event
 
of life that can be described as trying. 
Pregnancy creates stress. It may be- 
come 
a crisis for those individuals who by 
personality, previous experience or other 
factors in the present situation are es- 
pecially vulnerable to this stress and 
whose emotional resources are taxed 
beyond their usual adaptive forces.;; 



liss Robertson is nursing consultant, 
Child and 
Iaternal Health Division, 
Department of :"J ational Health and 
\\\
lfare, Ottawa. 


:\'lARCH 1960 . Vol. 56. No.3 


The mother's ability to adjust to her 
pregnancy and its stresses, and the 
way in which she adjusts will depend 
upon the understanding support she 
receives from her family and the type 
of maternity care she receives. As we 
work with the mother, the family and 
the doctor, we have the responsibility 
of contributing to the mental health of 
the mother and her family. In order 
to do so we need to be a ware of the 
total health needs of the mother. 
Factors operating on the biological plane 
in the expectant mother interact re- 
ciprocally with factors in her psychologi- 
cal functioning and in the interpersonal 
relationships of her family group'2 


The Prenatal Period 
Although pregnancy is a normal 
physiological function, individual mo- 
thers vary in their reactions to it. Our 
knowledge of the normal reactions 
that are likely to OCcur win help us 
to interpret them to the mother and 
family. Most mothers have ambivalent 
feelings when they know they are preg- 
nant. She may vacillate bet"çeen happi- 
ness and unhappiness, be depressed or 
elated. Mood changes are to be expected 
as she contemplates the responsibilities 
of motherhood and wonders about her 
ability to meet them. As her body 
reacts to the changes in hormone bal- 
ance, so do her thoughts and feelings, 
especially during the early part of preg- 
nancy. She thinks of her loss of free- 
dom, of possible changes in her rela- 
tionships with her husband. of sharing 
his love with a child, She thinks of 
expenses involved for her own care as 
well as for equipment and supplies for 
the care of the baby. She thinks of the 
process of labor, often with fear and 
anxietv. 
On -the other hand, the mother may 
think with pride of the ultimate ful- 
fil1ment of her female role - the bear- 


219 



ing of a child. Howe\'er, despite her 
periods of joy and pride, she may 
be difficult to get along with since she 
finds it hard to understand her own 
mixed feelings and reactions. Because 
she cannot understand herself, she 
thinks that others fail to understand 
her. It is not unusual for a prospective 
mother to experience inexplicable pe- 
riods of sensitivity and irritability. Her 
feelings may be easily hurt, her temper 
short. 
As pregnancy advances the mother's 
thoughts become introspective. She 
may become demanding of affection 
and attention from her husband and 
family. Caplan2 explains this reaction 
as the possible need of the mother to 
increase her supplies of love and af- 
fection so that later she "vill be able 
to pass them on to the baby. 
Throughout pregnancy the mother 
thinks of her own safety and that of 
her baby. 
Iost mothers build up ten- 
sions, anxieties and fears with which 
they need assistance. All mothers have 
impressions, ideas and attitudes about 
childbirth that are related to their cul- 
tural, social and educational back- 
grounds. They have heard accounts of 
childbirth experiences. rvrothers, like 
aU human beings, fear the unknown. 
By encouraging them to express - their 
thoughts and feelings, by listening 
carefully and by providing them with 
information as the need arises we 
are able to promote good mental h
alth. 
The mother who has a knowledge of 
physiology and the process of labor 
is more able to overcome h
r doubts, 
fears and anxieties as the end of her 
pregnancy approaches. 
To illustrate these normal reactions to 
pregnancy let us consider Mrs. Barton, 
an attractive, 20-year-old primipara. She 
had been married three years and was 
six months pregnant. Her maternity 
care was being provided through the 
outpatient service of a large urban hos- 
pital. She appeared shy and reserved 
on first acquaintance and had difficulty 
in sharing her thoughts and feelings with 
anyone other than her husband and a 
younger sister. Knowledge of her fears, 
anxieties and attitudes toward pregnancy 
was gained first from her husband and 
later directly from her. 
Mrs. Barton's sister had had two 
children, both by Caesarean section. She 
was therefore unable to share the ex- 


220 


perience of a normal labor and delivery 
and Mrs. Barton was too shy to admit 
her lack of understanding. She said 
she was "prepared to stand the pain 
when the time came." Because of her 
attitude 
Ir. Barton felt that his Wife 
did not want to have a baby. He thought 
that she felt "trapped" and because of 
this was not a bit like her usual, happy 
self. Some days she said she was look- 
ing forward to having a child, on other 
days she was sorry she was pregnant. 
In time Mrs. Barton was able to talk 
more freely about her pregnancy to the 
clinic staff. It became apparent that she 
wanted to have a family. The warmth 
of tone in her voice when she dis- 
cussed her small niece and nephew im- 
plied that she loved children and wanted 
a baby of her own. Basically, she feared 
labor and separation from her husband. 
\Vhen she learned that he could be 
with her in the labor room, she became 
less apprehensive. As she began to un- 
derstand the meaning of labor and the 
physiological process involved she be- 
came interested in the simple breathing 
exercises and positions of relaxation 
that she could use. Together, she and 
her husband planned for their baby with 
confidence and understanding. 
The support and encouragement of 
her husband is important to the pros- 
pective mother's adjustment and to 
her mental and emotional health. If 
she is secure in her husband's love, 
she is more likely to think of h
r 
coming baby with pleasure and eager 
anticipation. She is able to think of 
motherhood with a more realistic ap- 
proach as her confidence in her own 
ability and her trust in those providing 
her care develops. 


The Nurse's Role 
The nurse is in a posItion to help 
parents plan for the coming baby. She 
provides the background information 
to ensure that the birth of their baby 
may be anticipated with confidence. 
She assists them in avoiding some of 
the tensions, strains and frustrations 
of daily living by helping them to un- 
derstand the physical changes that are 
taking place in the mother, her need 
for rest and an adequate diet. The 
nurse may guide and encourag
 parents 
toward independent action as they work 
out plans and make decisions related 
to their needs. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



There are some mothers who need 
specia.l help during the prenatal period. 
These include the unmarried mother, 
the mother who has lost her husband 
through death or separation after con- 
ception, and the mother whose attempts 
at abortion have failed. The mental 
health of these mothers may be in a 
precarious position. The counselling 
skills and abilities of the nurse are of 
utmost importance. The nurse can make 
a worthy contribution if she is free from 
prejudiced personal opinions; if she 
listens carefully and tries to think 
through the situation from the other 
person's point of view; if she refrains 
from prying and probing; and finally, 
if she can recognize when a problem 
is beyond her scope. Then she can 
assist the mother to obtain the help 
of a specialist. 
1\lany of these mothers have com- 
plex social problems. Often, they fail 
to seek medical care and need help in 
obtaining it. Team work between doc- 
tor, nurse and social worker is es- 
sential so that support, understanding 
and scientific information become avail- 
able to the mothers. They have the 
same basic need for reassurance 
through relief of doubts, fears and 
anxieties as all pregnant women. Their 
special prob
ems make their adjust- 
ment more difficult. An adequate dis- 
cussion of the nurse's role in providing 
maternity care for mothers with these 
special problems, would require sep- 
arate detailed consideration, but the 
basic principles for promoting mental 
health through information, under- 
standing and support are the same for 
the maternity care of all mothers. 


Labor and Delivery 
The mother who has had the oppor- 
tunity to express her thoughts, her 
doubts and fears; who has had her 
questions answered; who has received 
information to prepare her for labor 
and delivery should enter hospital with 
no more apprehension than anyone 
has in a new situation. She is in a 
strange environment that is symbolic 
of il1ness. She is not ill but rather 
has come to hospital to fulfil a 
normal physiological function. Her 
thoughts centre around her baby and 
her ability to deliver it. She expects 
help and support. She tries to remem- 
ber what she has learned about labor 


MARCH, 1960 · Vol. 56, NO.3 


and what she is expected to do. 
From the moment the mother enters 
the hospital, the nurse has a suppor- 
tive role to play. She has an oppor- 
tunity to meet the mother's mental 
and emotional needs, while she attends 
to her physical needs. Explaining pro- 
cedures, informing the mother of her 
progress, helping her to relax, en- 
couraging her and answering her ques- 
tions are some of the ways in which 
the nurse mav contribute to mental and 
emotional weil-being. In some hospitals 
the husband who wishes to do so, is 
encouraged to remain with his wife 
in the labor room. The nurse is in a 
position to help them make it a satis- 
fying experience. A husband is able to 
provide support if he knows the role 
he is to play and if he feels secure 
in it. 
As labor progresses the mother be- 
come very dependent on the doctor or 
nurse for the kind of support that wil1 
ensure a satisfactory experience for 
her. \Vith the newer philosophy of 
obstetrical care, more mothers are able 
to participate with conscious effort 
during the final stage of labor and 
delivery. Care should be taken that 
comments and discussions are inter- 
preted to the mother so that she un- 
derstands. Unnecessary mental anguish 
may be caused by thoughtless remarks. 
Conscientious planning by the nurse 
is necessary to safeguard the mother's 
dignity, to preserve her modesty and 
to reduce her feelings of dependency 
as much as possible. Supportive care 
means care provided by 
an understanding nurse - a nurse who 
asks herself, what would I want if I 
were in this woman's place? - and then 
does what her judgment tells her she 
herself would want. This is empathy - 
experiencing 'With - as contrasted with 
sympathy - feeling for' 4 


Following Delivery 
Immediately following delivery the 
mother will want to see her baby. 
Often the first look at the newborn 
is a shock for which the mother needs 
to be prepared. During pregnancy she 
has thought a great deal about her 
baby. In all probability she has formed 
a mental image of what he or she wiH 
look like. Even if she has been told 
what a newborn does look like, she 
may stil1 be disappointed. She needs 


221 



to know that his unsightly appearance 
is temporary. 
The mother may think of her baby 
as a stranger and find it difficult to 
establish a relationship with him. 
During pregnancy she may have 
thought of him as part of her body, 
something unseen. In her state of 
fatigue following delivery or early in 
the postpartum period she may again 
experience an overwhelming fear of the 
responsibilities of motherhood. There 
may be a feeling of rejection of the 
baby when she thinks about the bur- 
den and cost of care and the sacrifice 
of personal freedom'7 She needs help 
with her adjustment to her baby and 
to a new way of life. A ware of her 
Own disappointment in the baby's ap- 
pearance she may wonder how her 
husband will feel when he first sees it. 
Future parent-child relationships may 
depend upon the understanding sup- 
port the nurse is able to give to the 
young parents as they become ac- 
customed to the new member of their 
family. 
Parents whose baby is born with 
a congenital malformation, require a 
very special type of professional as- 
sistance, support and counselling. The 
nurse's role is influenced by the severi- 
ty of the malformation, the doctor's 
relationship with the parents and the 
role he plans to play. The parents, doc- 
tor and nurse work together to plan 
for the future of the baby and family. 
Getting to Know the Baby 
During the postpartum period the 
nurse win anticipate and then help 
the mother to cope with the "letdown 
feeling" that is likely to occur. The 
mother may be disappointed in her 
"motherly feelings" and find them dif- 
ferent from what she thought they 
would be. The nurse may discuss with 
her the fact that maternal love is some- 
thing to be learned. 
'Maternal instinct' develops with en- 
couragement and with experience as the 
mother learns to care for her child. 
Assisting the mother to develop com- 
petence and confidence in her ability to 
care for her child helps her to becom
 
independent and to face realitY'6 
\ Vhere rooming-in is provided, the 
the mother is able to have her babv 
in the room with her for most of th
 
day. She has an opportunity, with the 


222 


help of the nurse, to become bet ter ac- 
quainted with him. She learns his 
habits and gains satisfaction from par- 
ticipating in his care and in making 
him comfortable and content. The 
father too has an opportunity for c10ser 
relationships with mother and child. 
Gowned and masked, he ma v handle 
the baby and get accustomed to him. 
Often, the father is the one who gives 
the mother the special type of support 
and encouragement that she needs so 
badly as she is learning to love her 
baby. The parent-child relationship 
fostered under these circumstances con- 
tributes to the future good mental 
health of the ,,,,hole family. 
The choice of a method of feeding 
the baby may be a point of conflict 
for many parents. During the prenatal 
period the mother may decide whether 
or not to breast feed. If she does de- 
cide to breast feed, she wil1 need 
considerable support and encourage- 
ment as she and the babv learn the 
technique involved. Successful breast 
feeding fosters strong identification be- 
tween mother and child and helps pro- 
mote the feeling of "motherliness." 
On the other hand, failure in the at- 
tempt to breast feed cau
es feelings 
of inferiority, discouragement or guilt. 
\Yhatever the method of feeding, the 
mother's feelings affect the baby. If 
the baby fails to gain satisfaction from 
his feeding experience, both mother 
and babv become tense and anxious. 
If the f
eding experience gives satis- 
factiun, the baby and mother interact 
\vith harmony.} Ñurses are in a position 
to provide the information and assis- 
tance needed to make the feeding ex- 
perience a satisfactory one. 


Taking the Baby HOl11e 
As the nurse helps the parents pre- 
pare to take the baby home, it is wen 
for her to remember that there is no 
one way of caring for a baby. 
New parents often think that their 
inexperience wiII harm their child. 
They do not know that love rather than 
skin counts. Helping them to under- 
stand that their baby win respond to 
their love and care with a sense of 
trust and a feeling of security wiII re- 
assure them. Parents need to know 
that this basic trust and securitv is 
the foundation for their child's ft;tnre 
good mental health. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



The degree to which parents can 
provide the material things of life 
varies with economic circumstances, 
but, family relationships that build and 
promote a healthy type of family life 
may be achieved in any home. There 
is no price tag on love, trust, respect 
and faith nor On parental guidance, as 
the child learns to take his place with- 
in the family group. These are the es- 
sential ingredients of good mental 
health. Adult mental health is based 
on childhood experiences. There are 
no limits to the contribution that a 
skillful, understanding nurse may make 
through the maternity care she pro- 
vides. The opportunities are many and 
varied. I t is our responsibility to re- 
cognize and use them with wisdom and 
skil1. 


Bibliography 
1. Benedik, Theresa: The Psycho- 
somatic Implications of the Primary 
Unit: Mother and Child, American 
Journal of Orthopsychiatry 19: 642. 
2. Caplan, Gerald: Psychological 
Aspects of Maternity Care, American 
Journal of Public Health 47 :21 
3. Corbin, Hazel: Emotional Aspects 
of Maternity Care, American Journal 
of Nursing 48 :20. 
4. Goodrich, Frederick, J r.: Modern 
Obstetrics and the Nurse, American 
J ourna/ of N ursÚzg 57 :586. 
5. Lindeman, Erich: Crisis in Indivi- 
dual and Family Living, Teachers Col- 
lege Record 57 :310. 
6. Straus, Barbara: Mental Hygiene 
in Pregnancy, American Journal of 
NlIrS1'ng 56 :314. 


Tbe Public Health Surse and Mental Hygiene 


X OREEN PHILPOTT 


I s the concept of public health synonymous 'With physical health? If it is not, 
then does the present apPlication of this concept include promotion 
of mental health and prevention of mental illness? 


H AVIKG passed through the heroic 
era of medicine with its haphazard 
methods of diagnosis and treatment, 
through the anatomic age when the 
mysteries of the human body were first 
revealed, and through the era of bac- 
teria initiated by Lister's theories on 
asepsis, we have now reached what 
may" be termed "The Age of the Psy- 
che. 
Psychiatry has become recognized 
as a science in itself while the treat- 
ment of the mental as well as the phy- 
sical manifestations of illness has de- 
veloped into the study of psychosomatic 
medicine. Going back in history, we 
see that the search for a treatment of 
a disease usually far preceded the 
search for a way to prevent it. Today, 
the prevention of mental iI1ness is one 
of the foremost subjects of concern. 



fiss Philpott is a public health nurse 
with the Victorian Order of Nurses, 
Rur1in
ton, Ontario, 


MARCH. 1960 . V.I. 56. NO.3 


In spite of the increase in the numbers 
of patients discharged per year, our 
psychiatric hospitals continue to plead 
for larger quarters. The flow of drug 
addicts, emotionally disturbed indivi- 
duals and those who are mentally re- 
tarded appears unending. This has 
emphasized the need to seek the causes 
for these deviations from the normal 
and has necessitated the formulation 
of certain criteria for mental health. 
To some, the criterion would be mere- 
Ivan absence of mental disease. This 
i
 comparable to the description of 
wealth as being the absence of poverty. 
:Mental health must be an optimum 
state composed of factors which con- 
tribute to and maintain a truly balanced 
personality in the individual in society. 
\Vhat are these factors? The first 
is an understanding and acceptance 
of "self" - the physical, emotional, 
and intellectual states. This implies 
living within the limits imposed by 
one's bodv while endeavoring to main- 


223 



tain good physical health. Mens sana 
in corpore sana. 
The acceptance of the emotions of 
joy and pride does not entail the dif- 
ficulties that often ensue when one 
attempts to reject or ignore the more 
unsavory feelings of guilt or hatred. 
The latter may result in the utilization 
of mental defence mechanisms. We 
rationalize our behavior to try to ex- 
clude these expressions of inner tur- 
moil from the conscious mind. When 
such attempts become too frequent or 
too extreme, the balance essential to 
optimum mental health is disturbed. 
This disruption of the personality 
equilibrium may affect not only the 
emotional patterns but also the entire 
philosophy of life of the individual. 
Just as Our emotions deeply affect 
our actions so do our thoughts and 
attitudes. This must be recognized 
and accepted if we are to see ourselves 
as we are and so become capable of 
honest criticism of our emotional well- 
being. We also need recognition and 
acceptance of intellectual ability. To 
judge one's innate capabilities by the 
results of an intelligence test or an 
academic examination is not sufficient. 
The endowed powers of accomplish- 
ment are rarely utilized to their fullest 
and are too often channelled in inap- 
propriate directions. One should strive 
to learn his own limitations and work 
to the best of his ability. 
The second factor is the acceptance 
of others - not with mere tolerance 
but with the sincere desire to under- 
stand them. This is essential to man 
who, as a social being, exists not alone 
but with others and develops his own 
personality, at least in part, through 
interaction with others. To truly accept 
someone else as he is, one must first 
be conscious of one's own emotions 
and attitudes and realize that others 
are capable of experiencing the same 
problems, aspirations and failures as 
oneself. 
Finally, one must have a philosophy 
of life based on a belief in something 
other than himself - a Supreme Being, 
a way of life. The form which it takes 
is individual but the need for such a 
belief is universal. To exist by one's 
self for one's self is impossible. Man 
alone is too frail a foundation upon 
which to build personal security. The 
goals that we set are not the most 


224 


important consideration. It is the man- 
ner in which we strive toward them 
that is of consequence. The Bible shows 
us the way to be acceptable in God's 
sight; the ideals of democracy demon- 
strate the path to freedom; the ethical 
code of a profession gives its fol1owers 
the instruments with which to gain an 
acceptance and an understanding of the 
true meaning of success in that field. 
Thus, to believe in something which 
we ourselves are not but which we 
plausibly could be is important in at- 
taining the balance between success and 
failure - a balance so essential to 
mental health. 
What is the responsibility of the 
nurse in the field of mental health? 
She must cultivate healthful attitudes 
toward her own emotions and actions 
and also toward those exhibited by 
others. Once she can recognize and 
honestly accept the concept of mental 
health, she may then act in her ca- 
pacity as a teacher to help others to 
attain it. Do our schools of nursing 
ful1y prepare the fledgling nurse for 
, her responsibility in this sphere? The 
instructor who does not realize the 
need for giving support to the shy stu- 
dent who finds it difficult to talk with 
her superiors is not exhibiting good 
mental health techniques. The young 
girl who has been relatively sheltered 
in her own family group and who is 
suddenly faced with the responsibility 
of caring for critically ill patients, may 
undergo undue emotional stress. An 
outlet should be given, such as a gen- 
eral discussion of such feelings in the 
c1assroom. To learn that she is exhibit- 
ing a normal reaction to the situation 
is of definite importance. \\There does 
the student learn this? Are nursing 
students taught that each new situation 
which confronts them contributes to 
the growth of their minds by aiding 
them to develop a mature outlook on 
life? 
The factor of maturity has entered 
into this discourse and clarification of 
the term is necessary. In this context, 
it is the ability of the individual to 
attain the highest possible degree of 
mental health; to live compatibly with 
himself as well as with others; to ac- 
cept the responsibility for his own de- 
cisions and actions; to contribute 
according to his abilities to the better- 
ment of society. These attributes are 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



essential to the girl who seeks to be a 
truly capable nurse. The attainment 
of maturity does not occur in the early 
growing years. It may be attained only 
by the concentrated effort of the indi- 
vidua1. 
In public health nursing, more 
emphasis is placed upon the preven- 
tion of disease and the education of 
the public than in other branches of 
nursing. Thus, it is in the community 
that the nurse HUlst place more stress 
on the subject of mental health since 
it can be accomplished more effectively 
here than in the hospital. Is she well- 
equipped for such teaching? Psychia- 
tric affiliation has not yet been made 
compulsory in all hasic nursing cour- 
ses in Canada but we are progressing 
to this point. Perhap:.-. the future will 
bring not only c1asses in mental patho- 
logy, but also a good basic course in 
mental health. This wi1l come about 
only through the individual efforts of 
all those who are concerned with nurs- 
ing education. For the present we must 
rely solely on what her past experiences 
will contribute to the individual public 
health nurse's ability in the field of 
mental health. 
\Yhat about inservice education in 
mental health for the staff of public 
health agencies? Here, the greatest 
immediate stumbling block may be 
found. \Yhen the subject is presented 
protests follow. The schedule is already 
crowded and it is not the agency's duty 
to undertake the preventive aspects of 
psychiatry! Another objection is that 
the agency does not have the staff 
ayailable to provide such teaching for 
other personne1. The crux of this whole 
matter appears to be that our civiliz- 
ation has parcelled itself into too many 
specialized spheres each of which balks 
at the idea of trespassing into the 
other's field. The general hospital is 
basical1y for the care, treatment, and 
education of the physically ill person. 
The bulk of health education and the 
prevention of il1ness falls to the public 
health agencies. \ \'hat is overlooked 
is that our psychiatric hospitals are 
equipped only for the care of the mel1- 
tal1y disturbed individual. They are not 
equipped to promote the mental health 
of the population at large. 
In order that public health work- 
ers may become aware of their respon- 
sibilities for mental health, an inser- 


MARCH, 1960 · Vol. 56. No.3 


vice educational program is definitely 
required. \Ve must first indicate the 
need for such a program and then 
provide the qualified personnel to carry 
it out. To provide a starting point psy- 
chiatric social workers could discuss 
the aims of psychiatric rehabilitation. 
By using an illustration of a situation 
to which a fonner patient must return 
and with which he must resocialize 
One of the reasons for educating the 
public could be pinpointed. Once in- 
terest has been aroused, the program 
could be enlarged to include practical 
applications of theoretical speculation. 
Talks could be given at meetings of 
community workers where each group 
could decide on its own method of 
resolving the problem. ,Another method 
is group discussion at staff meetings 
in order to formulate a plan for incor- 
porating mental health into the over- 
all public health orientation of new 
staff members. 
Once it has been established that 
the promotion of mental hygiene is 
the responsibility of all who are in- 
terested in the health of the communi- 
ty, the workers must be given the op- 
portunity to make practical applica- 
tions. One means could be through 
the development of a specific program 
such as the provision of home care 
for psychiatric patients after discharge 
from hospital. Any family that has 
undergone the stress of a long-term 
illness needs assistance. Fol1owing 
mental illness the stress is increased 
by the stigma that still surrounds it. 
Only by public education can this ad- 
verse badge he removed. Teaching 
must begin within the family. The at- 
titudes in the home must be evaluated, 
the il1ness described and explained so 
that it is regarded as the same as a 
physical disability. The help of the 
family can be enlisted to aid in the 
general rehabilitation of the patient. 
Later both patient and family will need 
the support of the nurse as the patient 
returns to his job, his church and his 
social life. The minister, the employer, 
the friends of the patient must all be 
shown how they can help. In the course 
of dealing with the problems of one 
psychiatric patient, the public health 
personnel may find that they need to 
educate the community at large. Thus 
through close teamwork between ps)"- 
chiatric workers, public health agencies 


225 



and the public, an appreciable step 
fOf\\'ard could be made in the field of 
mental health. 
The
e examples illustrate the prac- 
tical application of mental health tech- 
niques in the rehabilitatiun of the emo- 
tionallv disturbed. Ilowever, mental 
health -is not solely the absence of men- 
tal disease. lIow ;nay the other aspects 
of mental hygiene be promoted in the 
over-aIl program of a public health 
agency? 
\ prenatal visit that includes 
instruction in the es
entials of nutrition 
and exercise should al
o consider the 
emotional adaptation of the hody. The 
mother-to-be can be encouraged to ex- 
press any fears or douhts that may 
arise. She can be helped to adapt to 
the new state of parenthood. She must 
feel that she can turn to the public 
health nurse for con
tructive help in 
developing a healthy attitude toward 
her own future and that of her family. 
The pre
chool and school age child 
i:; in the proces
 of developing the 
basic traits and mental outlook that 
win have a profound influence on his 
adult personality. The parent who vents 
his feelings on the child, the teacher 
who punishes a student unreasonahly 
for inattentiveness are not instil1ing a 
good concept of mental health. The 
puhlic health nurse who has contact 
with the child, his parents, his teachers 
and his schoolmates needs the know- 
ledge and techniques that can promote 
the growth of the child into a healthy 
adult. She must be able to work with 
both parents ancl teachers to help them 
to see and to solve the difficulties that 
arise either in the home Or in the 
school. 
h{> should give them the op- 
portunity to express their observations 
of the child and provide them vÚth 
guidance in dealing with specific situ- 
ations. In this way she promotes not 
only the mental health of the child but 
also that of the adults with whom he is 
in contact. The result will be the grati- 
fication of seeing healthy, happy chil- 
dren develop into healthy, mature 
adults. 
It is recognized that health agencies 


cO\Ter a much broader field than has 
been indicated here. By using pre- 
natal care, psychiatric rehabilitation 
and schuulwork as examples, the inte- 
gration of mental health into the public 
health field is more easily understood. 
The public health nurse
 is not alone 
in her efforts to promote mental health. 
She is part of a team. Social workers, 
physicians, educationalists and other 
public figures are a1I working with her 
in their respecti\'e fields. The nurse, 
however, can integrate mental health 
promotion into her work of maintain- 
ing good physical health. She can help 
the others on the team to play thei r 
p3.rts. Education alone win not pro- 
duce the desired attitudes. There must 
he acceptance by the general public of 
the need for assistance and guidance 
along these lines and a willingness to 
practise good habits of mental as well 
as physical health. 


Bibliography 
1. Caplan, G.: The )'Iental Hygiene 
Role of the Nurse in ::\[aternal and 
Child Care. .Yursing Outlook. 1954: 14 
2. Coleman, J. V.: The Relations 
Between :\Iental Health and Public 
Health. The American J oUrJlal of Public 
H eoith, 1956: 805 
3. Haun, Paul. )'Iental Health for 
Living, Nurs. Outlook, 1957: 512 
4. Hollister, \V. G. & Husband, G. 
VV'.: Inservice Mental Health Education 
through Group Experimental W ork- 
shops. Amer. J.P.H. 1952: 1071 
5. Ingles, Thelma: Understanding In- 
structors, Nurs. Outlook, 1957: 576 
6. Lemkau. Paul: 1Iental Health 
Tasks in General Health Programs. 
Ama. J.P.H, 1957: 97 
7. The Report of the Study Commit- 
tee on Public Health Practice in Canada. 
Canadian Public Health Association, 
Toronto. 1950: 
7 
8. Stokes, A, B.: Confusing Notions 
of 1Iental Health. The Canadian Nurse. 
195ó: 519 
9. \Yalff, Ilses: The Public Health 
Nurse - a Member of the Mental Health 
Team, Child Stud}'. \\Tinter 1956-57: 24. 


A wasted skill, a misapplied ability is 
a threat tu the capacity of a free people 
to survive. A society must learn to regard 
every instance of misuse of talent as an in- 


226 


justice to the individual and an injury to 
itself. 
- Pursuit of Excellence: Education and 
the Future of America 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



The Management of Crisis in Unman Situations 


:\IARY F. 
IcHn;HJ B.N. 


What is a crisis? HThell, 'ldl)' and how do crises de'l'cloþ? HO'l\.-' does a nurse's 
ability to perceive impending crisis effect her behavior? 


" T HY i
 the concept of cri
is a u
eful 
one from the point of vie\\' of the 
nurse ? "That can the nurse gain from 
an understanding of this conccpt? If 
onc accepts the theory that an those 
present in a crisis situation affect re- 
sponses to the crisis and the subse- 
quent hehavior, one can readily appre- 
ciate that an understanding of crisis is 
of vital concern to the nurse. She is 
part of any crisis situation in which 
she finds herself. The more under- 
standing 
h(' has of how crisis devel- 
ops, the hetter able she should be to 
help pre\'ent crisis. Some crises, how- 
ever, are inevitable. In such instances 
the understanding nurse can lend sup- 
lJort to others involved in the situation. 
Let us consider crisis as an event 
which disturbs the equilibrium of so- 
cial relationships in a situation. 
Iy 
purpose is to indicate how this concept 
may be useful in both nursing practice 
and nursing education. :\Iy comments 
wi11 be confined to a discussion of four 
factors that influence both the develop- 
ment of crisi
 in human situations and 
the response of the individuals. 
1. The stage of life at which the event 
occurs. 
2. The unique personalities of these 
individuals involved in the event. 
3, The varying backgrounds of expe- 
rience of individuals. 
4. The values they hold. 


The Stage of Life 
The timing of an event may deter- 
mine whether or not it is a crisis. For 
example, for a Í\\"o-year-old the expe- 


:\[iss 
IcHugh \\'110 was clinical in- 
structor in the operating room of the 

Iontreal General Hospital, no\\ works 
in \Vestern Canada. This paper was 
presented as part of a symposium on 
"The 
Ianagement of Crisis in Human 
Situations" at the American College of 
Surgeons Convention, :Nurses' Section, 
held in 
[ontreal during 1959. 


MARCH. 1960 . Vol. 56, No.3 


rience of going to ho
pital can very 
readilv constitute a crisis in the life 
of thãt child, as John BowlbYl has 
ShO\\"ll. Rene Spitz-l has indicated that 
the personality development of chil- 
dren may he severely impaired if, at 
critical ages, they are separated from 
their mothers. The film, "A Two- 
Year-Old Goes to Hospital," i11ustra- 
tes the significance of the young child's 
separation from his mother. 
For a fourteen-year-old, a period of 
hospitalization would be nmch less 
likely to develop into a cri
is. He can 
he prepared for the event. He can be 
helped to understand the purpose of 
surgery and 
omething of the circum- 
stances under which it takes place. 
Friends and relatives of such a patient 
take these events in their stride. They 
know his di
tress win be short-lived 
and that he \\-in 
oun return home. The 
disturbance to his social equilibrium 
win be minimal. 
\Vhether or not an event constitutes 
a crisis in the life of an individual then, 
is determined in part by the time of 
life at which the event occurs. The 
nurse who understands this concept 
may use her understanding to guide 
her own action and that of others in 
human crisis situations. 


Individual Personalities 
Birth, death, and serious i11ness are 
commonly accepted as crisis situation
. 
\ V e are less able to accept the POSSI- 
bilitv that crisis ma,. be inherent in the 
tran
ition from one phase of life to 
another and vet research findings suh- 
stantiate this. notion. 
Eric Lindemann:} and his associates 
in their stud" of community health 
found that th
 transition from a high 
school to a hospital school of nursing 
presented considerable hazards for vul- 
nerable persuns. The researchers' find- 
ings indicated that for some students 
the frustrations \yere severe enough to 
be considered a life crisis. The stu- 


227 



dents' expectations of nursmg were 
very different from the real situation. 
Added to this was the grief that re- 
sulted from leaving family and home. 
These factors, along with the anxieties 
stimulated by the relative intimacy of 
living together in a residential pro- 
gram and the confusion resulting from 
comparisons between the ideal role of 
the nurse and the actual nurse beha- 
vior encountered, temporarily destroy- 
ed their equi'librium. 
If we ourselves have not experienced 
some of these reactions in the transi- 
tion from a high school to a profes- 
sional school, most likely we have 
observed them in others. Some student 
nurses can take this transition in their 
stride. Others experience varying de- 
grees of difficulty and for some the 
crisis is one that they can resolve only 
by leaving. This concept has implica- 
tions not only for nursing educators 
but for all members of the helping 
professions, \\Thether or not an event 
constitutes a crisis in the life of an 
individual is determined, in part, by 
his unique personality. 


Background and Experience 
\\That has gone before in a person's 
life influences his perception of a pre- 
sent situation and the way in which 
he responds to it. Two people with 
similar illnesses who are faced with the 
prospect of hospitalization and surgical 
treatment may respond quite different- 
ly. Their different responses are due, 
in a large measure, to earlier expe- 
riences. All of us are familiar with the 
patient who feels at home when he 
comes to the hospital, who knows what 
is expected of him and who feels that 
he will be looked after. fIe feels secure 
in the presence of those to whom his 
care is entrusted because his previous 
experiences with hospitals have been 
sa ti sfacto ry. 
\Ve might contrast this patient's 
response to hospital admission with 
that of the patient who comes to the 
hospital for the first time. He does 
not know what is expected of him nor 
what to expect of the many strangers 
around him. "Cnsure of what will hap- 
pen to him, he may be most anxious 
and apprehensive. Admission to hos- 
pital has a particular meaning for this 
patient. Unless appropriate measures 
are taken to relieve his anxiety, it may 


228 


well increase. When those who are 
caring for the patient appreciate the 
meaning of his emotional response, 
they are better able to alleviate his 
excessive anxiety and to prevent it 
from influencing the course of his i11- 
ness or interfering with the effective- 
ness of his treatment. 
A crisis may develop for those per- 
sons whose past experience makes a 
specific situation especially meaningful 
emotionally. Health workers who un- 
derstand this concept should be pre- 
pared to anticipate the development 
of a crisis situation and, through their 
understanding, function in the way 
most likely to relieve tensions and 
preven t crisis. 


Individual Values 
\\Thether or not an event becomes a 
crisis situation for an individual is 
influenced by the values the individual 
holds. These have a specific function. 
They are the bonds that hold the per- 
sonality together and give it direction. 
On the social and cultural level widelv 
shared values perform the same funé- 
tion for the group. The fundamental 
things in which people believe deter- 
mine in a large measure the way that 
they see situations and the manner in 
which they respond. Individuals, fami- 
lies, other institutions, professions and 
communities aU have their unique 
value systems. It is possible that few 
conflicts would arise if values were 
coordinated and consistent. However, 
this is not life. At all levels, values 
tend to be imperfectly coordinated and 
their inconsistencies contribute to the 
development of tensions within and 
between people. If these tensions be- 
cO
11e sufficiently severe, crises will 
anse. 
Inconsistencies in values can be 
demonstrated in any profession but 
perhaps such inconsistencies are most 
evident in a developing profession such 
as nursing. As hospitals increased in 
size and complexity specia:1ization oc- 
curred. Enrolment in schools of nur- 
sing increased and the trend to sepa- 
rate nursing education from nursing 
administration developed. In some 
instances, nursing leaders in hospitals 
tended to fom1 two groups whose 
interests and skills were developed 
primarily in the area of either nursing 
education or nursing administration. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Although the ultimate goal of both 
groups was the same - patient care - 
the way in which one group perceiverl 
the situation tended to denv the value 
of the other group's v"ie\\;point. The 
teacher saw the ward as a place where 
the educational needs of the students 
might be met. The head nurse saw it as 
a situation demanding a giyen amount 
and quality of nursing service. Neither 
one \yould deny the importance of the 
other's interests but in this instance 
the head nurse's values would be 
largely at one end of a continuum and 
the teacher's values at the other. Such 
situations create tensions which can be 
relieved only when values are coordin- 
ated. 
.:\lost nurses wil1 agree that we have 
only begun to recognize this problem 
in nursing and to take steps towards 
its solution. Through understanding 
and working together we may be able 
to prevent the crisis situations which 
arise out of uncoordinated values with- 
in the profession. \Ve could then direct 
the energy we now use in such situa- 
tions toward the development of our 
profession. 


Sumnlary 
\Ve have considered crisis in human 
situations. \Ye have implied that an 


event, of itself, does not constitute a 
crisis. Rather the degree to which the 
event disturbs the equilibrium of social 
relationships detenl1ines whether or 
not a crisis develops. \Ve believe that 
the ability to perceive impending crisis 
can be developed and that most crises 
can be prevented or at least minimized 
by those ,,'ho, because they are aware 
of the factors invoked, can respond 
effectively. 


The assistance of :\Irs. Helen Geme- 
roy, assistant professor of psychiatric 
nursing, 
rcGill Gniversity, Montreal is 
gratefully acknowledged. 


Bibliography 
1. Bowlby, ]., 11.;\" :M.D,: Maternal 
Care and j/ elltal Health. Switzerland: 
\Vodd Health Organization, 1952. 
2, Leighton, A., et ai, ExPlorations ill 
Social Psychiatry. 
ew York: Basic 
Books, Inc., 1957. 
3. Lindemann, E.: The :Meaning of 
Crisis in Individual and Family Living. 
Teachers College Record, p. 314, Feb- 
ruary 1956. 
4. Spitz, R. A.: The Psychogenic 
Diseases ill blfanC'j': An Attempt at 
Their Etiologic Classification. New 
York: International Universities Press, 
Inc., 1951. 


As nurses, we do not diagnose or recom- 
mend medications, but there is nothing to 
prevent us, legally, from recommending a 
good book. Nor would we be doing any 
patient a disservice by knowing something 
about books and current reading materials. 
Some patients need only to be led to the 
realm of books to be introduced to a whole 
new world. Some need to be reminded that 
books exist, and some - far too many - 
will need to be guided to a proper choice of 
reading. 
Nursing OUflook, November, 1959 
* * * 
Injustice is relatively easy to bear; \\ hat 
stings is justice. - H. L. :MENCKEN 
* * * 
All of us are becoming more price con- 
scious, more aware of the shrinking value 
of the shopping dollar. The monthly cost 
of living index reported by the Dominion 
Bureau of Statistics used to show the month- 
ly figure with the values in 1939 as the 


MARCH. 1960 · Vol. 56, NO.3 


basis for comparison. After the figure so 
obtained had sky-rocketed, the comparative 
figures were based on the level in 1949. 
\Vith some nostalgic yearnings for the 
"good old days" of 1939, here are some 
comparisons of interest to every wage-earner. 
The 1959 figures are based on prices in 
)'Iontreal in December, 1959. 
Item 1939 
)'filk (quart) $.10 $ 
Bread (24 oz. loaf) .10 
Butter (lb.) .31 
Coffee (lb.) .25 
Calves' liver (lb.) .48 
Round Steak (lb.) .30 
Bus ride .08 
Cigarettes (20) .25 
:Medium-size car 1,000.00 
Small house 4,500.00 
Subscription to The 
Canadian Nurse 
Through fees 
Personal 


1959 
.23 
.22 


.65 
.99 
1.45 
.98 
.20 
.40 
2,800.00 
10,000.00 


2,00 


2.00 
3.00 


229 



?-; 
-":.. V 


.
þo, 
_
 I.., 


.1t
 

 " . c 
,1;\ 
:11':.,,: 



 


" ',','" 
;. 

 


NURSING 
... 
 across the 

,. NATION 


PREPARED IN YOUR NATIONAL OFFICE, CANADIAN NURSES' ASSOCIATION, OTTAWA 


Hospital Insurance and the CNA 
In Xoyember, 195Y, the CNA pre- 
sented a submission to the Advisory 
Committee on Hospital Insurance for 
the organization and financing of hos- 
pital schools of nursing. 
The C
A, recognizing the large 
stuns of 1110nev which are presently 
being spent f
r schools of nursing 
and expressing grateful appreciation 
of this advocated that: 
Th
 monies availahle and to be as- 
signed tu nursing educational programs 
in hospital schools of nursing be 
1. reserved and used to enhance the - 
educational calibre of the program 
2. administered by those directly re- 
sponsible for the educational pro- 
gram of the school. 
The CNA advocated that the school 
be regarded as an autonomous educa- 
tional institution, in this instance, hav.- 
ing the right ann responsibility to 
control the student's entire experience 
- academic and clinical - in the in- 
terests of that student's professional 
preparation as a nurse. 


C N A Sub-committee on Finance 
A meeting of the Sub-committee 
on Finance was held at National Office 
on December 19, 1959. It was recom- 
mended that a Sub-committee on In- 
vestments be formed. The terms of 
reference of CN A loans were reviewed. 
The two criteria for granting of loans 
still stand - 
1. that the applicant he a member of 
the CN A 
2. that the money would be used for 
advanced preparation. 



lental Health Institute 
The Dalhousie "Cniversity School of 
K ursing held a three-day institute 
on Nursing Aspects in the rvlentaI 


230 


Health Program February 24 - 26, 
1960 in the auditorium, Victoria Gen- 
eral HospitaL 
:l\Iiss Peggy Pike, head of the Psy- 
chiatric 
 ursing Research Department 
of 
\llan 
Iemorial Institute. l\Iontreal, 
was the conference leader, ahly assisted 
by Dr. Robert O. Jones, professor of 
Psychiatry, Dalhousie University, and 
other specialists in this field. 


The CNA Retirement Plan 
The Canadian Nurses' Association 
Retirement Plan is actual1y two plans 
in one - "A" and "B". Plan "A" is 
designed for nurses \vho are self- 
employed or are employed where no 
employer contributions are available 
and who must therefore rely on their 
own savings to provide for retirement. 
Plan hB" is designed for nurses who 
are working for an employer who will 
join with them in setting aside money 
for their retirement. 
\\'ithin each plan there are two 
funds in which the nurse may place her 
contributions - the Insured Annuity 
Fund and the Common Stock Fund. 
In the Insured 
\nnuity Fund, the 
pension you huy is determinen precise- 
ly at the time you join the plan accord- 
ing to your age and the amount that 
you save. This may be increased by 
the dividends credited to you by the 
insurance company during the time 
that you are saving for retirement. 
Under the Common Stock Fund, 
your contributions are invested in a 
well-balanced portfolio of common 
stocks of leading corporations. Your 
share in the Fund is sold when you 
retire and the proceeds are applied to 
purchase a pension at that time. The 
amount of pension that is then bought 
will depend on the m.arket value of 
common stocks at that tIme. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



AIl memoers of the Canadian 
Kurses' As..-ociation who have not 
attained the age of ïO may join Plan 
"A", the personal plan, or Plan "B", 


the employer-employee plan, (within 
the term..- ..-et hy the employer) of the 
Canadian Xurses' .L\ssociation Retire- 
ment Plan. 


j Re,'iew o[ the Pilot Pl'ojeut 


HELEN 
I USSALLEl\1, 1\1.A. 


Getting ready for sllch a far-reaching develoþment as the evaluation a1ld accredit- 
ation of schools of nursing requires comprehcnsive þreliminary 
studies. 


T HE Pilot Project for Evaluation of 
Schools of X ursing has been com- 
pleted. The report of this study which 
will be available to all members of the 
Canadian 
 urses' A
sociation is in the 
process of heing puhlished. The recom- 
mendations made a
 a result of this 
study have heen reviewed by the Ex- 
ecuti\'e Committee of the Canadian 

 urses' Association. During the pro- 
ject. information on each step appeared 
in "Xursing Across the Nation." A 
brief sketch of the total project will 
hring everyone up to date. 
For many years, the Canadian 

 urses' Association had considered the 
feasibility of initiating a program of 
accreditation for schools of nursing in 
Canada. _\t the general meeting in 
1956, the Association approved a res- 
olution to study all aspects of such a 
program. This decision was moti,"ated 
by the belief that if the quality of nurs- 
ing service rendered by the profession 
was to be improved, then preparation 
for that service must be improved. It 
was also recognized that nursing, as 
any other profession, had a responsibi- 
lity for e\'aluating its own program of 
education. 


Purposes of the Project 
Fol1owing the general meeting, the 
purposes of and a plan of action for 
a Pilot Project for Evaluation of 
Schools of X ursing were formulated 



Iiss 
Iussallem took leave of absence 
from her post as associate director of the 
school of nursing at Yancouver General 
Hospital in 1957 to become director of 
the Pilot Project. 


MARCH, 1960 . Vol. 56. NO.3 


by a special committee. These purpuses 
were: 
1. To determine \\ hether Canadian 
schools of nursing are ready for a pro- 
gram of accreditatiun and, if it is feasible 
at this time, to initiate a program of ac- 
creditation. 
2. To determine the basis on which 
schools of nursing in Canada can be ac- 
credited. 
3. To explore procedures for carrying 
out an accreditation program. 
-to To determine the personnel and 
other resources needed to carry out a 
national program of accreditation. 
5. To estimate the cost of a national 
program of accreditation. 
6. To acquaint the Canadian people 
with the needs of nursing. 


Selection of Schools and Visitors 
In order to obtain the necessarv 
data. each of the 17 -t- diploma schoofs 
was invited to indicate willingness 
to participate. Xinety-six schools vol- 
unteered. From this group the special 
committee for the Pilot Project select- 
ed 25 on the bases of geographical 
location, size, control and type of pro- 
gram. At least one school in each 
province was chosen. Two schools were 
selected in each of the four \Yestern 
Provinces, fi\"e in Ontario, seven in 
Quebec (five of these were French 
language schools), and five in the At- 
lantic pro\Tinces. The committee also 
named ten regional visitors to partici- 
pate in the surveys of the schools, and 
one senior bilingual evaluator. 


Orientation of the Director 
A. director for the study was ap- 


231 



pointed in September, 1957. In pre- 
paration for her responsibilities in 
directing the Pilot Project the direc- 
tor worked wi th the X ationaI League 
for Nursing Accrediting Service for 
four months, studying the philosophy 
and procedure of their program with 
a view to adapting these methods in 
the survey of selected schools of nurs- 
ing in Canada. This orientation in- 
cluded participation in accreditation 
visits in widely distributed geographi- 
cal areas in the United States. It was 
a most interesting and stimulating ex- 
perience. One could not but be im- 
pressed by the dynamic nature of their 
program. 
The policies, criteria and procedures 
followed in the American accreditation 
program in nursing are based on prin- 
ciples widely accepted and tested in 
education for the other professions, 
and in general education. Accreditation 
in nursing is more than an evaluation. 
I t is a program in which the education- 
al units themselves play a vital part. 
It aims to help schools in their efforts 
to improve the nursing program they 
offer by providing them with assistance 
in the continuous process of self-evalu- 
ation. The impression gained was that 
voluntary national accreditation could 
be a most effective means of encour- 
aging schools of nursing to improve 
their programs. 


Preliminary Visits 
In initiating the Pilot Project, it 
was decided that prior to the full week 
survey, a preliminary visit should be 
made to each participating school. Ac- 
cordingly, a one-day visit was made by 
the director to each of the selected 
schools in order to acquaint the faculty 
and administration with the survey pro- 
cedures and to explain the types of 
suppplementary data required. 
Interpretation of the Project 
Activities carried on during the pre- 
liminary visits and surveys of schools 
of nursing included conferences with 
provincial deputy ministers of health, 
and with national executive directors 
of organizations. Interviews were also 
arranged with the national Deputy 
l\linister of Health and other national 
representatives interested in the Pro- 
ject. Addresses were given, on request, 
to such groups as provincial re- 


232 


gistered nurses' aSSOCIatIon meetings, 
hospital association meetings. \V ork- 
shops were conducted on the evalu- 
ation of schools of nursing. 
Press releases were sent from Na- 
tional Office during the preliminary 
visits, and the majority of the local 
papers printed the information. Because 
of a decision of the CN A Executive 
not to publicize the names of the schools 
being visited, newspaper publicity for 
the full survey visit was left to the 
school concerned. In areas where the 
schools released this information, it 
was encouraging to note the coverage 
given. Several press interviews were 
held, as well as interviews on radio 
and television. 
Following a recummendation from 
the National Committee on Nursing 
Education, a communication was sent 
to the provincial executive secretaries, 
indicating that the regional visitors 
were prepared to interpret the project 
in their area, and many requests for 
this were filled. Other means used to 
keep people informed included: memos 
sent out from time to time to schools 
participating in the Project, magazine 
articles, report to the Joint Committee 
on Nursing, etc. 
The Survey of the Schools 
A one-week survey visit was made 
to each selected school of nursing dur- 
ing the latter part of 1958 and up to 
April, 1959. The purpose of the visit 
was to validate and clarify the written 
material describing the program, as 
well as to assist the faculty of the 
school in identifying their own prob- 
lem areas and to develop skills in seek- 
ing solutions to these problems. 
The survey team consisted of the 
director of the proj ect and one regional 
visitor from a neighboring province. 
The regional visitors were all nurses 
well qualified for this role both by 
experience and personality. In the visits 
to the French-language schools, Sister 
Denise Lefebvre, who has given great 
leadership throughout the entire Pro- 
ject, acted as the senior bilingual eval- 
uator. The survey teams were fact- 
finders; they did not evaluate the pro- 
gram. 
The Visits 
Each visit was a stimulating and 
exciting experience. The visitors were 
impressed by the very favorable re- 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



action of the directors of the schools 
and in fact the entire staff of each 
hospital. No effort was spared to make 
all required information available. 
Their keen interest in. the evaluation 
process, and their warm hospitality 
went far beyond what was anticipated. 
The visit to each school was plan- 
ned to take six days. :\Ionday was 
used to study an the written materials 
describing the program. These materi- 
als included the questionnaire which 
was 69 pages in length and took most 
schools three to four months to com- 
plete, and 21 additional items such as: 
the l\Iinutes of an meetings, copies of 
all rotation plans in use, a copy of the 
articles of incorporation or other evi- 
dence guaranteeing the legal right of 
the hospital to operate a school, copies 
of al1 contracts with cooperating agen- 
cies, a complete set of a11 course out- 
lines. etc. The next three days consti- 
tuted the actual \"isit. Each evening 
and all day Friday the visitors were 
busy writing the report. Saturday 
morning the report was read to the 
members of the staff. Saturday after- 
noon any necessary corrections to the 
report were made. Sunday the visitors 
travel1ed to the next school. Each 
survey required approximately 65 
working hours. 


\Vriting the Survey Report 
\\Then the data had been verified, 
the visitors wrote a report on the pro- 
gram. \Vith two visitors on the fact- 
finding survey team, a more exact and 
unbiased report could be written. The 
report descrihed the program; it did 
not evaluate it. Each survey report 
was typed at National Office and sent 
to the director of the school for further 
correction. \Yhen it was returned to 
National Office, the report was sten- 
cilled and sent to members of the Board 
of Review for evaluation. This rather 
lengthy procedure ensured that the 
school's reports used as the basis of 
the data analyzed in the Report of 
the Pilot Project was accurate. 


The Board of Review 
The prescribed procedure provided 
for a board composed of ten members 
who would study each survey report 
and pass judgment on the educational 
program of the school surveyed. Eight 
hoard members were nurses represent- 


MARCH. 1960 . Vol. 56, No.3 


ing a11 the types of programs being 
evaluated. There was also one repre- 
sentative from the Canadian Medical 
Association and one from the Canadian 
Hospital Association. The board met 
twice; once in October, 1958 for ori- 
entation and the review of five sur- 
vey reports with a final meeting in May, 
1959 for evaluation of the remaining 
schools. The decisions made by this 
group on the status of the schools are 
induded in the final report. 
Evaluation by the Participants 
To assist in the evaluation of the 
techniques used in the Project, the 
schools were asked to evaluate this 
entire process. The guide questions 
were: 
1. \Vhat have you liked in this eval- 
uation procedure? (strengths) 
2. \Vhat areas in the procedure might 
be improved? (weaknesses) 
3. \Vhat suggestion for change in 
procedure would you recommend? 
4. AfttT having participated in this 
survey of the Pilot Project, do you be- 
lieve the Accreditation of Schools of 
Nursing in Canada would be desirable? 
\Vhy? 
5. Other comments. 
The responses were not most en- 
couraging. Some of them appear in an 

-\ppendix of the final report. A fairly 
typical response of the reaction to 
the total project is summarized from 
comments made by one of the directors 
of nursing whose school was visited' 
The Evaluation Program is a means 
of helping schools raise their standards. 
It is neither a loss of time nor a waste 
of money. On the contrary, it helps 
schools of nursing to keep pace with 
modern progress. 
Having participated in the Pilot Pro- 
ject, our vision has been considerably 
lengthened. \Ve are more acutely aware 
of our shortcomings than ever before. 
People do a better job when they know 
what they are supposed to do, when 
they understand what authority they 
have, when they realize what constitutes 
a job well done in terms of scientific 
results, and when they are aware that 
what they are doing is of value. 
The visit made to our school by the 
survey team has given the teaching 
body, the administrative personnel - 
in fact our entire staff a more adequate 
sense of di rection. 


233 



The Decision on the Project 
The report on the Project has been 
completed and recommendations have 
been made. This report wi11 be distri- 
buted by each provincial nurses' asso- 
ciation to the members for study prior 


to the biennial convention. It is at this 
meeting that the membership wi11 de- 
cide, in the light of this study, on the 
best course to he fo11owed in order to 
maintain better nursing service through 
better nursing- education. 


The Psychiatl'ic JUI'se as an Observel' 


ELISABETH RA TKOWITSCH 


The psychiatric 1lurse's ability in the role of observer can 11lal?e a significant 
contribution to the patient's recovery. Is the need for l?cen observa- 
tion confined to ps'ychiatric nursing? How can 1lurses become 
therapeutic observers? 


E VERYONE observes people. The PrI- 
mary motives are either idle 
curiosity or a basic desire to under- 
stand others. ::\Iost psychiatric nurses 
possess a cultivated curiosity and an 
eagerness to understand. Observing- 
patients is one of their chief roles and 
it should be done with a sincere in- 
terest in and desire to serve the patient. 
A certain degree of curiosity is doubt- 
less essentia1. To be merely curious 
about a patient is certainly not de- 
sirable. It must not be forgotten 
that menta11y i1l patients are human 
beings and not inanimate objects. 
::\Iore and more a psychiatric nurse 
is expected to be a keen observer and 
to record and report her observati<:ms. 
Each contact with the patient is an 
opportunity to ohsen'e: to find out 
how he can be helped, what he is say- 
ing with his hehavior, what he needs, 
what kinds of experiences he requires. 
\Yith this approach it is possible to 
note and to communicate observations 
and to use them in determining how 
to help the patient to foster his own 
emotional growth. 
As a participant observer the nurse 
scrutinizes not only the patient's be- 
havior, but also her own. She studies 


A graduate nurse from Graz, Austria, 
:\[iss Ratkowitsch was on the staff of 
Victoria General Hospital, \Vinnipeg, 
before going to the Allan Memorial 
J nstitute, 
fontreal, for postgraduate 
study in psychiatric nursing. 


234 


responses and learns how to use her 
relationship constructively. It is very 
important for her to become a ware 
of her own feelings toward the patient 
and of how the patient views her. 
N atura11y, there are limitations in her 
ability to recognize what is going on. 
Therefore, a co11ahorative relationship 
with the psychiatrists, psychologists 
and other members of the health team 
is essential. Harry Stuck Su1li\'an 
states: 
\Yhatever the techniques employed for 
observation of human behavior, includ- 
ing verbal report of subjective appear- 
ance, it is important to note that the act 
of ohservation is itself human behavior 
and involves the observer's experience 
. \Vhen it comes to the matter of 
perceiving another person, not only is 
there the object and the perception of 
the emanations from the other person. 
but also the distorting. confusing and 
complicating factor of our past exper- 
ience with other people who looked like 
this, who sounded like this, etc. In 
other words, it is fabulously more com- 
plicated than is the case with non-per- 
sonal reality. 
To make keen and objective obser- 
vations is a complex task. Some nurses 
have a natural ability, others gain it 
by training and experience, some wi11 
never possess it. Objectivity means 
truth in what we observe and in per- 
sonal insight. To he objective is not 
a simple matter. l\Iost'members of a 
nursing staff wi11 admit that their 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



obsen'ations are not always objective. 
They get twisted either by personal 
feelings or by mi
interpretation. Few 
nurses deny never bei
lg subjective. 


Factors in Ability to Observe 
1. The personality of the nurse 
2. Her past experience, skills, educa- 
tional background 
3. Her age 
4. Her interest in the patient 
5. Her physical well-being 
6. Her relationship with the patient's 
doctor 
7 Her flexibility. 
It can he easih' understood that the 
personality of the nurse affects her 
observations. How many times does 
a hostile nurse report or chart that 
patients are hostile? She projects her 
o,,-n hostile feelings. To percei\re hos- 
tilit
. in someone else is to a\Toid per- 
ceinng it in oneself. There is the de- 
pressed, downcast nurse. She seems 
to 
ee things more darkly than they 
exist: the patient's condition appears 
to her to be poor or hopele
s. There 
is the fearful nurse. She is blocked 
from seeing the patient's anxiety and 
insecurity. The more preoccupied she 
becomes with her own fear. the less 
able she is to see how frightened the 
sick person is and to find ways of 
relieving his fear. A selfish nurse, who 
cannot bear it \\-hen a patient prefers 
another staff member, wi11 seldom have 
a positive statement about this patient. 
If only an nurses could understand 
that many unpleasant experiences such 
as rejection, attack, suspicion and dis- 
respect cannot be taken personally. 

 urses have to keep their balance, ac- 
cepting objecti\Tely the opposite exper- 
iences of admiration, praise, depen- 
dence, etc. 
It also seems to be very difficult to 
be objective when the nurse is too 
emotiona11y involved. There can be no 
personal relationship without emotional 
involvement, but it should not be over- 
done. \ Vhen it is, there is a tendencv to 
see the patient's behavior as more
 ac- 
ceptable and better than it really is. 
The actual situation will be overlooked 
and the patient win be protected when- 
e\Ter possible. The less training and 
experience the nurse has, the easier it 
seems to be to become invohTed. The 
older, experienced nurse is more alert. 
It is not unusual to hear a young stu- 


'\lARCH. 1960 . Vol. 56, No.3 


dent nurse 
a\' ahout a verv sick. hut 
goud-looking -man: "Oh! l;e is most 
channing, so marvelou
 and interest- 
ing. I can't see anything wrong." She 
probably \\-illnot report that the patient 
was slightly intoxicated when dO\\"Il- 
to\\"11. Instead 
he chart
 that he went 
to a movie, then to bed on his return. 
Psychiatric patients as wen as a11 
other sick per
on
 often hecome too 
dependent un the staff. They like to 
be babied and are re<!uesting a relatiol1- 

hip so c10se and so filled with love 
that a nurse ne\'er can satisfv them. 
\ Yhen they become active and ;re weB 
again they are equal1y anxious to drop 
this relationship. .\ few l1ur
es find 
this hard tu understand since a depen- 
dent or "sticky" patient fulfils some of 
their own neurotic needs. 
The ideal p
ychiatric nur
e is a 
happy. sensitive person who has out- 

ide interests and who feels that she 
can accomplish much in her work. She 
become
 16s emotionalh- involved and 
sees things more acc
lrate1y. There 

eems to be a relationship between 
the ahilih' to ohsenTe and the level 
of insight -that a nur
è may ha\Te. 
\ccepting an awareness of our con- 
scious hehavior is a difficult problem. 
I t can hurt to recognize and to admit 
personal prohlem
. Everyone has them 
- psychiatric nurses are no exception. 
Being a X ew Canadian and having 
spoken English for only two years, I 
hesitated at first to chart that a foreign 
patient's command of English was poor 
and difficult to understand. I identified 
m\'seH with him and felt that if I 
Pt
t this down I would be confessing 
my own lack of knowledge of English. 
I had to force nwseH to write the 
facts. J 
Obsen'ation
 can be influenced by 
the relationship hetween the nurse ancl 
the patient's doctor. For example, 
examine the fo11owing nurses' com- 
ments : 
\Ve don't bother sometimes to report 
to a hostile doctor. 
If \ye get support from the individual 
doctor, we are more interested in making 
accurate observations. 
If [ dislike a doctor, I make less care- 
ful observations. 
If the intern works alone, I am less 
on my toes. 
Sometimes there appears to be a 
lack of collaboration between the nurses 


235 



and the newly arrived intern. Many 
of these inexperienced young psy- 
chiatrists show resentment at being 
dependent upon nurses' observations. 
They very seldom ask a nurse about a 
patient and do not like to be told how 
a patient is behaving. They depend 
almost entirely on their own observa- 
tions - studying the patient for a 
short time each day. As the intern 
becomes more experienced he becomes 
more tolerant of the nurses and begins 
to realize how much their observations 
can contribute. 
Staff doctors as a rule are more 
interested in nurses' observations. 
 \. 
few of them read them and combine 
the intern's notes with the nurses' re- 
ports in the weekly progress notes. 
:\10st doctors consider that the nurses' 
observations are very important and 
valuable. They realize that she is the 
one who observes the patient over a 
2-t--hour period, who sees him when he 
is far from being at his best. She is 
\vith him during alI moods, through 
an phases, at mealtime, at ward acti- 
vities and with his visitors. She ob- 
serves his appearance, attitude, mood, 
appetite, activity, reaction to routine 
and his sleeping habits. 
Nurses have expressed the idea that 
psychiatrists fear that they may in- 
terfere with psychotherapy or attempt 
to interview and interpret. The doc- 
tors I questioned did not see any 
danger of interference with psycho- 
therapy. The opinions expressed about 
interpretation were alI much the same. 
It was general1y felt that nurses' inter- 
pretations are unreliable because dif- 
ferent nurses win interpret in different 
ways. I t must also be remembered 
that the doctors receive reports from 
nurses at different levels of experience: 
student nurses, postgraduate students 
and graduates. Doctors prefer a de- 
scription that is expressed in good but 
simple English without interpretation 
and without psychiatric terminology. 

iedical researchers are an excep- 
tion. They expect observations on a 
different leve1. For example, the nurse 
observes that a patient spends hours 
and hours in front of the mirror. To 
the researcher she can report that the 
patient is narcissistic. In another in- 
stance, the nurse notes that a little man 
eats enormously. He asks for two bowls 
of porridge at breakfast, six pieces of 


236 


toast, drinks four cups of coffee, is 
very talkative throughout the day and 
likes smoking. The researcher is the 
only one who will be pleased to hear 
that this patient's oral needs are in- 
creased. Other psychiatrists prefer to 
get the fun description. The nurse 
must describe in detail what she sees 
and hears and not what she thinks the 
patient is doing or how she thinks he 
is behaving, 
There are varying opinions as to 
whether or not it is training and ex- 
perience that make intelligent obser- 
vers. Some doctors and nurses think 
that this ability definitely depends on 
training; that the important symptoms 
have to be pointed out first so that they 
can be recognized and noted. Others 
feel that training is not as important. 
They recal1ed untrained personnel who 
had made very good observations and 
had been more sensitive to patients' 
needs than some nurses with training 
in psychiatry. Certain nurses can re- 
ceive a good training, become theoreti- 
cally excel1ent, but be of little use to 
patients because they lack understand- 
ing and warmth. 
I t is a difficu 1t task and takes time 
and effort to become a good psychiatric 
nurse. Formerly, in the general hos- 
pitals where nurses trained or worked, 
nursing care was categorized and not 
too much emphasis was placed on 
treating the patient as a total indivi- 
dual. The sick person was treated ac- 
cording to his diagnosis which was 
related to an i1lness or bodily function. 
Too often his emotional needs were 
overlooked. I t was not recognized that 
the il1ness and aH that it implies were 
most important to him and that he 
reflected this in his moods. l\Iany pa- 
tients become very anxious and self- 
centered. 
In psychiatry, a diagnosis is mainly 
important for its use in research and 
statistics. The mental1y il1 person is 
treated according to his individual 
needs. Differences in his needs are 
related to his personality as a whole. 
The nurse brings many ski1ls to this 
new field but she has to relearn them 
and deveÌo p new powers. Her person- 
ality, mind and ability to be a good 
observer of human behavior are more 
important now. The hands and feet 
suddenly have not much to do. With 
them alone, little can be accomplished. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



A patient spent hours drawing a pic- 
ture of his favorite nurse. He gave much 
attention to little details, but he gave 
the nurse no hands. The art instructor 
reminded him that they were missing 
and that the nurse certainly needed them. 
But he answered in a firm voice: "They 
are absolutely unimportant. She is not 
using them. All she does is talk with 
us. " 
lIe was quite right. The nurse never 
brought him medications, never touched 
him, but spent her time talking to 
him. She was trying to foster his trust 
and confidence in people and to make 
his life worthwhile again. 
1\lost new nurses in a psychiatric 
unit are surprised to find themselves 
among patients who are ambulatory 
and ,\"ho are people not unlike them- 
selves. Outwardly they differ only in 
the display of their emotions and the 
way in which they solve their problems. 

lany of them are very intelligent. 
At first, is it often difficult to know 
what to look for and what is signifi- 
cant. J\lany small things are not taken 
for granted in psychiatry. It is impor- 
tant when a patient who has never 
initiated conversation suddenly starts 
to talk with somebody or when an 
untidy patient starts to take pride in 
his personal appearance and shaves for 
the first time. The gross behavior 
changes can be obsenoed without much 
effort. A child can recognize anger 
when dishes are thrown around, but 
to recognize minute changes in behav- 
ior calls for alert personnel. 
It is uncomfortable at first to sit 
down and talk or play with the patients. 

Iany nurses are afraid of saying the 
wrong thing. They do not know what 
to expect from the mentally sick. It is 
hard to understand that psychiatric 
nurses do not play cards or checkers 
for their own amusement or to pass 
the time, but that this has therapeutic 
,-alue for the patient and gives the 
nurse a good opportunity to observe 
him. 1\lost patients feel uncomfortable 
if a nurse sits quietly watching them. 
She must first learn to gain their con- 
fidence, show interest and be consid- 
erate. The nurse should avoid inter- 
viewing patients too quickly. _\ patient 
was once asked too many questions 
in a relatively short time in an attempt 
hy a nurse to find out how he spent 
his day. She had spent very little 


MARCH. 1960 · Vol. 56. No.3 


time with him and had no information 
for report. This sensitive man re- 
marked: 
Nurse, you are not really interested 
in my welfare. You have only a profes- 
sional curiosity and have come to check, 
so that you know what to write down 
on the nurses' notes. 
The more experienced the nurse be- 
comes, the less time she requires to 
make valuable observations. Some 
nurses know more by being with a pa- 
tient five minutes than others would 
in a few hours. It is similar to people 
who are familiar with a city. They will 
find their way around in less time. 
Nurses often find it difficult to ob- 
serve a quiet patient. The majority 
seem to know more about someone 
who is outgoing or an exhibitionist. 
Reports On him are usually of better 
quality and quantity. The quiet person 
has the fewest and least informative 
nurses' notes. His name is 
nore likely 
to be left out in staff discussions. 1\lost 
nurses know very little about him. 
They record the same things every 
day - that he is not mixing or socializ- 
ing, occupies time poorly, etc. The 
nurse has to realize that this patient 
is withdrawn and isolated and not an 
introvert or a bore. He needs help and 
understanding. As soon as she becomes 
curious and interested, the patient sud- 
denly becomes more alive to her. She 
notices more details about him. 
By careful observation of the with- 
drawn patient the nurse will be sur- 
prised at how many things can be ob- 
served. These observations are never 
a waste of time or boring. A patient 
tells many things through his silence, 
but a nurse has to learn to understand 
non-verbal communications. She can 
observe his hody movements, his fa- 
cial expression, his eyes, his posture 
and positions. She also must be astute 
to subtle hints that such a patient is 
ready for contact. _\ relativel" minor 
action can mean a big step to. the pa- 
tient. He expects the nurse to note it. 
Another positive example of keen ob- 
servation and intervention occurs when 
a nurse recognizes that a patient is 
contemplating suicide. The risk should 
never be minimized and mounting ten- 
sions must be noted. 


SUn1111ary 
Being an observer IS one of the 


237 



major roles of the psychiatric nurse. 
She can obsen.e most effectively as 
a participant. She mu
t obsen.e her- 
self, knO\\' her o\\'n abilities and dif- 
ficulties, be introspecti,.e. Good ob- 
servations should oe objective, but 
there are many factors influencing 
them. For most nurses, it is impos- 
sible to be completely objective because 
of personal feelings and ,'arious tem- 


peraments. X urses need support and 
help from the other team members in 
order to function most effectively. They 
must learn to control themselves and 
should never stop growing emotiona11y. 

\ gooù nurse is sensitive to what her 
patient needs and what he feels. All 
of her observations are an intermediate 
link between patient and doctor and 
have a therapeutic function. 


Reactions to \ïsitors in a Psychiatric Unit 


BARBARA H. l"\ELso
 


AIodern ps'ychiatry recogni::es that relatives are im þortmzt mcmbers of the team 
'i(lhich endeavors to assist a patient to return to health. Thc 
questions that t/Zen arise are: 'ii..110 visits, 'If)/zCIl, hO'lll often and 
for how long? 


The Purpose 
The purpuse of the study was to 
consider the que
tioll of visiting in 
a psychiatric unit with respect to: 
1. The effect visitors have on patients, 
2. the doctors' and nurses' attitudes 
toward visitors, 
3. the effect visiting hours have on 
the activities which have been organized 
for the patients. 
X ot tuo many years ago, mental 
i11ness was considered to he a social 
disgrace. 
\cconlingly, the person was 
put away in a mental institution and 
promptly forgotten. At this time, an 
ideal relati,'e could be described by 
hospital authorities as a person who 
appeared with the patient un admission, 
gave a complete and accurate history, 
and then disappeared, except for pay- 
ing the bil1 " by mai1. Relatives were 
often blamed, consciouslv or uncon- 
sciously, for the il1ness of the patient, 
by staff and patient alike. 
Through recent ad,'ances in psy- 
chiatric medicine. it has been recog- 
nized that relatives do play an impor- 


,:\[iss Kelson, a graduate from Saint 
J 01111 General Hospital, undertook this 
study while she was a postgraduate stu- 
dent in the Psychiatric Nursing Course 
at the Allan 
[emorial Institute, ':\lont- 
real. 


238 


tant role in the return of the patient 
, to a normal way of living. 


The Setting 
This study was undertaken at the 
.L \11an .:\Iemorial lnsti tute. an open 125- 
bed psychiatric unit. The institute, is 
part of the Royal \ Tictoria Hospital of 
.:\Iontrea1. 
In considering the question of visit- 
ing in this psychiatric unit we are deal- 
ing with the organization and function 
of a unit which has as its objectives: 
the care of the mental1y il1 person, the 
advancement of psychiatry through re- 
search, and the teaching of personnel 
involved in psychiatric care. \Ye are 
also caring for someone who comes 
from a family and a place in the com- 
munity. It is the individual patient who 
will make for many variahles in this 
study. The type of illness the patient 
has, plus his personal life, wil1 affect 
the answers that are obtained. 
The visiting hours at the _\l1an 

Iemorial Institute ha,'e recenth' been 
appnn'ed as fol1ows: there are" visit- 
ing periods three afternoons and 
even 
evenings a week. 
At the time of the extension, the 
assistant administrator of the hospital 
was intervie,vecl in regard to the rea- 
sons for the .change. The fo11owing 
reasons ".-ere gl\'en : 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



NewVANQUIN SUSPENSION closely 
. pproximates the ideal oxyuri- 
cide, enabling the physician to 
deal with the pinworm problem 
in a practical manner, on both 
an individual and group basis. 
Easy to administer: Each child 
or adult is given one dose of 
VANQUIN SUSPENSION. The pleas- 
ant-tasting, strawberry flavor 
makes it readily acceptable to 
chi Idren. 
Singularly effective: A single 
dose clears pinworm infections 
in most patients. 
Well tolerated: Toxicity due to 
overdosage is unlikely, since 
the drug is not appreciably ab- 
sorbed from the gastrointesti- 
nal tract. 
Economical: Single-dose effi- 
cacy reduces the duration and 
cost of treatment. 
Preventive: Its unique advan- 
tages make VANQUIN SUSPENSION 
ideal for controlling the spread 
of oxyuriasis in. household or 
institutions where one or more 
members are infected. 
Administration and Dosage 
VANQUIN SUSPENSION is adminis- 
tered orally to a child or adult 
in a single dose, equivalent to 
5 mg. pyrvinium base per Kg. of 
body weight. For convenience, 
one 5-cc. t
aspoonful per 22 
pounds (10 Kg.) of body weight 
may be used. (See literature for 
detailed dosage schedule.) 
Note: f:larents and patients 
should be told that VANQUIN 
SUSPENSION wi II color stools a 
bright red and, if spilled, will 
stain, 
Supplied: VANQUIN SUSPENSION 
is available as a pleasant-tast- 
ing, strawberry-flavored liquid, 
containing the equivalent of 
10 mg. pyrvinium base per ce., 
in 2-oz. bottles. 


PARKE, DAVIS & CO., LTD. 
MONTREAL 9, QUEBEC 


PARKE-DAVIS 


. RE:Iõ'STERED TRADEMARK 


NEW 


.'1&0 


\,^ 


,'\ 


fN" PINWORM INFECTIONS. 


one 


dose 


for 


therapy 
and 


control 


. 
aDOUID ð 


5 


E 


N 


N 


o 


5 


u 


5 


p 


(PVRVINIUN PAMOA,t 5USPt"SI.
 PARKE.DAVIS. 



1. The number of people VIsItmg at 
anyone time would be decreased if the 
hours were increased. 
2. The patients in the rest of the 
hospital may have visitors every day. 
3. Visitors would not have to remem- 
ber what nights they could visit; thus 
embarrassment of the receptionist, nurses 
and visitors might be avoided if the 
visitors arrived on a non-visiting day. 
4. There would be no resentment on 
the part of patient and visitor if some 
visitors were allowed and others were 
not. 
5. Some visitors were entering by 
the side door on non-visiting days, so 
it was thought that better control over 
visitors could be established. 
6. Visiting every day would establish 
better public relations. 


l\lethodology 
Data was gathered by observing pa- 
tients before, during and after visiting 
hours and interviewing patients and 
staff. The latter included staff doctors, 
residents, graduate nurses of all levels 
and the group social worker. All were 
chosen at random. 
The patients who were interviewed 
and observed wiIl be divided into four 
groups of five each, according to diag- 
nosis: depression. schizophrenia, anx- 
iety and senility. Questions asked the 
patients were: 
1. Who were your VIsItors - re- 
latives and/or friends? 
2. How frequently did they come and 
how long did they stay? 
3. How did you spend your time with 
your visitors? 
4. What were your reactions to your 
own visitors and to those of other pa- 
tients? 


Findings 
Depressed patients: 
This group of patients had few visi- 
tors because they did not wish to be 
bothered with people except members 
Df their immediate families. Several 
patients had only their husbands or 
wives visit because they felt it was a 
social disgrace to he in a mental insti- 
tution; their friends did not know that 
they were in hospital. The visitors 
came on an average of three or four 
times a week and stayed the full length 
of time allotted or longer. The time was 
spent mainly in their own rooms, often 


240 


III complete silence for long intervals. 
One patient went with her husband 
to some of the dances and sometimes 
played cards on the ward, because her 
husband thought it was best for his wife. 
The husband found it easier to put in the 
time by becoming involved in some ac- 
tivity. If they were not involved in ac- 
tivities his wife, who had ambivalent 
feelings toward him, would remain silent 
or would leave him alone in her room 
while she talked with other patients. 
On the other hand, this patient expected 
her husband to come each evening be- 
cause the hospital had 'llisitillg hours. 
The depressed patients displayed 
varied reactions to their visitors. Some 
were very demanding and very de- 
pendent on their marriage partner and 
their children. Se\'eral displayed anx- 
iety and fear when they were expecting 
visitors and frequently feelings of guilt 
were deepened. Some patients became 
more depressed when their company 
arrived, hringing many home prohlems 
with them. 
A 62-year old female patient from a 
distant city became depressed while her 
relatives were with her. She stated that 
she knew they would be going home and 
she was unable to go with them. She 
felt that the length of visits should be 
shortened because she found she became 
very exhausted and restless at the thought 
of being left behind. This patient had 
to readjust to hospital routine each time 
her family returned home. 
Generally speaking, other patients' 
visitors had very little effect on these 
patients. One did have a feeling of 
rejection because she had none. Several, 
whose relatives lived out of town en- 
joyed other patients' visitors. The pa- 
tients stated that the visitors were 
useful in helping them to occupy their 
time, in doing errands for them and 
in keeping them in contact with the 
outside world. . 
S clzizophrenic patients.- 
Their reactions to visitors were not 
unlike those of the depressed patients. 
They saw mainly their parents. The 
visits were frequent and usually lasted 
for the complete visiting time. One 
group of patients enjoyed having their 
parents come because this kept them 
in touch with reality. They were mo- 
tivated to pay attention to grooming 
and to participate in games, such as 
scrabble. These patients became very 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



FLI'I:T E'V F...... 


- 


'- 
..
 


-
.
-
y

 
_ 
f, :r-.,tl.Ct 


tt 


MARCH, 1960 . Vol. 56, No.3 


ONE-STEP 
PREP 


l' 


with 


......,. 


FLEET ENEMA 
IlAAND 
single dose 
disposable unit 
Just one second of prep time needed. . . with the 
modern FLEET ENEMA! Once the full-length pro- 
tective cover has been removed and the prelubricated 
2-inch rectal tube has been inserted, simple manual 
pressure does the rest. And after the enema- 
no scrubbing, no sterilization, no setting up for 
re-use. The complete FLEET ENEMA unit is 
simply discarded! 
why more and more hospitals are using the 
FLEET ENEMA 
An efficient, economically-priced, safe enema 
requiring far less time than outmoded procedures, 
FLEET ENEMA also avoids the ordeal of injecting 
large quantities of fluid into the bowel. 
Left colon catharsis can be achieved in two to five 
minutes without causing pain or spasm, 1 while afford- 
ing the same cleansing efficacy as the usual enema of 
one or two pints. Reverse flow and leakage are pre- 
vented and a comfortable flow rate assured by the 
construction of the anatomically correct plastic tube. 


Each Single-Dose Disposable Unit contains, in each 100 cc.: 
Sodium acid phosphate USP. . . . . . . . . . . . , . 16 G. 
Sodium phosphate USP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 6 G. 
Plastic "squeeze-bottles" of .4 
 fluid ounces, with prelubri- 
cated tip. 
1. Marks, M.M.: Am. J. Digest. Dis. 18:219, 1951 



 t;.
llOMt&Co. 


MONTREAL 


CANADA 


241 



dependent on their parents. 
The other group of schizophrenic 
patients had amhivalent feelings toward 
their parents. They would wait for 
them and would hecome very depressed 
if they didn't arrive. If they did come 
the patient would become very upset 
and display hostility toward them. 
One patient would cry if her mother 
didn't arrive and on other occasions 
would scream at her mother and then 
\\"alk out leaving her alone in the room. 
One young girl would sit with her 
mother in the day room and completely 
ignore her. Another patient became ex- 
tremely depressed after she saw her 
relatives for the first time following 
sleep treatment. She realized that she 
seemed strange and different to her 
young cousins with whom she lived. She 
also realized that she had to make an 
effort to be sociable in order to be ac- 
cepted. This incident helped her a great 
deal toward making the necessary ad- 
j ustment to reality. 
Yisitors of other patients appeared 
tu have very little effect on the schizo- 
phrenic patients. 
Anxious patients: 
In contrast, these patients and their 
visitors presented a different picture. 
In general they had numerous visitors, 
including family and friends. who came 
regularly and usual1y stayed the fuB 
visiting time. The visitors who lived 
in :\fontreal joined in \vard activities 
because they came often and got to 
know many of the patients. 
One patient who was from out of town, 
wished to be alone \Ùth his wife. He 
felt that the length of the visiting hours 
could he extended because of the dif- 
fiLulty his wife had had in coming to 
the city. Although he did not include 
his wife in hospital activities he felt that 
visitors helped to stimulate the evening 
program and make it a success. He 
thought that it was good for the patients 
to associate with visitors. He had many 
guilt feelings after his wife left because 
it brought to focus his failure to sup- 
port her. 
.\ female patient from Ottawa ,,-hose 
sister came on week-ends, hecame very 
dependent. She felt that her sister 
hrought her into contact with the world 
again. She experienced a great deal of 
anxiety during her sister's visits. She 
stated that she was afraid she had not 
improved enough and that her sister 


242 


would be disappointed. This patient had 
very few friends come because she had 
not let them know where she was. The 
one friend \\'ho came had been a patient 
in a psychiatric hospital. This friend 
was enjoyed very much because she 
offered support. 
A 64-year old woman with a diag- 
nosis of anxiety hysteria received nume- 
rous relatives and friends frequently and 
for the full length of time allowed. She 
enjoyed her visitors greatly. In them she 
had sympathetic listeners to her various 
somatic complaints. She did introduce 
them to patients and staff and joined 
with them in some hospital activities. 
Sometimes, when they remained for the 
full visiting period, she found her visi- 
tors exhausting. 
S cnile patients.- 
In this group different ohservations 
\\'ere made. The visitors did not come 
as frequently as those of some of the 
younger patients as they were elderly 
and not able to come every day. Several 
of the patients had great memory de- 
ficit so did not realize who came, how 
long they remained or how often they 
came. They were relaxed and con- 
tented whife their family was present 
but became very confused after their 
departure and made many attempts 
to leave the hospita1. Among the pa- 
tients \vho had good memories, old 
friends as weB as relatives came. These 
patients really enjoyed their visitors. 
It was a treat and a delight for them 
to sit down with old friends and re- 
minisce ahout the olden days. They 
usual1y kept their visitors to them- 
selves. They were seldom affected hy 
other patients' visitors. 


Conclusions 
In comparing these four groups of 
patients, it would appear that depressed 
and schizophrenic patients had fewer 
visitors. mostly members of their fami- 
lies. The anxiety and senile patients 
received friends as well as members 
of their families. 
The frequency of visits and the 
length of individual visits with each 
patient varied with factors such as 
where the visitors lived and whether 
they became involved in ward and hos- 
pital activities, such as dances ancl 
movies. The evening visiting time, 
7 :00 P.M. - 8 :00 P.
1. overlaps with 
the movie time, which is 6 :30 P. M. ami 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 





Çff{ß$ii
?:, 

(ji1'If. 
 t=---:
 
,

it_!: t 
1..
.""'-{!I/llìJft .... . 

Jlftil
f:
(.f' Ii 
 
, F,r
::::;;i::..:tì}-
 ,-
::/::
<<, '- 1 - 
 / : 
. 
I % Ñi ' 7'f'['7J ,,:-:,,''M.)..k, I" : 
/JJ:;1I!
lÚi ... I 
&jf
 
u 


* 


MATERNITY BRA 


DAISY 


,j 


EXPAND 


wl
thoZlt pressure 


. . . 


When your heir IS apparent, baby yourself with the sure, gentle suppon of Daisy Fresh. 
The all elastic pull on girdle expands as naturally as you do. Inner bands provide a 
cradle of comfort. The embroidered cotton bra is well elasticized and constructed to 
change to your exact size just as easily and pleasantly. 
Naturally, being Daisy Fresh, they're doctor approved designs. 
At stores throughout Canada. 
DOMINION CORSET CO.. LTD.. QUEBEC. MONTREAL. TORONTO. VANCOUVER 


MARCH. 1960 . Vol. 56, No.3 


243 



the dance time which usually starts be- 
tween 7 :30 and 8 :00 P,M. 
The depressed patients became ex- 
tremely dependent on their relatives. 
Some became more depressed and had 
to readjust each time their visitors 
left. Many times the presence of visi- 
tors produced more guilt feelings in 
the patients. Some depressed patients 
became more depressed when other 
patients had visitors and they did not. 
This caused a feeling of rejection. 
In the acute stages, the schizophre- 
nic patients would be better if they 
received no visitors, particularly their 
parents. The main objective in treat- 
ment is to remove them temporarily 
from their environment because they 
are unable to accept it. 
\fter treatment 
and before discharge, it would seem to 
be valuable for these patients to re- 
ceive visitors. They would help the 
patient to establish contact with his 
former environment while the patient 
was still getting protection from the 
hospital; this would be a temporary 
situation between complete isolation 
from the outer world and living in the 
community. 
The anxious and the senile patients 
benefited from visitors. They enjoyed 
mixing with all the visitors and gen- 
erally had a social evening with them. 
On the whole, visitors helped these 
patients maintain contact with the 
world even though at times anxiety 
was produced. The senile patients re- 
ceived fewer visitors than others, but 
they definitely enjoyed them. 
Opinions of the Staff 
The doctors were asked the follow- 
ing questions: 
1. How frequent and how long should 
visiting hours be in a psychiatric hospi- 
tal? 
2. What effects do visitors have on 
the patient? 
There were different opinions on 
the above questions, but one answer 
all doctors gave was that visiting should 
be determined on an individual basis. 
Some doctors stated that in the 
acute phases of illness, visitors should 
not be allowed. Others expressed the 
opinion that patients should not have 
visitors for the first week or two. :Men- 
tal illness develops when the person is 
unable to handle conflicts between self 
and outer stimuli. In order to treat 


244 


these people they are removed from 
the home environment. An attempt is 
made to establish a new pattern of life 
and to learn how to deal with inter- 
personal relations in a controlled situ- 
ation. If the patient is able to have 
his environment brought to him in the 
form of visitors from the time he is 
first admitted, the purpose of hospital- 
ization is defeated. There are times 
when there are exceptions that would 
prove worthwhile, for example, in the 
case of a language barrier. One doctor 
stated that if the patient's environment 
was brought to him in the form of 
visitors, he might as well be treated 
as a day patient or on an outpatient 
basis. 
Several doctors felt that there should 
be no set rule for visiting. The patients 
shuuld be able to receive visitors when- 
ever it is convenient for the staff. It 
was stated by some that it wasn't the 
frequency of visitors, but the type that 
counted. If a patient has guilt feelings 
toward a parent, the presence of this 
person would only increase the feel- 
ing of guilt; if someone felt rej ected 
and unloved he should have visitors so 
he wouldn't feel this way, lIe should 
be permitted to gain support and re- 
assurance from his visitors. Some visi- 
tors try to encourage patients into ac- 
tivity before they are emotionally rea- 
dy; this can deepen depression. Some 
doctors stated that only relatives and 
close friends should be allowed, a" 
acquaintances may come only to satis- 
fy curiosity and to spread gossip. An 
individual's acceptance in the commu- 
nity could be destroyed if acquaintances 
saw him in acute stages of illness where 
he had lost control. 
One ductor stated that if it were 
advisable for a patient to maintain 
contact with his former environment, 
visitors should be allowed only once a 
week. Three interesting comments 
were made regarding visiting on a 
once-a-week basis. The patient would 
anticipate a visit with pleasure. If he 
did not wish to receive visitors, there 
is only one day a week when he has 
to worry about it and have feelings of 
guilt because he rejected or wished to 
reject them. Also, a better evaluation 
of the patient's progress toward hand- 
ling social situations can be made. 
An overall value was that visitors 
helped the patients to maintain con- 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Protect your 
recor1mendation 


Carnation 
Milk 


Special homogenization and 
sterilization makes Carnation 
the most digestible, nourish- 
ing, and safest form of full- 
fat milk for bottle feeding. 
That's why Carnation is used 
in more hospital formula rooms 
throughout the world than all 
other brands combined. 
Carnation provides all the 
food values, and all the but- 
terfat, of pasteurized whole 
milk. Vitamin D has been in- 
creased to 800 units per pint. 


Morning 

/1 ilk 


Developed by Carnation to 
nourish the infant on a low- 
fat formula, Morning Partly 
Skimmed Evaporated Milk has 
a 4 % butterfat content. 
Morning retains all fresh 
milk's natural food values so 
important to growth. Vitamin 
D is increased to 800 units 
per pint. Young parents will 
appreciate Morning's econo- 
my, too. Other brands of part- 
ly-skimmed evaporated milk 
cost up to 1/3 more. 
:Çç 
 
- - :=-=; 


( arna.t on?s ngId quahtv l.Ontrol c make the 
 
the finE c:;t fotmb of milk fur bottlt: feeding 


MARCH. 1960 . Vol. 56, No.3 


245 



tact with realitv, to better handle social 
situations and 
to become rehabilitated. 
A side-effect of visiting hours in a 
p
ychiatric hospital is public education. 
They 
ee the various types of patients 
and realize that they do not appear 
to differ greatly from people met in 
everyday life. They begin to under- 
stand that many patients do return to 
a normal wav of life. The visitors are 
able to go to "'the patients' rooms. They 
are reassured that the patients are 
comfortable in the hospita1. 
In interviewing graduate nurses, they 
ga ve the fol1owing responses: 
It was general1y conceded that the 
patients should have visitors though 
visiting hours should be regulated to 
meet the individual patient's needs. 
Ahout 30 per cent of the nurses 
thought there should be visiting hours 
every day: the rest believed that every 
other dav would be sufficient. The latter 
group fëÙ it too exhausting for the pa- 
tients thus keeping them from making 
fulI use of the planned hospital activi- 
ties. Another opinion was that the pa- 
tient could become too dependent on 
visitors thus preventing him from 
learning how to be independent. 
One nurse stated that the patients 
"hould not have visitors for a week 
fol1mving admission. The patients could 
then adjust to the hospital and estab- 
li
h a routine before having to adjust 
to visitors. On the other hane1. another 
nurst' thought that open visiting hours 
should be established so that fol1owing 
favorable advantages might result: 
Visitors would not stay as long when 
they knew they could come at any time: 
patients would not wait for visitors at 
established times and then be disap- 
pointed if no one arrived: patients who 
received no visitors would not become 
as disturbed as they would if the majori- 
ty of the patients had visitors at one 
time. 

Iost nurses thought that open visit- 
ing hours would not he satisfactory. 
Some disadvantages stated were: 
Patients needed an estahlished routine 
and it would be disturbing for them to 
receive visitors throughout the day; they 
would continually wait for visitors and 
perhaps refuse to take part in organized 
hospital activities. 
It was general1y agreed that visitors 
keep the patient in contact with reality. 
At times visitors may he a help to the 


246 


hospital staff. For example, they may 
be able to confirm information that the 
patient has given ahout delusional pat- 
terns and personal traits. 
'\Iso, if a 
patient see
 that his relatives have con- 
fidence in the hospital, he may follow 
their example and form a more confi- 
dent relationship with the staff. On oc- 
casion, a visitor may help to calm the 
patient, particularly if there is a lan- 
guage barrier. Visitors help the patient 
to occupy some time and give them 
a reason for consciousness of their 
personal appearance. 
The nurses seemed to agree with 
the doctors that visitors helped the 
patient to maintain an interest in life. 
\ïsitors give support to the patient 
and in many instances help him to 
realize that he is nut heing rejected. 
The nurses noted that visitors help 
make the patient a ware that he has to 
behave in a manner which is accept- 
ahle. This helps in his ultimate re- 
habilitation. 
Conversely, there are disadvantages 
in patients having any visitors. Some- 
times, a relative will so identify him- 
self \\.ith the patient, that he gains 
incorrect ideas regarding the hospital 
and then interferes with treatment. 
Patients tend to den'lop a feeling of 
dependence on visitors and become 
depressed if they do not arrive when 
there are visiting hours. 
Yisitors exhaust some patients. ()n 
occasion a visitor so sympathizes with 
an acutely psychotic patient that he 
is persuaded to take the patient home. 

\nxious relatives may pass on their 
anxiety. Some patients. such as schi- 
zophrenics, have strong negative feel- 
ings to\vards their parents so that their 
presence wil1 interfere with treatment. 
\ ï
itors should be instructed regard- 
ing the hest approach to the patient 
and should be told in what condition 
they will find him. 
Ópinions differed ahout whether 
evening visitors helped promote the 
evening program. In theory, it was 
thought to be a good idea to have the 
relatives and patients join in the ac- 
tivities together. In practice, it was 
noted that patients preferred to remain 
on the ward with their visitors. Fre- 
quently they used the excuse that they 
were waiting for company so they 
\\'ouldn't have to participate. 
The group social worker stated that 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



digestibility 


I C?
':):::.
.:.....' .......:::

.:) (
\:..... 
"':.:'; :i SSURED : (.::: 
....:..li\ ........ 
::
:.. .,: . ...:. ....... -" :.:...;.... 
-., ,- .... . .-. ... -, . -,' . 
:.. ::.::.:. ..,.... :::-
':;?::"'" 


All Gerber Baby Cereals are thoroughly pre-cooked 
to make them readily digestible. During special processing, they are 
partially digested, placing less of a burden on the baby's 
digestive system. Pre-digestion is controlled by two tests which 
indicate whether or not the cereals are properly prepared. 
Both are required to insure absolute uniformity of Gerber Cereals. 
Specialized care of this kind is typical of Gerber's interest 
in better nutrition for infants. 


Gerber Baby Foods 


NIAGARA FALLS, CANADA 


MARCH. 1960 . Vol. 56. No.3 


247 



\'1sltors should stimulate the evening 
program. For instance, it would be 
natural for a man to attend the dance 
with his wife. The worker believed 
this \vould be an excellent form of pub- 
lic education because the general public 
could see that the psychiatric patients 
participate in normal activities. 
As for visitors interfering with oc- 
cupational therapy, the therapist stated 
that if the patients were interested in 
the therapy, they could receive their 
visitors in that department. 
It is apparent that the subject of 


Hebephrenic Schizophrenia 


SISTER l\IARIE ELISE, F.D.J. 


visitors in a psychiatric hospital is very 
complex. Questions must be answered 
on an individual basis. There is no 
overall agreement as to how soon the 
patients should be allowed to receive 
\"isitors after admission nor how fre- 
quently visitors should be allowed to 
come. It is agreed that visitors do 
help the patient to maintain contact 
with reality and community life. It is 
recommended that visitors be instruc- 
ted about how to approach the patient, 

o as not to interfere with the general 
planned program. 


Schi:=ophrcnia is most common during the transition pcriod bet'lt'een adolescence 
and early adulthood. It 1110)' Occur latcr in life as this case study 
sho'lC's. 


Social and Personal History 
" ISS l\IARY Roy, aged 49, was one 
1'1 of three girls in a family of five. 
Her father was a farmer and until 10 
years ago she lived at home. Her 
parents were third cousins, her mother 
having died some years previously 
following paralysis. There is no known 
mental illness in the family history. 
According to lVliss Roy, her child- 
hood was uneventful but she has al- 
ways felt that she was the least loved 
of the children. She completed Grade 
VI and had no difficulty with school 
work. 
l\Iiss Roy is quiet. almost docile. 
She has no friends, preferring to stay 
at home, becoming increasingly reserv- 
ed and timid. She attends church with 
her family but is not particularly reli- 
gious. lVlost of her time is spent alone- 
in a rocking chair listening to the radio. 
She has no hobbies and is not interest- 
ed in any games. She has never shown 
any interest in the opposite sex. 
Her menstrual periods began when 
she was 14 and have always been pre- 


Sister Marie Elise is a student nurse 
at the Hôtel Dieu Hospital in Quebec 
City. 


248 


ceded 1)\' lower hack pal11 and irrita- 
bility. 


History of Present Illness 

Iiss Roy's i11ness began when she 
was 35 years of age. Eight or ten days 
hefore the onset of her menstrual pe- 
riod she displayed personality changes, 
and became disinterested in her usual 
activities. Ten years ago she was hos- 
pitalized for hebephrenic-catatonic schi- 
zophrenia. She was treated with Lar- 
gactil 50 mg. t.i.d. and Phenergan 50 
mg. at bedtime. 
Two months later on discharge, 
she was much improved. She stayed 
in the city to work as a domestic. 
She was a good worker, though slow, 
and remained with the same employer 
until six months ago when she return- 
ed to her brother's farm. During the 
past six months her symptoms have 
recurred. Her condition became in- 
creasingly worse until it was impos- 
sible to care for her at home. A sister 
gave the fo11owing history: 
Each month prior to her menstrool 
period her behavior changes. She has 
high blood pressure and will not follow 
her diet. If anyone suggests or insinuates 
that she ought to, she becomes angry. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



"'" Our Navy 
\ Needs Your 

 Nursing Skill 
"'W 
. .. 
- 
,2 

 


......- 


-. 


# 



 


'- 


'
... 



 



 


" 


'f<
 6; .-"'<
' 
-
 


, 


\ 
" 


. 



 


,t 


A Naval Nurse is an important nurse - caring for the health of 
Canada's fighting sailors. 
She leads an eventful life - with opportunities to engage in special 
fields, both medical and surgical and others - to travel - to serve 
her country - to enjoy the status and privileges of an Officer in 
Canada's senior service. 
Our expanding Navy has openings now in its Nursing 
Service - for provincially-registered graduate nurses who 
are Canadian citizens or British subjects, single and under 
35 years of age. 
Apply today! Upon entry you will be offered a permanent or short 
service commission with officer pay, allowance for uniforms, full 
maintenance and other benefits including 30 days annual leave with 
pay and full medical and dental care. 
As a Naval Nurse, you'll find real opportunity to advance in your 
profession! For full information apply to: 


MA TRON-IN-CHIEF, 
NAVAL HEADQUARTERS, OTTAWA 


or 


YOUR NEAREST NAVAL RECRUITING OFFICE 


CN-5-57 


Royal Canadian Navy 


MARCH. 1960 . Vol. 56, NO.3 


249 



She cannot bear to be contraùicteù. She 
will never do anything that she is asked, 
in fact, usually does the opposite. 
During these periods she rarely eats 
or sleeps. She mumbles all night - 
talking or singing to herself. She may 
spend the night walking either in the 
house or out of doors. She does not 
care for herself - neither washes nor 
keeps her hair tidy. 
\Vithout provocation she tears my 
clothes to pieces, hits me and pulls my 
hair. Her emotions are confused. She 
is reckless; she rarely cries though she 
frequently laughs to herself. She is often 
incoherent during these episodes. 
When her menstrual period begins she 
becomes quiet - in several days she 
seems almost normal. This pattern is 
repeated each month. 


Physical History on Admission 
1Iiss Roy has frequent headaches and 
fainted once. She has had no other 
i11nesses. 
On admission, the patient responded 
poorly to questioning and mumbled to 
herself. Her speech was inarticulate 
and incoherent; her ideas fantastic 
and changeable; her responses were 
inaccurate, slow, spoken without con- 
viction. She seemed to be indifferent; 
thinking of other things. 
Mental Capacity 
She was moderately we11 oriented 
as to time and place. Her memory for 
past events was good, but for recent 
events poor. She tried to enclose her- 
self in a world of her own; she was 
not interested in those around her; 
she was completely autistic. J fer judg- 
ment was poor; she was not self-criti- 
cal. Some time later she acknowledged 
that she required hospitalization. 


Observation of the Patient 
l\liss Roy's deportment on admis- 
sion was bizarre. She held herself 
immobile, numb, expressing no emo- 
tion, no perception; she seemed a 
stranger to the external world. She 
appeared neglected and wore a shabby 
dress. Her facial expression in parti- 
cular was peculiar; her eyes were half 
closed, she was pouting and conveyed 
an expression of stupidity. 
At first she was silent, then slowly 
and with difficulty she answered ques- 
tions. She felt that the world was 


250 


against her, her brother especially. She 
was slightly incoherent. 
Being in the hospital did not seem 
to affect her. Her complete indifference 
\Vas marked. She was quite inactive. 
showing interest in nothing. She slept 
wen with medication, her appetite was 
good, her moods variable. \ Yhen she 
was encouraged and helped to mix with 
the other patients she did not respond. 
Occasional1v she would notice those 
around her añ'd then return to solitude. 
She answered ,,,,hen spoken to, but 
never asked questions or started a con- 
versation. 
To outward appearances - she was 
a quiet patient, who sometimes lay 
sti1l for several hours with a blank 
expreSSIon on her face. She did not 
seem to be thinking - she showed no 
emotion. 


Treahnent 
:\ledications rather than electric 
shock therapy were the doctor's choice. 
From the beginning of her hospital- 
ization she received the same drugs 
she had been taking at home. There 
was steady improvement in her mental 
state. \Vhen she was not given her 
drugs for a trial period, the symptoms 
recurred within eight days. She took 
her medications without hesitation. 
Her hlood pressure decreased as 
a result of the tranquillizers. It was 
maintained at 130/80. She ate well and 
never complained of physical pain. She 
always said that she felt well. 


Progress 
The bizarre ideas gradua11y disap- 
peared, although marked emotional in- 
difference remained. Alternately she 
appeared agitated and stupid. The self- 
criticism became more real. In general 
her deportment was better. 


Prognosis 

lost patients with this condition 
have a 
ecurrence of symptoms. On 
the other hand, if l\Iiss Roy takes her 
medications faithfully she may have 
continued remission as she had for 
ten years. She is capable of gainful 
employment again. She accepts the si- 
tuation and is not disturbed about the 
fu ture. 
It is important for this patient to 
fo11ow the directions of her doctor 
careful1y and to visit him regularly. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Thl
 (;"I'atrst. of Th,'Sl' 


I have heen climbing the professional to- 
tem pole, one academic degree after another. 
But is this nursing? 
\Vhile I am in committee meetings di
cus- 
sing whose duty it is to chart temperature
, 
my patients are doing without good old- 
fashioned nursing care. 
The child with a skull fracture doesn't 
care one whit whether I took a baccalaureate 
degree in philosophy, or even a master's. 
Her immediate need is to be comforted, to 
feel a sympathetic presence. She needs medi- 
cation, too; and I am able to administer it 
in the prescribed fashion hecause I am a 
nurse. 

 ursing was once a pyramid with a hroad, 
firm foundation of general staff nurscs who 
practised their profession faithfully hecause 
they were dedicated to service. Only a few 
at the top handled management detail. 
Gradually we ha\"e im"crted the nursing 
pyramid. The now broad top is peopled hy a 
growing multitude of administrators, coor- 
dinators, managers, expediters, directors, and 
consultants - all of them far, far removed 
from the patient. .At the bottom is an evcr- 
slimming base of staff nurses. I sn't it about 
time we took a look at what is happening? 
Graduating students are seldom encour- 
aged any more to enter staff nursing with 
the idea of making it a specialty. Instead, 
staff nursing is looked on as a stepping 
stone to the "higher" positions. 
\Yhy not give the dedicated staff nurse 
opportunities for advancement in status and 
salary in her chosen field - rather than 
make her feel like a backslider because she 
does not aspire to be a supervisor? 

Iore and more weight is now put on aca- 
demic learning. Less and less is put on 
practical application of that learning. \Vith 
the 40-hour week, the student's bedside prac- 
tice was reduced; but at the same time her 
classroom hours were increased. 
I would like to see young graduates re- 
quired to give at least one or t\\'o years to 
staff nursing before being permitted to ap- 
ply for administrative jobs or even to enter 
advanced courses in nursing education. (A 
senior student at a large hospital in the 
)'fidwestern United States recently received 
her appointment as an assistant director of 
a nursing service three weeks before she had 
received her diploma 
) 
I would further like to see e\'ery member 
(See þage 26ï) 


for the 
relief of 
NIPPLE 
TRAUMA 


for the 
treatment of 
DIAPER 
RASH 


,... 
v 


Masse 


. 


CREAM 


PROMOTES HEALING 
NON-IRRITATING 
BACTERIOSTATIC 
NON-TOXIC 
READILY ABSORBED 
NON-STAINING 



 


*Trade Mark 


OItTHO PHARMACEUTICAL (CANADA) LTD. 
TORONTO,ONT. 



Nursing Profiles 


Kathleen Elizabeth Arpin has been ap- 
pointed assistant director nursing education 
of the School of Nursing, Toronto General 
Hospital. She replaces Helen (
1cLaren) 
Rafuse who resigned from the position short- 
ly prior to her marriage. 


,;" ;.. 
'.. .,. / 


:' 


< ' 


KATHLEEN ARPIl'i 


Miss Arpin is a graduate of St. Joseph's 
Hospital, London and holds her Bachelor of 
Science degree in nursing education from the 
University of \Vestern Ontario. Following 
graduation she spent a number of years on 
the staff of the Cniversity Hospital, Ann 
Arbor, Michigan. During 1954-58 she was 
assistant director of the school of nursing, 
Metropolitan General Hospital, \Yindsor. 
Immediately preceding her present appoint- 
ment she was employed as a nursing educa- 
tion supervisor at T.G.H. 
\Vhile she was working 111 \Vindsor, Miss 
Arpin took an extremely active interest in 
the local chapter and district activities as a 
committee member and member of the dis- 
trict executive. She enjoys her record col- 
lection and she also has a yen for travel. 


Patricia l\lary Neville is now nurse con- 
sultant to the Alberta Civil Defence Staff. 
Born and educated in Ottawa, she was em- 
ployed by the City of Ottawa Recreational 
Department and later by the British Govern- 
ment Technical :Mission, United Kingdom 
and Canada, during the first years of 


252 


\\" orld War II. Following this, she entered 
training at St. Joseph's General Hospital, 
Peterborough. Since her graduation, she 
has done operating room work at the Royal 
Ottawa Sanitorium, public health nursing in 
the rural areas of Ontario and emergency 
nursing in the Vanderbilt Clinic, Presby- 
terian Hospital, New York City. :Most re- 
cently she has been On the staff of the Miser- 
icordia Hospital, Edmonton as charge nurse 
in the emergency department. Miss Neville 
will assist in the further development of 
civil defence services in Alberta. 


Brian "'atkin has joined the staff of 

Vltrsillg Timcs, London, England, as an as- 
sistant editor. A graduate of Ipswich Bo- 
rough General Hospital, he is a nurse turned 
journalist. Formerly connected with a firm 
of medical publishers as a sub-editor, he has 
also had experience as the assistant editor 
of a political weekly and as a freelance 
writer on nursing and health service topics. 
He has been a contributor to Nursing Timcs 
since his student days and has been a first 
prizewinner in essay competitions on two 
di ff erent occasions. 


\:.
 


,
 


SrSTER STE SOL\
(;E FUl'Ql-ET 


Sister Ste Solange Fouquet, a member 
of the order of the Sisters of St. Francis of 
\ssisi
 has been made a Fellow in the Am- 
erican College of Hospital Administrators, 
The honor was conferred upon her at an 
impressive ceremony held in the Metropolitan 
Opera House, New York. 
Sister is a graduate of Hôpital St. Fran- 
çois d'Assise, Quebec City and of Laval 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



3 


NEW MOSBY EDITIONS! 


to Keep Your Curriculum .Among the Alost Alodern 


Ready Soon! 
New 3rd Edition 


By LUELLA J. MORISON, 
R.N., M.A., Nursing Educa- 
tion Consultant, Ohio De- 
portment of Mental Hygiene 
and Correction; formerly 
Director of Nursing Educa- 
tion and Student Guidance, 
Mt. Carmel Hospital School 
of Nursing, Columbus, Ohio. 
Ready in March, 1960. 3rd 
edition, approx. 384 pages, 
81/.... x 10 1 /2.... About $4.75. 


Just Published! 
New 7th Edition 


By ALICE LORRAINE SMITH, 
A.B., M.D., Pathologist, 
J. K. and Susie L. Wadley 
Research Institute and Blood 
Bonk, Dallas, Tex. Just 
published. 7th edition. 725 
pages, 631.." x 91/2", 316 
illustrations. Price $7.50. 


New 2nd Edition 


By AUSTIN FAGOTHEY, S.J., 
Professor of Philosophy, 
University of Santa Claro, 
Santa Claro, California. 
New. 1959. 2nd edition. 
627 pages, 5 1 12" x 8%", 
Price, $6.00. 


Morison STEPPINGSTONES TO 
PROFESSIONAL NURSING 


Have you been seeking a book which can improve your students' ability 
to meet their personal and professional responsibilities? The new 3rd 
edition of Mrs. LueIla Morison's combined text and workbook can be 
even more valuable to the student nurse - and to those who guide her 
educational opportunities - than the first two editions in the following 
respects: Greater emphasis has been placed on the development of her 
understanding and acceptance of self as a person and in acquiring knowl- 
edge, skilIs and appreciations of nurse-patient relationships. Current 
information, data, and trends have been added for the student approach- 
ing graduation. New tools have been made available to the student for 
the utilization of self in patient care and integration of mental hygiene 
principles. All reference lists have been revised and a new index serves 
as a quick reference for content. 


Smith CARTER1S MICROBIOLOGY 
AND PATHOLOGY 


Designed for use in courses in "General Pathology" or "Introduction to 
Medical Science" in schools of nursing offering a diploma program, this 
thoroughly revised and modernized book places emphasis On the mecha- 
nisms of disease and organisms. The author, an outstanding physician 
and pathologist, provides an up-to-date discussion of recent advances in 
the field including new antibiotics and newly available methods for 
inhibiting- or destroying microbes. A new chapter deals with injury 
produced by nonliving agents and inc1udes a discussion of nuc1ear medi- 
cine and radiation pathology. 


Fagothey RIGHT AND REASON 


\Vritten especially for a full-year, Catholic orientated college course in 
ethics, RIGHT AND REASON gives students a clear, practical under- 
standing of the current ethical problems of everyday life. This book 
pro\'ides a modern presentation of the Aristotelian-Thomistic interpreta- 
tion of ethics from the "problem" method rather than the "thesis" 
method. Each chapter covers historical background on a problem, alter- 
native philosophies and arguments and a concise summary of the inves- 
tigation. You will find this new 2nd edition extensively revised - the 
topics of happiness and the end of man have been rewritten to clarify the 
philosophical approach and distinguish it from the theoretical; reflec- 
tions on logical positivism, relativism and existentialism have been 
introduced; and the terminology simplified. 


Gladly Sent to Teachers for Consideration as Texts 


Write 


THE C. V. MOSBY COMPANY 
3207 Washington Blvd., 
St. Louis 3, Missouri, U.S.A. 


Represented in Canada by 
McAINSH and Co. Ltd., 1251 Y onge Street, Toronto l Ontario 


MARCH, 1960 · Vol. 56, No.3 


253 



University. She later became the adminis- 
trator of her home hospital for a period of 
12 years. She is now the superior and direc- 


tor of nursing at Hôpital Ste Jeanne d' Arc, 
Montreal. Our congratulations and good 
wishes are extended to her. 


3Jn Æemoríam 


Ella 
Iarie Ronnow Andersen who 
graduated from Den danske Diakonissestif- 
telse, Copenhagen, Denmark in 1948 died 
during 1959. 


* * * 

Iadeline Orr Armour, a graduate of 
the Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, Scotland in 
1925 died during 1959. She had engaged 
in occupational health nursing and for some 
years she was un the staff of the Forest 
Ranger School, Dorset, Ontario. 
* * * 
Lottie (Yaneosiski) Bush who graduated 
from St. Paul's Hospital, Yancouver in 
1913 died during 1959. 
* * * 
Gladys B. Carter, a graduate of King's 
College Hospital, Surrey, England died on 
December 7, 1959. Prior to obtaining her 
nursing preparation, 
Iiss Carter had been 
a lecturer in economics and practising mid- 
wife. Following the war she came to the 
University of Toronto School of 
 ursing 
as a lecturer. Later as the first holder of 
the Boots' Research Fellowship, University 
of Edinburgh, she helped develop plans for 
the new Nursing Studies Unit. She was also 
a nurse consultant to the Second Expert 
Committee on Nursing, \Vorld Health Or- 
ganization. 


* * * 
Josie (Gibson) Conway, a graduate of 
St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto in 1917, 
died on September 11, 1959. Following her 
graduation, she worked with the Department 
of Health, Toronto for a time. 
* * * 
Gladys (Pepino) Dawson, who grad- 
uated from Oshawa General Hospital in 
1917 died in the spring of 1959. During her 
professional career she had engaged in 
private nursing. 


* * * 
ZelIa Viola Douglas, a graduate of To- 
ronto General Hospital in 1925 died on 
December 5, 1959. She had engaged in pri- 
vate nursing during her professional life. 
* * * 
Eugenie Le Noblet Duplessis, a retired 
Quebec nurse, died on December 10, 1959. 


254 


She ,vas 86 years of age. At the start of 
World \Var I she joined the Canadian 
Army 
ledical Corps as a member of the 
\Vinnipeg Ambulance Unit. Later she en- 
listed in the active force and went to France 
where she served as an assistant matron. 
In recognition of her services, she was 
awarded the General Service Medal and the 
Victory Medal. Following her return to 
Canada, she joined the Department of In- 
dian Affairs and was posted to a reservation 
at Nanaimo, B.C. She remained there until 
her retirement in 1942. 
* * * 
Frances White (Phelps) Foote who 
graduated from the Toronto Western Hos- 
pital in 1939, died on October 29,1959. 
* * * 


:\Iae Leafa (Linn) Gould, a graduate 
of the Nicholl School of Nursing, Peter- 
borough Civic Hospital in 1938, died on 
lay 
17, 1959. She had engaged in private nurs- 
mg. 


* * * 
::\Iarion Janet Hf"rriman who graduated 
from Kingston General Hospital in 1945, 
died November 24, 1959. She was employed 
in institutional nursing. 
* * * 
Lillian I. Lawrenc.e, a graduate of St. 
Luke's Hospi tal, New York died on De- 
cember 28, 1959. 
Iany years ago she was 
on the staff of the Toronto Department of 
Health. 


* * * 
Luella ::\IcKnight, a graduate of Oshawa 
General Hospital in 1924, died on Septem- 
ber 27, 1959 after a long illness. She had 
devoted her professional life to private 
nursmg. 


* * * 


Rita (Marwood) Pauline who graduated 
from St. Joseph's Hospital. Victoria in 1919, 
died recently in Vancouver. 
* * * 


Margaret (McKenzie) Pitts who grad- 
uated from St. Joseph's Hospital, Victoria 
in 1920, died recently. 
* * * 
L. Clara Preston, a graduate of Royal 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



I.,.. 


',,- 


A 
\V 


,
, ^ 
, . 



. 
 .......... <
 
,. ' 
. .... 


\... 
7 


MARCH, 1960 . Vol. 56. No.3 


'
 


when patients complain of 
itching, scaling, burning 
scalps - they can be sure 
of quick, lasting control 
when they use 


SELSUN@ 


for 
seb 0 rrheic 
dernLatitis 


controls 81-87% of all 
seborrheic dermatitis, 92- 
95% of all dandruff cases. 
Once scaling is controlled, 
SELSUN keeps the scalp 
healthy for one to four 
weeks with simple, pleasant 
treatments. Available in 
4-fluidounce bottles 


, ABBDTT 


ABBOTT LABORATORIES LnlITED 
l\10l\TREAL 



 
.
 

,
 


@SELSUN Sulfide Suspension / Selenium Sulfide, Abbott 


255 



Victoria Hospital, .ðlontreal in 1922 died 
suddenly on December 4, 1959. She was a 
Cnited Church missionary nurse in China 
for almost 21 years and, prior to her retire- 
ment, was matron of the United Church 
Hospital, Burns Lake, RC. 
* * * 


Mary Margaret (Curtis) Ruddy, a gra- 
duate of Oshawa General Hospital in 1941 
died on September 20, 1959. Following grad- 


uation she was head nurse in the admitting 
and emergency department of her hospital 
for several years. Later she became assis- 
tant superintendent and eventually associate 
director of nursing service. 
* * * 
:sister :\lary Romanus (Pearl Hushin) 
who graduated from St. Joseph's Hospital, 
Toronto in 1933 died during July, 1959. She 
was engaged in institutional nursing. 


'800' í< etlteø
 


Psychology as Applied to Nursing by 
Andrew .ð1cGhie, M.A. 247 pages. The 
Macmillan Company of Canada Limited, 
70 Bond Street, Toronto. 1959. Price 
$3.00. 
Re
'ic
(lcd by Mrs. C. Yallllikosta, C finical 
lIzstructor, U nivcrsit)I Hospital, Saska- 
to01
. 
The author states in the preface that his 
aim is to introduce psychology to the student 
nurse in a manner that will make its study 
as painless as possible. The need for and 
importance of this subject in preparing the 
nurse to give more effective care to her 
patients and to gain a better understanding 
of her own personality is well recognized 
by modern nurse educators. 
This book is presented primarily as a 
basic introduction to psychology for the 
student nurse. Certain specific areas must 
be supplemented by reference reading in or- 
der to reach the desired comprehension of 
the subject under discussion. The author has 
succeeded in presenting his material in a 
very effective and stimulating manner. He 
"talks" to the nurse, using many examples 
and anecdotes to illustrate and to emphasize 
his material. Simple, non-technical termin- 
ology is used whenever possible and defin- 
itions are moderately numerous. 
The content seems to be structured in 
the most logical, practical way possible. 
The author begins with a study of human 
behavior progressing from the infant to old 
age. This is followed by a discussion of 
the forces that motivate individual be- 
havior, the interaction of environment and 
a study of the individual as a social being. 
At the end of each chapter there is a 
short summary entitled "Concluding Re- 
marks." This should be of great value in 


256 


helping the student to assimilate the high- 
lights of each section. Suggested questions 
at the end of the chapters provide excellent 
teaching material as out-of-class assign- 
ments or for discussion groups. 
This appears to be a satisfactory text 
for student nurses and a helpful guide to 
the instructor who teaches an introductory 
course in psychology. 


Medical and Surgical Nursing Part II 
by Amy Frances Brown, R.N., REd., 
M.S. in N., Ph.D. 850 pages. W. R 
Saunders Company, \Vest Vl ashington 
Square, Philadelphia. 1959. Price $8.00. 
Re
>Ìe'Wed by Miss P. llIcBride, Winnipeg 
General Hospital, Willnipl'g, Jfan. 
The author's objective was to provide 
the nursing student with a compact text 
dealing with advanced medical and surgical 
nursing or the so-called "specialties." These 
have all been adequately discussed. 
Approximately one-third of the content 
deals with infectious diseases. There is 
much detail in this area that will not be 
of too much value to the student nurse in 
Canada. The remainder of the material, how- 
ever, is excellent. The discussion of medi- 
cal and surgical emergencies is particularly 
useful and timely. It will provide both the 
student nurse and the instructor with con- 
crete information. 
Charts and graphs have been used to good 
advantage. The statistics presented in this 
manner come alive to the reader and are 
more meaningful to her. Photographs and il- 
lustrations have also been included effective- 
ly to emphasize specific points and descrip- 
tions. The area on dermatology is particular- 
ly well illustrated. Case histories help to 
make the content more vivid. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



"",, 


.
 


c 


, , . 


", 



 


Wear Tampax and you can bathe, shower, swim, 
of worry as at any other time of the I 


Millions of vital, healthy young women use Tampax by 
the billions. Like you, they use it-choose it-because it helps them 
forget about differences in days of the month. Invented by 
a doctor for the benefit of all women-lnarried or single, active 
or not. Proved by orer 25 years of clinical study. 


Tampax internal sanitary protection is made only by 
Canadian Tampax Corporation Limited, Brampton, Ontario. 
Samples and literature will be sent upon request. 


TAMPJ 
SO MUCH A PART OF YOUR ACT!' 



. ..:::::::

t

;
 
..:.:-:. 


:::-.:: 


:::
 


;:::: 


r::::;::;;;:; 


-:.:.
: :::::: 
-. 



;:!: .:;..: 


:::::::::
: :::::: 



:. 


...... 
.<.:
}
$":' 
. 
..-:;." 
..::::::
::::
 
..:::::: - 


f 
a.":...r- "'fí.o: 
"1.>:' 


*:: 
Wj'. 



::a ? 


- it. 
 ...
- 


Enioy the comfort of 
WHITE UNIFORM OXFORDS 
by S'AI'
 


\ " 
" 



 


258 


"\, 
'\ 

"" 
0^ 

'" 

 


These white shoes are made over the famous 
Hurlbut Iast-a last especially designed to 
give comfort and support to feet that are 
walking and standing most of the time. 
Goodyear welts, chrome leather soles 
and a choice of military or flat 
heels. All sizes and widths. . . all 
vel)' smart in appearance. 


:' 


,.
 


About $9.95 - $10.95 


. 


. 


. 


. 


. .' 


for lasting hygienic protection 


, 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 




 


-......... 


" 
...
 , 
..' 


/ ....:-,
 
....
 
 <..' , 


Her mother might help, but 
SHE'D RATHER TALK TO 
YOU ABOUT PIMPLES 


Only twu people easily available to the 
adolescent can offer advice with assurance 
that it will be gratefully accepted. One is the 
mother and the other is the nurse in school, 
doctor's office, or elsewhere. Actually, the 
nurse, because of her professional stature 
and knowledge, can help where a parent 
often fails. 
There is now a clinically-proved medica- 
tion for pimples* which you can recommend 
with confidence...CLEARASIL Medication. 
Many nurses do in fact suggest CLEARASIL 
-as a recent survey of readers of RN, A 
lournal for Nurses, indicates. 
CLEARASIL combines sulphur and 
resorcinol in a new, scientific, oil-absorbing 
base. I t works with a gentle, penetrating, 
drying action. And it's antiseptic, to stop 


bacteria that can cause and spread pimples. 
Skin-coloured. too hide
 pimples while 
it works. 


Each package of CLEARASIL contains an 
authoritative, helpful leaflet on general skin 
hygiene and living habits. CLEARASIL is 
guaranteed to help clear skin fast or mone) 
back. 69( or $1.19 at all drug counters. 
For FREE, PROFESSIO!\AL SA:\fPLE 
of CLEARASIL and copy of clinical report. 
write CLEARASIL, Dept. N7, 429 St. Jean 
Baptiste St.,Montreal. (Expires May 1, 1960). 


.Original clinical reports in our files. 


CANADA'S LARGEST-SELLING PIMPLE MEDICATION... 
BECAUSE IT REALLY WORKS 


:'-IARCH. 1960 . Vol. 56. No. 3 25
 



Both student nurses and instructors should 
find this book very helpful, both as a text 
and for reference purposes. 


Orthopaedic Nursing by Mary Powell, 
S.R.N., M.C.S.P. 464 pages, The ::\Iac- 
millan Company of Canada Limited, íO 
Bond Street, Toronto. 3rd ed. 1959. Price 
$4.ïO. 
RC'l,icwcd bJI .lIiss Ruth Kelsall, lVilllli- 
pcg Gencral Hospital, TVi1l1zipeg, Mau. 
The author states that "this book is writ- 
ten primarily for nurses and physiotherapists 
working in orthopedic hospitals . . . It is 
hoped that it will prove useful to those en- 
gaged in orthopedics in the wards and de- 
partments of general hospitals, and to those 
working in sanatoria. . ." 
The content is introduced with a discus- 
sion of the basic principles involved in 
orthopedic treatment. This includes posi- 
tioning, traction, physiotherapy, plaster of 
Paris techniques, splints and appliances. 
The necessary nursing care involved in 
each of these areas is outlined. The introduc- 
tory section is followed by detailed descrip- 
tions of the various orthopedic conditions, 
The author gives particularly good attention 
to the specific nursing care required_ 
There is a large section devoted to the 
care of patients with tuberculosis of bones 
and joints. Even though this condition is 
now seen with less frequency in some coun- 
tries the author feels that the same basic 
principles for nursing these patients can 
be of benefit to the nurse as she works with 
those who have other orthopedic conditions. 
There are many good illustrations and 
diagrams. However, as this book was writ- 
ten in England, some of the equipment shown 
appears to be more specific to England than 
to Canada. There is no discussion of the 
Stryker frame and some of the develop- 
ments in orthopedics. The book is most 
valuable in giving the nurse a sound under- 
standing of the basic principles in orthopedic 
nursing, but it does not inform her of the 
more recent developments in this field in 
Canada. 


YOUR 
BLOOD 
the greatest 
gift of all 


260 


1',,, 


'i 
I 
I 


... .', 
.-\ 
I 
. "" , ..:
' 


.....;;.Ji- 


(
 


,.., 


'..
 '! 


1 


,t 


" 
/' 


- 


", -, -, r'" 


Spill-proof Spoon 
Johnny is using the new spill-proof baby 
training spoon with the swivel action. The 
new spoon is self-levelling no matter how 
the haby grips it. It is made by the Rhonda 
B. Corporation, 1029 Fisher Bldg., Detroit, 
:\Iich. Price $1.25. 
* * * 
In 1959 Canadian Jewry celebrated its 
200th year of settlement in Canada, and the 
entire Jewish community undertook to fit- 
tingly commemorate this most auspicious 
moment in its history. 
Canada's history is a history of the im- 
migration of the multitude of ethnic groups 
which arrived to embrace the opportunities 
it offered. The love of country borne by 
these immigrants and their descendants and 
the individual dignity bestowed upon them 
has evolved to give to the modern world a 
nation known as "Canada" and its inhabitants 
who proudly bear the distinctive title of 
"Canadian." 
In acknowledging the 200th year of Jew- 
ish settlement in Canada, much will be noted 
of the achievements made by individual mem- 
bers of the Jewish community and of the 
contribution the community, in general, made 
towards Canada's flowering as a nation in 
its own right. However, the theme over- 
shadowing all was the constant awareness 
that there existed a land that had made 
all of this possible. That in this land ideals 
and dreams were not only brought to 
fruition but became an integral part of its 
heritage. The Bicentenary Year was one of 
gratitude and thanks to their country on 
the part of its citizens of the Jewish faith. 
- JIAS News, October, 1959 
* * * 


One always begins to forgive a place as 
soon as its left behind.-CHARLES DICKENS 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



't... ,<c, "" 


f 


new KOTex* 


J 


...softest ever...prevents suture irritation 


:. y
 ' '"' 


NOW A COMPLETE PRE-PACKED LINE FOR MATERNITY CARE! 


r 


1E." fJ 


No. 663 
C:ompl&te maternity care 
in a $Ingle podcag& 12' 
KOTEX plU1i .. cotton baUs. 


+ 


I: 
\ 


.-. 


J 


KOTU 


No. 650 


o 
'"," No. 659 
Pre-wrapped Individual 
12" KOT&X. Us. bag for 
discarding pod, 


No, 4037 
One dozen 8 11 KOrEX in 
a bag. For routine san;* 
tory ca.... 


One doun 12" KOTEX in 
bag. FOf bedside table and 
for patient's 'home use. 


HERE'S WHY HOSPITALS ACROSS CANADA BUY AND USE 


KOTEX* 


Maternity Pads 


. leak*proof sides 


. less nursing time- 
greater economy 


. "WONDERSOFT"* covering 
. CELLUCOTTON. absorbency... 


. fewer pads per confinement 
-T. M. of Kimberly-Clark Corp. 


All add up to greater patient 8alü!acficm, and greater hospital eccmom1l 1 
Order KOTEX Maternity Pads. . . the complete and modern post-partum protection. 


PRODUCTS OF KIMBERLY-CLARK CORP. 
Diatributed bJJ 


6068AR 


THE KENDALL COMPANY (CANADA) LIMITED 


B AU E R & B LAC K D.";....o'" 


MARCH, 1960 . Vol. 56. No.3 


261 



after mastectomy 
f 
i 


'lilt 


. -
. 


..' " 

 


t 


..
 .< . 


A mastectomy patient wearing IDENTICAL FORM 


your patient's most 
important 
 
back-to-normal step 
IDENTICAL@ FORM 


The importance of treatiNg the whole 
patient is nowhere more graphically 
illustrated than in the successful re- 
habilitation of the mastectomy patient. 
With the post-operative fitting of 
IDENTICAL FORM - the life-like breast 
prosthesis - women look natural and 
feel better immediately. Made of soft 
skin-like plastic, IDENTICAL FORM con- 
tains a flowing gel that simulates the 
natural movement and weight of the 
normal breast. With IDENTICAL FORM 
your patient won't experience the dis- 
comfiture of static, dragging weight or 
"riding-up". Normal contour, comfort 
and confidence are maintained even 
when she wears an evening gown or 
bathing suit. 
You'll find our new booklet "Total Care 
of Your Jlastectomy Patient" invalu- 
able as a guide for all the physiological 
needs of your mastectomy patient. 
Available in 24 sizes. Expertly fitted by authorized 
dealers and adaptable to any brassiere. Patented 
U.S.A. & foreign countries. 
r---------------
 
I IDENTICAL FOR:\1, I!,;C. eEl 
I 17 West 60th St., New York 23, N. Y. I 
Please send professional literature and list 
I of authorized dealers. I 
I I 
I ...........,..................... RN I 
I Address..................... . . . . . . . . I 
I City......,.......... Prov. . . . , . . . . . , I 
L____________-I 


262 


t Poenl fOl' Pl'obatiunrl's 


The skeleton hangs in the classroom. 
His bones are plain to view 
Do you ever think he once had a heart, 
And warm-blooded flesh, like you? 
Do you ever think as he hangs there, 
So dumb to student fears, 
That he once studied anatomy, 
,\nd probably shed tears? 
So while he swings so merrily. 
Give thought to the former man 
Did he ever dream he would rattle? 
Study his bones if you can! 
One of those days your bones may swing, 
For some inquisitive clan 
 


JANE JOHNSON 


* * * 


Look beneath the surface: let not the 
several quality of a thing nor its worth es- 
cape thee. - L.-\ERTIUS 
* * * 
Let there be spaces in your togetherness. 
- KAHLIL GIBRAN 
* * * 


Have yuu had a kindncss shown? Pass it 
on - HFNRY BURTON 


TEST POOL EXAMINATIONS 


FOR 


REGISTRATION OF NURSES 


IN 


NOVA SCOTIA 


To take place on May 18, 19 and 20, 
1960 at Halifax, Yarmouth, Amherst, 
Sydney and Antigonish, Requests 
for application forms should be made 
at once and forms must be returned 
to the Registrar not later than April 
15, 1960 together with 
1. Diploma of School of Nursing. 
2. Fee of Fifteen Dollars ($15,00) 
Applications received after this date 
wiIl not be accepted. No under- 
graduate may write unless he or she 
has passed successfuIly all final 
school of nursing examinations and 
is within six (6) weeks of completion 
of the course in nursing. 
NANCY H. WATSON, R.N., REGISTRAR, 
THE REGISTERED NURSES' ASSOCIATION 
OF NOVA SCOTIA, 
73 COLLEGE STREET, HALIFAX, N.S. 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



'..," 



o pins: or 
curlers needed! 


..... 


..... 


(slips on or off in a jiffy- 
won't muss your hair) 


" 


.JOHNSON'S 
QO

[P 


FOR NURSES 


l, 


", 



 


- 


 


. Professionally correct operating room cap. 
. Hygienic - not a hair out of place. 
. Can be autoclaved without harming elastic. 
. Sanforized against shrinkage. 



 


.... 
- 



 
, 




 


.::; 
"-=\.. 
\.. 


Made In Canada 


MARCH. 1960 . VoL 56. No.3 


263 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 


SCHOOL OF NURSING 


SESSION 1960-61 


I BASIC DEGREE COURSE IN NURSING (B.Se.NJ 
Length: 4 years 
This course provides study in nursing and in the sciences and humanities with practice 
in hospitals and health agencies. The course prepares for practice under the Nurses 
Registration Act of the Province of Ontario. Graduates are qualifled for both public 
health and hospital nursing, and following experience are qualifled for supervisory 
positions and for teaching in schools of nursing. 


II DEGREE COURSE FOR GRADUATE NURSES (B.Se.N') 
Length: 3 years 
This course provides studies in the humanities, sciences, and nursing. Applicants 
select a fleld of professional specialization such as Hospital Nursing Service, Nursing 
Education or Public Health Nursing, 


III CERTIFICATE COURSES FOR GRADUATE NURSES 
Length: 1 year 
- Hospital Nursing Service 
-Nursing Education 
Public Health Nursing 
Public Health Nursing - Advanced Course. 
-Students who wish to take preparation in Psychiatric Nursing may register in Hospital 
Nursing Service or Nursing Education and include special work in Psychiatric Nursing. 


For Calendar and Information concerning Bursaries and Scholarships apply to: 
The Secretary, UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO SCHOOL OF NURSING, 
Toronto 5, Ontario. 


WE ARE SPECIALISTS IN THE SALE OF 


NURSING 
AND 


HOMES 


PRIVATE 


HOSPITALS 


ALL OVER ONTARIO 
LARGE AND SMALL 
FULLY FURNISHED AND IN OPERATION 
FROM $7,000 DOWN 
TERMS ARRANGED 


YOUR ENQUIRIES INVITED 
WALTER ENSKAT REALTY LTD. 
Business Brokers 
42 Sterling Street, Hamilton, Ontario 
Phone JA 2-0178, anytime 


264 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



J. T. POSEY COMPANY 


The Posey uV" RESTRAINT 


A good all-purpose restraint to prevent 
patients from falling or getting out of 
bed. Particularly good for use on females 
as it does not irritate busts, Available in 
Small, Medium and large sizes. 
Posey "V" Restraint Cat. No. V-958 
Price $6.90 ea. 
SEND YOUR ORDER TODAY 


2727 E. FOOTHILL BLVD., 
PASADENA, CALIFORNIA 


Nigbtingale Scbool of NUI'sing 


Arthur J. Swanson, F.A.C.H.A., has 
been appointed chairman of the Board of 
Trustees of the new Nightingale School 
of Nursing. The school, which is being de- 
veloped under the auspices of the Ontario 
Hospital Services Commission, will be lo- 
cated in central Toronto. It will be opened 
in September, 1960. 
The purpose of establishing the school 
is to improve the quality of nurse education 
while helping to alleviate the shortage of 
nurses by giving a two-year course. It will 


",. 


.... 



 


ARTHUR J. SWANSON 


MARCH, 1960 · Vol. 56. No.3 


be modeled on the program of Toronto 
Western Hospital School of Nursing, but 
will omit the one year of internship. 
The advisory committee is made up of the 
following members: Sidney Liswood, ad- 
ministrator, and Ella Howard, director of 
nursiI'lg, New :Mount Sinai Hospital; Nettie 
D, Fidler, director of the Cniversity of 
Toronto School of Nursing; Dorothy Rid- 
dell, senior inspector, nursing branch, On- 
tario Department of Health; Gladys J. 
Sharpe, senior consultant in nursing, On- 
tario Hospital Services Commission, and 
),1. Blanche Duncanson, director of the new 
school. 


To tbe motol'ist 


1. \Vinterize your driving habits as well 
as your car. Snow tires and low speed, for 
instance, always help during winter months. 
So does gentle brake-pumping. 
2. Leave your car behind if you plan to 
indulge in anything stronger than coffee. 
3. Stop driving the minute you feel over- 
tired. The overtired driver is likely to 
kill or be killed. 
-t. 1Iake sure your window wipers and 
defroster always operate efficiently. 
5. To stay alert and alive, drink one or 
two cups of hot, strong coffee before driv- 
ing home at night. 
These methods have been proven. They 
are worth trying - they can even save your 
life. 


265 



PEIISU4
SIOX 
By HERBERT J. ABELSOiV 
Chief Psychologist 
Opinion Reseal'ch CorpOl'ation, 
Princeton, N.J. 
A report on an area of great interest 
today: how opinions and attitudes 
are changed. The evidence produced 
here has been collected by methods 
acceptable to the social sciences. 
These methods help to keep personal 
feelings from influencing results; 
help the researcher to control vari- 
abies; make it possible for someone 
else to repeat a study. 128 pages, 
1959. $4.25. 


THE RYERSON PRESS 
299 QUEEN STREET WEST, TORONTO 2-8 


uIIdneé 


CANADA'S BEST 
FILTER CIGARETTE 


r-
 

'
_I; lJ 
é bIa./1 
(
 
 
.0
 
, '''of 
é/r-,,60 

J.
ÞEÐ 
..
." 
 
'," ,4
 


top taste 
true mildness 
best all 'round filter 


266 


Intrl'national Trrnds 
in (,be Birth Rate 


In many countries throughout the world 
the birth rate has fallen almost continuous- 
ly from the relatively high levels reached in 
the immediate postwar years. 
Finland experienced a sharper decrease in 
birth rate than any other country in Eur- 
ope; the rate there fell One third - from 
28.0 per 1,000 population in 1947 to 18.5 in 
1958. Over the same period, Sweden, Den- 
mark, the Netherlands and Czechoslovakia 
recorded reductions of about one quarter. 
Very likely as a consequence of improved 
economic conditions, the birth rate in Eng- 
land and Wales has turned upward in recent 
years. After faIling from 20.5 per 1,000 in 
1947 to 15.0 in 1955 the rate rose to 16.4 
in 1958. Last year's rate was higher than 
the 15.1 per 1,000 recorded in 1938, the last 
prewar year. Scotland shows a trend similar 
to that for England and \"'1 ales. The birth 
rate in recent years has also tended upward 
in West Germany, rising from a postwar low 
of 15.8 per 1,000 in 1953 to 17.0 in 1958. 
At the same time, the rate in East Germany 
decreased from 16.4 to 15.6 per 1,000. 
Japan is probably the only country in 
the world to have reduced its birth rate by 
about one half between 1947 and 1958; in 
fact, the annals of vital statistics record few 
instances in which so marked a decrease oc- 
curred in so short a period. The birth rate 
in Japan dropped without interruption from 
34.3 per 1,000 in 1947 to 17.2 in 1957, ris- 
ing only fractionally to 18.0 in 1958. 
Contrary to the experience for many other 
countries, Canada, the United States, Austra- 
lia, and New Zealand have experienced a 
protracted baby boom. In these countries the 
birth rate in the past decade has been ap- 
proximately one third greater than that re- 
corded just prior to \Vorld \Var II. In all 
four countries, the annual number of births 
in recent years have broken all previous 
records. There are no indications that the 
baby boom in the four countries will end 
shortly, 
In many large and populous areas of the 
world birth statistics are either lacking or 
so deficient that they are of very limited 
value. India, for example, reported a birth 
rate below 25 per 1,000 in 1957, but this is 
an understatement of the actual situation, 
resulting from the marked underregistration 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



of births. No reliable figures at all are 
available for the mainland of China, which 
is believed to have a population exceeding 
650 million. 
It is unfortunately not possible to trace 
the postwar trend of the birth rate in the 
Soviet Union because of the lack of ade- 
quate data. Birth rate figures released by 
that country for the period 1950-57 show a 
slight downward trend; in 1950-51 the rate 
was 26 í per 1,000 and in 1956-57 it was 25.2, 
- Statistical BlIlIetin, 
Ictropolitan 
Life Insurance Company 


'" 


'" 


'" 


(C oll/Hlued from page 231) 
of every administrative nursing staff (both 
in nursing service and in nursing education) 
required to spend at least one day a year in 
actual patient care, either as a member of 
a nursing unit team, or as a private nurse. 
What new life this would bring to nursing! 
We would begin to see less emphasis on cur- 
riculum and more on character building, less 
concern over the nursing-hours-per-patient 
formula and more concern over the human 
equation. 
There abideth these three: nursing ad- 
ministration, nursing service, and nursing 
education. But the greatest of these is 
NURSING. 
MARGARET HELEN ANDERSON, R.N. 
Reprinted from International Nursing 
Review. 


'" 


'" 


'" 


In the Massachusetts General Hospital, 
Boston. a new system of rehabilitation has 
been started using the nonprofessional ser- 
vices of the hospital - the kitchen, bar- 
ber's shop, carpentry shop, accountancy 
department, and so on_ The occupational 
therapist is in close consultation with the 
foremen of the various departments who 
supen'ise and assess the work of the pa- 
tients who are being rehabilitatcd in their 
department. The object of the scheme is 
to enable the patient gradually to regain his 
interest in work and to tolerate a full cight- 
hour working day. 
The time spent in this rehabilitation pro- 
gram has averaged a few months per patient, 
and so far about i5 per cent of the patients 
have been successfully rehabilitated in this 
way. - J,..J...\L 1.. September, 1959 
* * * 


The whole difference between construction 
and creation is exactly this: that a thing 
constructed can only be loved after it is 
constructed: but a thing created is loved 
before it e:-..ists. - G, K. CHESTERTON 


MARCH. 1960 . Vol. 56. No.3 


Treatment 
!!J

!h!)ity* 


Mucosity often causes: 
CATARRH, "BAD BREATH" 
"DENTURE ODOR" 
POST-NASAL DRIP 
VULVAR IRRITATION 
and may be controlled with 


GLYCO. 


THYMOLINE@ 
An alkaline cleansing solution 
for soothing mucous membranes 


\\'h
n 
xc
ssiv
, sticky, mucus s
cretion5 
harass th
 Oral or C
nital passages, a rins
, 
spray or douche with soothing Clyco-Thymo- 
lin
 hdps amazingly. Clyco-Thymolin
 con- 
tains th
 following activ
 ingr
di
nts: 


Alcohol 4% 
Sodium B
nzoat
 Eucalyptol 
Sodium-BioCarbonate Menthol 
Borax Thymol 
Sodium Salicylat
 Oil Swed Birch 
Glycerin
 Oil Pini Pumilionis 
It works differ
ntly: 
I. It remov
s g
rm-Iadd
n mucus s
cr
tions. 
2. It helps "ton
'up" mucous m
mbranes to 
r
sist infection, 
3_ It aids healing amazingly_ 
4. It n
utraliz
s acidity with an alkalinity 
quoti
nt of pH 7.2 plus. 
S It refreshes as it cl
anses. 
6. It rel
ves soreness. 


That's why l
ading physicians, including 
eminent Rhinologists and Cynecologists, rec. 
ommend Glyco,Thvmolin
 so highly, for 
"mucosity" (abnormal, excessive mucus se. 
cretions). Clyco- Thymolin
 can b
 fr
ely 
recommended with complete confidenc
. 
Pleasant, deodorizing. refreshing, Clyco- 
Thymoline is available at your local drug 
stores without a prescription. Sugg
st th
 
larg
 economy size. 


1- K
E SS ;- O;E; c
 CA ;;;"D-; L:;;;. - 
Bì 
I 286 St. Paul Street W., Montreal I 
I Gentlemen: Please send me (free) sample I 
I of Glyco- Thymoline I 
I Address. I 
I City.. . ..._. .' .,...... I 
L____________
 


267 



EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES 
I------
 DVERTISING 
 ATES --------l 
I Canada & Bermuda - $7.50 for 3 lines or less; $1.50 for I 
I each additional line. I 
I U.S.A. & Foreign - $10.00 for 3 lines or less; $3.00 for each I 
additional line. 
I Rates for display advertisements on request. I 
All advertisements published in both English and French 
I issues. Closing date for insertion or cancellation orders, I 
I SIX WEEKS prior to date of publication. I 
English issue published the first of each month. 
I Address correspondence to: I 
I THE CANADIAN NURSE JOURNAL I 
I 1522 SHERBROOKE STREET "rEST I 
MONTREAL 25, QUEBEC 
L_______________________
 
ALBERTA 
Instructors Classroom 6: Clinical for May, 1960 or later. Starting salary $320 without degree 
& $355 with degree. Good personnel policies. Apply to: Director of Nursing Education, St. 
Michael's School of Nursing, Lethbridge, Alberta. 
Registered Nurses for modern 44-bed hospital. Minimum salary $325 per mo. with $5.00 
increments per mo. after each 6-mo. service. Full maintenance for $30 per mo. Group 
medical & hospitalization plan. Apply: Holy Cross Hospital. Spirit River, Alberta. 
Registered General Duty Nurses for busy 45-bed hospital. with program to start building 
this year, a completely modern 70-bed hospital with 100-bed service facilities. Salary 
$275-$305, 40-hr.wk" 21 days vacation after I-year service plus 9 statutory holidays, 
Ph-days sick leave per mo. accumulative up to 90 days. $35 per mo. deduction for room, 
board & laundry. For further information, apply to: Matron, Municipal Hospital, Peace 
River, Alberta. 
General Duty Nurses - Salary $3,480 - $4,080 per annum, 40-hr. work wk., Civil Service 
holiday, sick leave & pension programs. Apply to: Baker Memorial Sanatorium, Calgary, 
Alberta, 
General Duty Nurses (2) for modern 34-bed hospital. Salary $235 per mo, plus full main- 
tenance, 3 annual increments at $10 per mo., I-mo. per year holiday pay, 2-wk. sick leave, 
40-hr. per wk. straight shifts, If employed for l-yr. a refund of train fare from any point in 
Canada will be given. For further particulars apply to: Municipal Hospital, Two Hills, 
Alberta, Phone 335. 
General Duty Graduate Nurses for active 76-bed hospital, near Calgary & Edmonton, 
$260 gross salary for Alberta registered, $250 gross salary for non registered in Alberta. 
Excellent personnel policies & working conditions. Apply to: Matron, Municipal Hospital. 
Brooks, Albert a. 
General Duty Graduate Nurses for 30-bed hospital. Basic salary $275 per mo. gross. 
Increments - 6 of $5.00 each at 6-mo. intervals of service. Full maintenance at $35 
per mo. plus free laundry of uniforms. 40-hr. wk. - rotating shifts of 8-hr. 3-wk. annual 
vacation after l-yr. service plus 10 statutory holidays per year. Separate nurses' 
residence. Apply: Superintende nt, M unicipal Hospital, Provost, Alberta, 
Graduate Nurses for General Du ty in new 30-bed hospital 90-mi. from Calgary on 
Trans Canada Highway. 44-hr. wk., generous personnel policies. For particulars apply 
to: The Matron, Municipal Hospital. Bassano, Alberta. 
General Staff Nurses (immediately) for new modern hospital of 243-beds, 37-bassinettes. 
School of nursing has a present enrollment of 58 students, Temporary residence avail- 
able in new nurses' home. 40-hr. wk., with liberal personnel policies, Apply to: Director 
of Nursing, Municipal Hospital. Medicine Hat, Alberta. 
Public Health Nurse (Qualified) for rural Health Unit in Alberta. Salary range from 
$3,300 - $3,780 with annual increment of $120, transportation is provided on duty, 
provision made for sick leave & holidays, pension plan is available, Apply to: Dr. K. A. 
B arrett, Medical Officer of Health, Minburn-Vermilion Health Unit, Vermilion, Alberta . 
BRITISH COLUMBIA 
Director of Nursing for 39-bed hospital, 9 bassinets. Located on main line of c.P.R. - 
Pleasant climate - splendid accommodation - salary based on experience & qualifi- 
cations. Apply to: Administrator, Queen Victoria Hospital, Revelstoke, British Columbia. 
General Duty Nurses for modern 154-bed General Hospital. Basic salary $285, generous 
personnel J:olicies, nurses' residence. Apply to: Director of Nurses, Trail- Tadanac Hospital, 
Trail, Briti3h Columbia, 


268 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Matron (1, March 1960 or earlier) for 31-bed hospital in small community. Must be B.C. 
registered nurse & be able to direct nursing, housekeeping & kitchen. Salary $360 per 
mo., 3 room suite in hospital & full board $33 per mo, I-mo. vacation after I-yr., fare 
from Vancouver refunded after 6-mo. Send application to: Administrator, General Hos- 
pital, Ocean Falls, British Columbia. 
Registered Nurses (3) for 30-bed hospital. Starting salary $285 per mo. with $10 yearly 
increment. Past service recognized for salary purposes. Board & room $40, 1 1 12 day sick 
leave per mo. 40-hr. wk, 11 statutory holidays & 28 days vacation after I-yr. service. Com- 
fortable nurses' residence next door to hospital. Rotating shifts. Please apply to: The 
Matron, Community Hospital. Grand Forks, British Columbia. 
Registered Nurses (3) for 30-bed hospital in Central B,C. on the Jasper-Prince Rupert 
Highway, 70-mi. from Prince George. Salary $290 per mo., 10 legal days with pay per 
year; 1lh-days sick leave per mo., 28-days vacation after I-yr. Laundering of uniforms 
by hospital; modern nurses' residence $50 per mo, Kindly apply giving qualifications & 
references to: Sister Superior, St. John Hospital. Vanderhoof, British Columbia. 
General Duty Nurses for small active hospital. Salary $250 for unregistered, $260 
registered with yearly increments. Nurses' home available. For further particulars write, 
The Administrator, Lady Minto Hospital. Ashcroft, British Columbia. 
General Duty Nurses - O.R. Nurses with postgraduate or equivalent for 146-bed General 
Hospital. Personnel policies in accordance with B.G.R.N.A. Rooms available in nurses' 
residence, Nurses Aides - with vocational training. Salary $177-$201 per mo. We do not 
have a residence for our Nurses Aides, Apply to: Director of Nursing, General Hospital. 
Chilliwack, British Columbia. 
General Duty Nurses for 200-bed General Hospital with School of Nursing. Salary 
$275-$327. Pre-planned shift rotation, B.G. registration essential. 4-wk, vacation after 
I-yr. Apply: Director of Nursing, Royal Inland Hospital, Kamloops, British Columbia. 
General Duty Nurses for llO-bed hospital in B.C.'s Northwest. Salary $299 per mo., if 
experienced; $285 - $342 in 4-yr. Modern residence facilities available. Supervisory 
positions also available, $330 - $400 per mo, For complete information apply to: 
The Director of Nursing, General Hospital, Prince Rupert, British Columbia. 
General Duty Nurse for well-equipped SO-bed General Hospital. Initial salary $285, 
maintenance $47.50, 40-hr. 5-day wk., 4-wk. vacation with pay. Apply: Sacred Heart 
Hospital. Smithers, British Columbia. 
General Duty Nurses: starting salary $299 if 2 yr. experience, $285-$342 in 4 yr. Non 
registered $270 Maintenance $50, 10 statutory holidays, 4-wk, annual vacation. Ph day 
sick leave per mo. very active town, world famous Cariboo cattle country, annual 
stampede. Apply: Director of Nursing, War Memorial Hospital, Williams Lake, British 
Columbia, 
General Duty Õ. Operating Room Nurses for 434-bed hospital with training school; 40-hr. 
wk., statutory holidays. Salary $280-$336, Credit for past experience & postgraduate 
preparation; annual increments; cumulative sick leave; 28-days annual vacation, RG. 
registration required. Apply: Director of Nursing, Royal Columbian Hospital, New 
Westminster, British Columbia, 
Graduate Nurses for 70-bed acute General Hospital on Pacific Coast. Starting salary 
$275 with regular increases. Board & room $25 per mo., 5-day wk" 28 days vacation plus 
10 statutory holidays. Apply: Matron, St. George's Hospital. Alert Bay, British Columbia. 
Graduate Nurse for 31-bed hospital salary $275 per mo" B.C. Registered Nurses $285, 
with semi-annual increments of $5.00-$305; 40-hr. wk" 4-wk. vacation, Ph-days sick 
leave per mo., Lodging $11 per mo. Fare from Vancouver refunded after 6-mo, For 
personnel policies & information apply to: Administrator, General Hospital, Ocean 
Falls, British Columbia. 
"STOP! IS THIS WHAT YOU ARE LOOKING FOR?" Applications are invited for positions 
on the permanent or "vacation relief" staff of a 50-bed active hospital 35-mi. from Van- 
couver. R.N.A.B.G. Personnel Policies in effect. Apply to Director of Nursing, Langley 
Memorial Hospital. Murrayville, British Columbia. 
MANITOBA 
Science Instructor Õ. Clinical Instructor for 250-bed Pediatric Hospital. School of nursing 
with 75 students & affiliate program. Salary according to education & experience. Apply 
to: Director of Nursing, Children's Hospital of Winnipeg, Winnipeg 3, Manitoba. 
Registered Nurse to act as Matron in lO-bed rural hospital. Minimum salary $320 per mo. 
For full particulars apply to: Secretary-Treasurer, Box 235, Fisher Branch, Manitoba. 
Matron for small hospital near Riding Mountain National Park. Salary $325-$350 de- 
pending on experience. Full maintenance provided at $45 per mo, Duties to commence 
April 15th, 1960, Reply giving nursing references & experience to: Matron, Medical 
Nursing Unit, McCreary, Manitoba. 
Registered Õ. Licensed Practical Nurse for General Duty. Gross monthly salary $310 for 
R.N., - $220 LP., less $45 for full maintenance, Apply: John Hiscock, Secretary Treasurer, 
Medical Nursing Unit, Baldur, Manitobc:. 


MARCH. 1960 · Vol. 56, No.3 


269 



Registered Nurse (Immediately) for lO-bed hospital, with possibility of being Matron in 
the near future, if interested. Salary for R.N, $310 per mo. with increments of $5.00 
every 6-mo. for 4 years. Matron's salary $370 per mo. with same increments. For further 
particulars apply to: Mrs, Sheila McEwan, Secretary, Birch River Medical Nursing Unit. 
Birch River, Manitoba. 
Registered Nurses for IS-bed U.c. Mission Hospital. 90-mi. from Winnipeg, daily bus 
service. Salary $295-$335, Licensed Practical Nurses $200-$240. Residence accommoda- 
tion $45 full maintenance. Apply: Superintendent, E. M. C. Memorial Hospital. Eriksdale, 
Manitoba. 
Registered Nurses (2) for 20-bed hospital. Salary: $300 per mo. gross. 40-hr. wk. with 
4 annual increments of $10. 3-wk, vacation with pay after 1 full yr. employment, 
4-wk. after 2 full years. Sick leave, 1 day for each full mo. of employment plus 1 day for 
each full 6-mo. employment cumulative to 30 days. Apply: Matron or A.C. Laughlin, 
Secretary, Wilson Memorial Hospital. Melita, Manitoba. 
General Duty Nurses (3) for new 85-bed hospital. Good salary & generous personnel 
policies, Apply: Director of Nursing, Portage Hospital District # 18, Portage La Prairie, 
Manitoba. 
Licensed Practical Nurses (2) for 10-bed rural hospital. Highest salary paid & other 
valuable benefits. For full particulars contact: The Secretary-Treasurer, Box 235. Fisher 
Branch, Manitoba. 
NEW BRUNSWICK 
Clinical Instructor for 110-bed modern hospital. Personnel policies under reVISIon to be 
effective in 1960. Apply: Superintendent, Charlotte County Hospital. St. Stephen, New 
Brunswick. 


NEWFOUNDLAND 
Laboratory Technician (1, Fully qualified) for l20-bed General Hospital. Salary according 
to Newfoundland Government scale. 1 way transportation paid. Customary vacation 
with pay after l2-mo. service plus all statutory holidays. Apply to: H. C. Vincent. Business 
Manager, Notre Dame Bay Memorial Hospital. Twillingate, Newfoundland. 
NOVA SCOTIA 
General Duty Registered Nurses for well-equipped modern 32-bed hospitaL excellent 
personnel policies. Apply: Superintendent, Queens General Hospital, Liverpool, Nova 
Scotia. 
General Duty Nurses for modern 35-bed hospital situated on beautiful South Shore. Good 
personnel policies. Excellent living quarters. Apply Superintendent, Fishermen's Memor- 
ial Hospital. Lunenburg, Nova Scotia. 
General Staff Nurses for 400-bed Medical & Surgical Sanatorium, fully approved student 
affiliation & postgraduate program. Full maintenance. Recreational facilities. Vacation 
with pay. Sick benefits after l-yr. Blue Cross coverage, Attractive salary; 40-hr. wk. For 
further particulars apply Supt. of Nurses, N ova Scotia Sanatorium, Kentville, N,S. 
ONTARIO 
DIRECTOR OF NURSING for modern, approved 100-bed hospital at present considering 
expansion. Experience either as director or assistant preferred 6: postgraduate training 
in administration an advantage, No school of nursing. Salary open. Excellent personnel 
policies include 40-hr, wk. pension plan, sick leave accumulative to 30 days, 4-wk. 
vacation after I-year service, 8 statutory holidays. Apply giving full details of training 
& experience, salary expected, etc" to: Administrator, Civic Hospital, North Bay, Ontario. 
DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING, required by City of Ottawa, Health Department. 
Should possess University degree with major in Administration and Supervision in Public 
Health Nursing and have experience in all aspects of Public Health Nursing services. 
Duties include planning, coordinating of Public Health Nursing services and supervision 
of nursing staff. Existing salary range $5,310 to $6,270 with annual increments of $240. 
Good personnel poticies with full fringe benefits. For further information apply to 
Dr. R. A. Kennedy, Medical Officer of Health, City Hall, III Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario. 
Asistant to Director of Nursing Service to work afternoon & evening shifts rotating 
bi-weekly, 5-days per wk., in 100-bed active General Hospital. Excellent personnel 
policies & salary scale. Employer participation in pension plan. Personal interview will 
be arranged. Forward enquiries to: Director of Nursing, The Cottage Hospital, Pem- 
broke, Ontario. 
Public Health Nursing Supervisors (2). Salary range $4,436 - $5,046 per annum; Public 
Health Nurses (l0). Salary range $3,625 - $4,390 per annum, salary based on experience, 
(generalized program). Positions carry pensions, hospitalization, Blue Cross, medical 6: 
surgical care, accumulative sick leave & other privileges. Applications will be received 
by the newly organized Metropolitan Windsor Health Unit, 2090 Wyandotte Street E., 
Windsor, Ontario, 
Registered Nurse as Superintendent (Immediately) for 30-bed hospital, stating previous 
experience & salary expected. Furnished 3 room apartment provided. Apply to: Secre- 
tary, Englehart & District Hospital Board, Box 609, Englehart, Ontario. 


270 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



NURSING WITH INDIAN AND 
NORTHERN HEALTH SERVICES 


.. . HOS PI TA LS 
+ 
+ ... + NURSING STATIONS 
+ + 
.A OTHER HEALTH CENTRES 
+ 
... 
+ .. 
.. 


.. 
+ 

 
. 


.. . 
.
... 


.. + .....+:+ + 
+.. o.... . . .. + 
. .. +.... + + ... 
.:. .+. +. . I 


... 
++++' 
. 
"'+ 


... + 
:++ 
+ +.. 
+ 
. +.. 
.... 


OPPORTUNITIES 
REGISTERED HOSPITAL NURSES, PUBLIC HEALTH NURSES, 
AND CERTIFIED AUXILIARY NURSES 


for Hospital Positions and Public Health Positions in Outpost Nursing 
Stations, Health Centres and Field Positions in the Provinces, Eastern Arctic 
Northwest Territories and the Yukon Territory. 


SALARIES 
, 
c:- . 


(1) Public Health Nursing Supervisors: up to $5,460 depending upon 
qualifications and location. 


(2) Directors of Nursing in Hospitals: up to $5,400 depending upon 
qualifications and location. 


f 


:::: 


(3) Public Health Staff Nurses: up to $4,050 per year depending upon 
qualifications and location. 


(41 Hospital Staff Nurses: up to $3,750 per year depending upon 
qualifications and location. 


151 Certified Nursing Assistants or licensed Practical Nurses: up to 
$200 per month depending upon qualifications and location. 


· Room, Board and Laundry in residence at reasonable rates. 
Statutory holidays. Three weeks' annual leave with pay. Generous sick 
leave credits. Hospital-Medical and superannuation plans available. 
· Special pay and leave allowances for those posted to isolated areas. 
For interesting challenging, satisfying work apply to - Indian and 
Northern Health Services at one of the following addresses: 


(I) Regional Superintendent, 4824 Fraser Street, Vancouver, B.C. 
(2) Regional Superintendent, 11412-128th Street, Edmanton, Alberta. 
(3) Regional Superintendent, 735 Motherwell Building, Regina, Saskatchewan. 
(4) Regional Superintendent, 803-9 Confederation Life Building, 457 Main Street, Winnipeg, 
Man itoba. 
(5) Regional Superintendent, 4th Floor, Booth Building, 165 Sparks Street, Ottawa, Ontario. 
(6) Zone Supervisor of Nursing, Box 493, North Bay, Ontario. 
(7) Zone Superintendent of Indian Health Services, P.O. Box 430, Upper Town, 3 Buade Street, 
Ouebec 4, P.O. 
(or) Chief, Personnel Division, 
Department of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa, Ontario. 


MARCH. 1960 . Vol 56. NO.3 


271 



Instructor in Surgical Nursing, Clinical & Class Room teaching; Instructor in Pediatric 
Nursing, Clinical teaching on Ward of new Pediatric building. Applications are invited 
to fiII a vacancy <S: increase staff of the Teaching Department of the School of Nursing 
located in ultra-modern school building & associated with a hospital, opened in 1958, 
Vacancy to be fiIIed before next school year, For information apply to: Miss Jessie M. 
Wilson, Director of Nursing, The Greater Niagara General Hospital, Niagara Falls Ont. 
Registered Nurses for expanding General Hospital, Medical, Surgical, Operating Room & 
Obstetrical services, at Ajax on Highway 401, 20-mi. east of Toronto, hourly bus service to 
hospital. R.N.A.O. salary schedule, increments every 6-mo., sick & vacation time after 
6-mo., 37 1 h-hr. work wk., pension plan, living in accommodation, Apply to: Director of 
Nursing, Ajax & Pickering General Hospital, Ajax, Ontario. Nurses from Europe 6: United 
Kingdom apply to: Canadian Department of Labor, 61 Green Street, London, W.l, England 
Registered Nurses (Several) for immediate & future vacancies in modern 42-bed hospital. 
Starting salary: $265 per mo. plus shift allowance. 40-hr. wk. 4 wk. vacation after 1 yr. 
Apply: Superintendent of Nurses, New Liskeard & District Hospital, New Liskeard, Ontario. 
Registered Nurses for Canadian Army. Officer status. Salary starts $275 - 6-mo. $375 - 
3-yr, $409. Regular Staff duties & opportunities for specialization; 30 day leave per year 
with pay, free medical & dental care; full pay when hospitalized; excellent pension 
plan for career officers, retirement 45-49. Opportunities for travel. For particulars apply: 
Army Headquarters, (D Man M2) Ottawa, Ontario. 
Registered Nurses for 100-bed active General Hospital. Good salary, personnel policies 
include 5-day work wk., 14-days paid sick leave accumulative, 3-wk. vacation & 7 statutory 
holidays. Employer participation in pension plan, Apply to: Director of Nursing. The 
Cottage Hospital, Pembroke, Ontario. 
Registered Nurses for Nursing Unit & Operating Room in 86-bed General Hospital. Good 
salary & personnel policies. Apply: Administrator, Trenton Memorial Hospital, Trenton, 
Ontario. 
Registered Nurses 6: Certified Nursing Assistants for 160-bed hospital. Starting salary 
$265 & $185 respectively with regular annual increments fOT both. Excellent personnel 
policies including S-day wk. & residence accommodation available. Assistance with trans- 
portation can be arranged. Apply: Superintendent, Kirkland -& District Hospital Kirkland 
Lake, Ontario. 
Registered Nurses 6: Certified Nursing Assistants for 26-bed hospital. R.N. salary $290- 
$335. 28-day vacation after I-yr. GN.A. salary $210-$240, 2-wk. vacation after I-yr., 3-wk. 
after 2-yr_ Credit for past experience $5.00 increment every 6-mo, 44-hr. wk" 8 statutory 
holidays, Room & board residence $28.50 per mo. I-day sick leave per mo, Apply to: 
Mrs, G. Gordon, Superintendent, District Memorial Hospital, Box 37, Nipigon, Ontario. 
Registered Nurses for General Duty in modern 18-bed. Private Hospital in iron mining 
town. 180-mi. north of Sault Ste Marie, Ontario. Excellent accommodation & personnel 
policies, Starting salary $268 minimum to $303 maximum for experience, less $20 per 
mo. maintenance, Transportation allowance after 6-mo, service. Operating Room Nurse. 
starting salary $288 minimum with postgraduate course, $323 maximum with 3-yr. ex- 
perience or more. Apply: Superintendent, Miss O. Keswick, Lady Dunn Hospital, 
Wawa, Ontario. 
Registered Nurses for General Duty in all departments including premature & new- 
born nursery, Isolation, Emergency & Recovery Room, Good salary & personnel policies. 
Apply, Director of Nursing, Victoria Hospital, London, Ontario. 
Registered Nurses for General Staff 6: Operating Room in modern hospital (opened in 
1956), Situated in the Nickel Capital of the world, pop, 50,000. Salary: $270 per mo. with 
annual merit increments, plus annual bonus plan. 40-hr. wk. Recognition for experience. 
Good personnel policies. Assistance with transportation can be arranged. Apply Director 
of Nursing, Memorial Hospital, Sudbury. Ontario. 
Registered General Duty Nurses for modern hospital, building expansion under way 
increasing to 100-beds this year. Starting salary $250 per mo" $215 for Graduates, 40-hr. 
wk., group life, accident & sickness insurance 
ree to employees. Opportunities fo:- 
advancement, pleasant community. Apply: Director of Nursing, Leamington District 
Memorial Hospital. Leamington, Ontario. 
General Duty Nurses for an accredited 64-bed hospital. Starting salary: $250-$260, Good 
personnel policies with sick leave benefits, holidays & paid vacations, Apply Director of 
Nursing, Douglas Memorial Hospital. Fort Erie, Ontario, 
General Duty Nurses Excellent salary scales & personnel policies. Apply to: Director of 
Nurses, Parry Sound General Hospital. Parry Sound, Ontario. 
General Duty Nurses for 100-bed hospital, up-to-date facilities in a beautiful location 
on the shore of Lake Erie. Salary $267 per mo. with recognition for P.G. courses 40-hr 
wk. effective January 1, 1960. Residence available, Apply: Director of Nursing, General 
Hospital, Port Colborne. Ontario. 
General Duty Nurses Male 6: Female 6: Certified Nursing Assistants (Immediately) for 
86-bed hospital. 40-hr. wk,. 8 statutory holidays & other employee benefits. Collingwood 
is situated on Georgian Bay & is noted as a vacationland with 7-mi. sand beach along 
with great skiing on the Blue Mountains in winter. For further informatioN apply: 
Director of Nursing Services, General & Marine Hospital, Collingwood, Ontario. 


272 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



TORONTO GENERAL HOSPITAL 


requires 


NURSING STAFF 


Variety of Opportunities, Valuable Experience in this large teaching 
centre. Attractive Personnel Policies. Five Day Week. The Toronto General 
Hospital has opened its new building which contains centralized Operating 
Rooms; Recovery Rooms; Surgical Supply Service; Obstetrics and Gynecology; 
Neurology and Neurosurgery; Admitting and Emergency; Rehabilitation and 


Physical Medicine; Urology and Ophthalmology. 


For information write to: 


Director of Nursing, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto 2, Ontario. 


THE SARNIA GENERAL HOSPITAL 
OFFERS EXCELLENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR 
REGISTERED NURSES 
AND 
CERTIFIED NURSING ASSISTANTS 


The hospital is modern, fully approved (J.C.A.H.) with plans for an expansion 
program to be completed over the next five years. 
Sarnia is a rapidly growing city located midway on the seaway, 60 miles north 
of Detroit and Windsor and 60 miles west of london. It is a summer resort 
area noted for swimming and boating as well as being located a reasonable 
distance from the skiing resorts in Northern Michigan, 
Excellent benefits include a 40 hour week, regular rotation of shifts with 
premium pay for evenings and nights. 
Salary Schedule: 
for Registered Nurses - $255 per month to $313 per month. 
for Certified Nursing Assistants - $175 per month to $209 per month. 


Apply to: 
PERSONNEL DIRECTOR, SARNIA GENERAL HOSPITAL, SARNIA, ONTARIO. 


MARCH, 1960 · Vol. 56, No.3 


273 



McKellar General Hospital. Fort William. Ontario has openings in all departments for 
General Staff Nurses. Basic salary $270 per mo" 40-hr. wk. Good personnel policies for 
other benefits. Residence accommodation available. Apply to: The Director of Nursing. 
General Staff Nurses (4) for convalescent area of 10-beds. Must rotate on all shifts, 
8-hr. 5-day wk" good personnel policies, pension policy in effect., 3-wk. annual vacation, 
8 statutory holidays, Salary open at present. Apply: Director of Nursing, General Hospi- 
tal, Stratford, Ontario. 
Operating Room Nurses for general operating room work which includes cardiovascular, 
neurosurgery, genito-urinary, Ear, Eye, Nose & Throat & orthopedic surgery. Good sa- 
lary & personnel policies. Apply: Director of Nursing, Victoria Hospital, London, Ontario. 
QUEBEC 
Assistant Head Nurses: Afternoon Supervisor excellent personnel policies. Apply Direc- 
tor, Shriners' Hospital for Crippled Children, 1529 Cedar Avenue, Montreal. Quebec, 
Registered Nurses for modern 60-bed General Hospital. 40-mi. south of Montreal. Salary 
$260 per mo. in effect by February 1960, 5 semi-annual increases; monthly bonus for 
permanent evening & night shifts, 44-hr. wk" 4-wk. vacation. Board & accommodation 
available in new motel-style nurses' residence. Apply: Superintendent, Barrie Memor- 
ial Hospital, Ormstown, Quebec, 
Registered General Duty Nurses for 28-bed General Hospital, 45-mi. from centre of Mont- 
real with excellent bus service, Gross salary $250 with full maintenance in nurses' 
home at $35; 3 increases at 6-mo. intervals to $265; 44-hr. wk., 8-hr. rotating shifts; I-mo. 
annual vacation; 7 statutory holidays: 2-wk. sick leave, Blue Cross paid. Apply: Mrs. D. 
Hawley, R.N" County Hospital. Huntingdon, Quebec. 
Registered Nurses 2 (Science Instructor & Nursing Arts Instructor) for school of nursing- 
60 students, Good working conditions. Inservice education & recreational programs. 
Write to: Directrice de l'école d'infirmières, Hôtel-Dieu du Christ-Roi, Alma, Lac-SHean, 
Québec. 


BERMUDA 
Registered Nurses for Operating Room with operating room postgraduate courses and/or 
experience, for 140-bed hospital. Travel allowance paid. For particulars. write Matron, 
King Edward VII Memorial Hospital. Bermuda. 
SASKATCHEWAN 
Head Nurse - Operating Room in a modern 80-bed hospital. Basic salary $310 with 
recognition for P.G. courses, university training & for previous experience. 40-hr. work 
wk., good personnel policies, residence available. Apply: Director of Nurses, Weyburn 
Union Hospital. Weyburn, Saskatchewan. 
Registered Nurses for new 18-bed hospital with new nurses' residence opening May 
1960. We have 4 Doctors on our Medical Staff also Canadian Mental Health Services & 
Canadian Arthritis & Rheumatism Services. 30 days annual vacation, this includes 
statutory holidays. Starting salary $260 per mo. which shall be increased in January 
1960. Apply: John Uhryn, Administrator, Union Hospital. Davidson, Saskatchewan. 
General Duty Nurses. combined Lab. - X-Ray Technician. Salary according to S.H.A. 
salary schedule & S,S,C.L.X.T. schedule. Apply to: The Matron, Bengough Union Hospi- 
tal. Bengough, Saskatchewan, 
U.S.A. 
Registered Nurses for modern 374-bed JCAH fully accredited General Hospital. Located 
on beautiful San Francisco Peninsula, 20-min. drive from the heart of the city, Openings 
in all services. Excellent personnel policies. Many extra benefits & opportunities for 
advancement. Top salaries, Apply: Personnel Director, Peninsula Hospital, 1783 El 
Camino Rea l , Burlingame, California. 
Registered Nurses. (eligible for California registration) for new 254-bed JCAH approved 
district hospital, San Francisco Bay area, Positions available in surgery, Gyn., O.B., 
pediatrics & medicine. Staff Nurses entrance salary $345 with range to $385 per mo, 
Supervisory positions at increased rate. Special area & evening differential paid, Free 
Blue Cross hospitalization & surgical coverage with liberal personnel policies & fringe 
benefits. Uniforms laundered free, Excellent modern housing, schools & colleges. Apply: 
Director of Nursing, Eden Hospital, 20103 Lake Chabot Road, Castro Valley, California. 
Registered Nurses for 440-bed modern, progressive hospital. Starting salary $355 per mo, 
$25 P.M. & night differential. $25 additional for surgery, Tenure salary increases. Liberal 
vacation plan. 7 pd. holidays, 40-hr. wk. Social security, hospitalization insurance & 
retirement program. Write: Personnel Office, Sutter Community Hospitals, 2820 - L Street, 
Sacramento, California. 
---- 
Registered Nurses General Duty for 230-bed approved teaching hospital. resort city. 
Salary $330 plus $22.50 shift differential, provision for housing allowance. Apply: Direc- 
tor of Nursing, Cottage Hospital. Santa Barbara, California. 
Registered Nurses Surgery & General Duty for newly expanded 200-bed hospital locat- 
ed in Southern California. Starting salary $315 per mo. with $10 differential for obstet- 
rics, surgery <S: night duty, 40-hr. wk, Progressive community near Disneyland. Contact: 
Director of Nurses, Miss E. F. Horton, Santa Ana Community Hospital, 600 East Wash- 
ington A venue, Santa Ana, California 



ï4 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



.. .
 


'III .lit, 
. .;,ì. II 
.
- .- 
" {f.. 
 ..
 
I., .)J'" 1- Ì! p.' 
 
"...'" .
 II 
 c: 
..-..,11;13-' -t ..' 
 e 

. I 
 U .. ' .. JIJ 
.. . . " .it t.J 
.., . 
t . . 
 ð .. 
 
t" 
' fit 
'e.... '. '. )Ii 

 
iOI .. ð 
. ",
 
 'J 
!Sr- 


NURSES WHO LIVE 
HERE NEVER STOP 
LEARNING. . . 
GROWING 


. . . THEY WORK AT 


.. . .. 


.' 


COOK COUNTY 
HOSPIT AL 



 


>-
.. 
-. 
... : -, .-, f' 
'i
 
 ... , - 
 . · 
. I. ... .; J.'.. !! .. ... 111 .,
 · 
 
.:
Ib J ; ;


 ;... 


i. 


. . . in one of the Largest 
Most Stimulating Medical 
Centers in the World 


Residence, Coole County School of Nursing 
Here's an opportunity to gain unique and valuable experience in a public hospital - world's 
largest for acute medical conditions. Cook County Hospital offers yo
 the stimulation of working 
with more than 2,500 other doctors and nurses in one of the world's largest and most exciting 
medical centers. Housing is available at nominal cost. Salaries begin at $340-$372.50 for a 37'11 
hour week. And you're only minutes from Chicago's fabulous loop and local universities. 
Graduate Nurses! Write today to Director, Cook County School of Nursing, Dept. C, 1900 West 
Polk Street, Chicago 12, Illinois. 


CALIFORNIA STATE HOSPITALS (ALLING... 
REGISTERED NURSES FOR IMMEDIATE EMPLOYMENT 
· STARTING SALARIES $376 WITHOUT EXPERIENCE, 
$395 WITH ONE YEAR PSYCHIATRIC NURSING 
· STIMULATING AND CHALLENGING CAREERS 
· CHOICE OF LOCATION 
· PROMOTIONAL OPPORTUNITI ES 
· REGULAR SALARY INCREAS ES 
· LIBERAL EMPLOYEE BEN EFITS 


. 


Eligibility for California License 
and 
Possession U.S. Declaration of Intention Required 


. 


Write Mrs. Katharine Steele 
DIRECTOR OF NURSING SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF MENTAL HYGIENE 
1320 KAY STREET, SACRAMENTO 14, CALIFORNIA 


MARCH. 1960 . Vol. 56. No.3 


275 



Attention! General Duty Nurses 400-bed County Hospital located 2 hr. drive from San 
Francisco, ocean beaches &. mountain resorts in modern &. progressive city of 35,000. 
40-hr. 5-day wk., 3-wk. pd. vacation, II-pd. holidays, pd. sick leave, retirement plan &. 
social security. Accommodations in nurses' home, meals at reasonable rates, uniforms 
laundered without charge. Starting salary $341 per mo. plus shift &. service differentials. 
Must. be eligible for California Registration. Write Director of Nursing, Stanislaus County 
HospItal, 830 Scenic Drive, Modesto, California. 
Staff N
rses 600-bed general .& tuberculosis teaching institution in central valley City. 
AccredIted State &. Junior Colleges in immediate vicinity, liberal personnel policies. Full 
maintenance available. Write - Director of Nursing Service, Fresno County General 
Hospital, Fresno 2, California. 
Staff Nurses for 300-bed General Hospital. Attractive personnel policies plus differential 
for specialties, afternoon &. night duty. Opportunities for advanced education. Apply to: 
Director of Nursing Service, Kaiser Foundation Hospital, Oakland 11, California. 
General Staff Nurses (Grow .& develop with us) new 400-bed hospital under construction. 
Fully approved, Intern-resident program. Developing teaching center. Starting salary 
$330 per mo" $15 per mo. merit increases at 6, 12, 24 &. 36-mo. 40-hr. wk., 2-wk. paid 
vacation, paid sick leave to 30 days; 7 paid holidays. One of Southern California's most 
outstanding locations. Apply: Director of Personnel, Seaside Memorial Hospital, 1401 
Chestnut Avenue, Long Beach 13, California. 
General Duty Nurses for 50-bed General Hospital located in college town in mount- 
ainous portion of Colorado. Salary $300 per mo. with periodic increases. Fringe bene- 
fits include meals, uniform laundry, sick leave &. vacation. Registration requires 3-mo 
training in Psychiatry &. Pediatrics on a segregated service. Contact: Superintendent. 
Community Hospital, Alamosa, Colorado. 
Operating Room Supervisor for 230-bed progressive J C A H General Hospital in rapid- 
ly growing town of 40,000. Salary $4,700 - $6,000 pending professional background. 
40-hr. wk., week-ends free; liberal policies. Fully accredited N L N school of nursing of 
50 students; faculty status B.S.. desired and/or postgraduate study required, Located 
65-mi. from New York city in foot hills of Berkshires. Write: Mrs. Elsa L. Brown, Assistant 
administrator, Nursing, Danbury Hospital, Danbury, Connecticut. 
Registered General Duty Nurses for 154-bed General Hospital with expansion program 
under way, Along the shores of Lake Michigan, 25 mi. from Chicago, Salary: $365 lor 
days, $395 for evenings, $385 for nights. 5 day wk, Good personnel policies. Apply Per- 
sonnel Director, Highland Park Hospital Foundation, 718 Glenview Ave., Highland Park, Ill. 
General Duty Nurses for 320-bed General Hospital. Only a few blocks from Lake 
Michigan Beach &. Lincoln Park; near Chicago Loop. Hospital accredited by J,C.A.H. &. 
school of nursing accredited by N.L.N. Apartments available close to hospital. Liberal 
personnel policies. Must be eligible for Ill. registration; openings on all shifts. Write: 
Director of Nursing, Augustana Hospital, 411 W. Dickens Ave" Chicago 14, Illinois. 
Operating Room Nurses (Days &. P.M.) IS4-bed General Hospital located in beautiful 
residential suburb along the north shore of Lake Michigan just north of Chicago, Modern 
ranch style nurses' homes with attractively furnished private bedrooms. 40-hr. wk. 
Salary: $390 days, $420 evenings, other employee benefits. Contact: Personnel Director, 
Highland Park Hospital Foundation, Highland Park, lllinois. 
Graduate Staff Nurses (Opportunities in the United States) for well equipped 400-bed, 
non-sectarian General Hospital affiliated with Medical School. New salary rates $370- 
$400 days &. $400-$430 afternoons &. nights per mo., 40-hr. wk., comfortable, low cost 
living accommodation in attractive residence building, Write to: Director of Nursing 
Service, Dept. C,J.N., Mount Sinai Medical Center, 2750 West 15th, Place, Chicago 8, 
Illinois, 
Nurses in obstetrics, pediatrics, medicine &. surgical nursing. We invite inquiries from 
all Canadian Nurses considering employment in the United States. For full particulars, 
write: Director of Nursing Service, Indiana University Medical Center, 1100 West Michi- 
gan Street, Indianapolis 7. Indiana. 
Registered Nurses - Salary open, commensurate with experience, differential for even- 
ings &. night service. Openings in Obstetrical &. Medical-Surgical areas, Must be eligible 
for registration in the State of Michigan. Apply to: Personnel Department, Woman's 
Hospital. 432 E. Hancock A venue, Detroit 1, Michigan. 
Registered Nurses for 85-bed voluntary non-profit hospital in growing community of 
11,000. Basic salary $295 per mo. with increments of $5.00 every 6-mo. up to 2-years; 
40-hr. wk.; 7 paid holidays, sick leave accumulative to 48-days; $17.50 premium for 3-11 
shift, $15 additional for 11-7 shift. Apply to: Director of Nurses, St. John's Hospital of 
Red Wing, Red Wing, Minnesota. 
Registered Nurses for fully accredited 291-bed hospital with all services, starting salary 
$330-$360 per mo., including ICU. Retirement plan paid, insurance &. other fringe benefits. 
Write: Personnel Director, Washoe Medical Center, Reno, Nevada, 


276 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



JEWISH GENERAL HOSPITAL 


Montreal, Quebec 


NURSING OPPORTUNITIES 


Completion of expansion program makes available attractive positions for 
Registered Nurses for General Duty & also for Certified Nursing Assistants. 
Excellent personnel policies. Salary in accordance with The Association of 
Nurses of the Province of Quebec recommendations & commensurate with 
experience & education. limited number of bursaries available for post-basic 
study after 1 year's service. Residence accommodation in very pleasant sur- 
roundings. Within 50 miles of laurentian holiday & ski resorts. 


For further information, please write: 


DIRECTOR OF NURSING, JEWISH GENERAL HOSPITAL 
3755 COTE ST. CATHERINE ROAD, MONTREAL, QUEBEC 


DIRECTOR OF NURSING 


Modern hospital 42-adult beds, ll-bassinets, located in a company operated 
town & serves a population of approximately 6,000. Salary range from 
$357 - $477 per mo., commensurate with experience & qualifications. 
Community organized recreation, residence accommodation & all conven- 
tional benefits available. 


Apply giving full particulars of training & experience to: 
ADMINISTRATOR, ANSON GENERAL HOSPITAL, 
IROQUOIS FALLS, ONTARIO. 


CLASSROOM & CLINICAL INSTRUCTORS 
GENERAL STAFF NURSES 
required 
The General Hospital of Port Arthur 
Salary schedule in conformity with R.N.A.G. recommendations. 
Partial fare refund after 1 yr. in service. 
WRITE: 
DIRECTOR OF NURSING, 
GENERAL HOSPITAL OF PORT ARTHUR, PORT ARTHUR, ONTARIO. 


MARCH, 1960 . Vol. 56, No.3 


277 



Registered Nurses (free transportation) Spend your winter in the Sunny Southwest, in 
New Mexico - "The Land of Enchantment". Vacancies for staff duty in Medicine, 
Surgery, Obstetrics, Pediatrics & Operating Room. Starting salaries $300 per mo., $15 
differential evenings & nights. Free transportation via 1st Class Air to Albuquerque & 
return in exchange for I-yr. employment contract. Apartment available at $17 per mo., 
excellent job benefits, no shift rotation. Write or call: Director of Nursing, Presbyterian 
Hospital Center, 1012 Gold Avenue, S.E" Albuquerque, New Mexico, Phone CHapel 
3-5611. 
Graduate Nurses (Staff &: Operating Room) for 88-bed modern accredited General Hos- 
pital. Liberal personnel policies, college town 30,000, 85'10 sunshine belt, altitude 3,86(). 
Dry, mild, all year climate. Apply: Director of Nurses, Memorial General Hospital, Las 
Cruces, New Mexico. 
Graduate Nurses for 450-bed non-sectarian acute General Hospital with NLN fully 
accredited school of nursing, Liberal personnel policies include tuition aid for study at 
Western Reserve University, Opening of new main building has created attractive posi- 
tions for Staff Nurses in medical. surgical, obstetric & pediatric divisions. Apartments 
available in immediate neighborhood. Apply: Miss Louise Harrison, Director of Nursing 
Service, Mount Sinai Hospital. 1800 East 105th. Street, Cleveland 6, Ohio. 
Registered Nurses (Scenic Oregon, vacation playground, skiing, swimming, boating & 
cultural events) for 295-bed teaching unit on campus of University of Oregon medical 
school. Salary to start: $339. Pay differential for nights 6 evenings. Liberal policy for 
advancement, vacations, sick leave, holidays. Apply: Multnomah Hospital, Portland I, 
Oregon. 
Registered Nurses. General Duty &: Operating Room (All areas & shifts available) for 
165-bed JCAH Hospital, new 50-bed addition to be opened in March. Starting salary 
$305 General Duty, $320 O.R. 40-hr. wk" 2-3 wk. paid vacation, sick leave, nurses' resi- 
dence available at reasonable rates. Excellent shift differentials, Apply: Director of 
Nursing, Memorial Hospital. Cheyenne, Wyoming. 
Registered Nurse for 20-bed General Hospital located near San Francisco. Salary: $320- 
$335 per mo. 40-hr" 5-day wk., rotating shifts. Vacation with pay. Meals & room at 
hospital reasonable. Apply: Administrator, P.O. Box B., Gustine, California. 
ONTARIO 
Registered Nurses or Graduate Nurses for General Duty in modern 100-bed hospital. Basic 
salary $250 for R.N. 40-hr. wk., good personnel policies. Apply: Superintendent of Nurses, 
Smiths Falls Public Hospital, Smiths Falls, Ontario. 
ALBERT A 
Instructors of Nurses to teach students in 3-yr. psychiatric nursing program for 1,500-bed 
approved active treatment hospital. Salary range: $4,320 to $5,160 per yr. 40-hr. wk., 
civil service holidays, sick leave & pension benefits. Residence with board, if desired, 
$30 per mo. Apply, stating qualifications & experiences to: Superintendent of Nurses, 
Provincial Mental Institute, P.O. Box 307, Edmonton, Alberta. 
MANITOBA 
Registered Nurse over 30 years with at least 5-yr. experience & some administrative 
ability to act as Matron for modern 60-bed hospital. Salary: $360 with increments. Good 
l iving quarters. Apply: Swan River Valley Hospital, Swan River, Manitoba. 
Registered Nurses for Swan River Valley Hospital. Salary: $280 with 4 semi-annual in- 
crements to $300. 44-hr. wk" 3, 8-hr. rotating shifts. 3-wk. vacation after I-yr. con- 
tinuous employment, 4-wk. thereafter. Daily bus service to points - north, south, east & 
west. Local golf club, flying club, curling club; good swimming, fishing, skating, etc. 
Apply: Swan River Valley Hospital, Swan River, Manitoba. 
Registered &: Licensed Practical Nurses, Salary rating for R.N's., min. $268 - max. $304 
per mo,; L.P.N's, min. $208 - max $230 per mo, 8-hr. duty (day, evening or night), 40-hr. 
wk. Must be registered or licenced in Manitoba. Apply in writing to: Director of Nursing, 
Municipal Hospitals, Winnipeg 13, Manitoba. 
NEW BRUNSWICK 
General Duty Nurses (medical, surgical & obstetrical floors) New nurses' reesidence 
completed in May. Apply: Superintendent, Carleton Memorial Hospital, Woodstock, New 
Brunswick. 
Dietitian for 75-bed hospital. Small school of nursing. Apply: Superintendent, Carleton 
Memorial Hospital, Woodstock, New Brunswick. 
SASKA TCHEWAN 
Registered Nurses for Fort Qu'Appelle Sanatorium, Initial salary: $280 per mo. with 
semi-annual increments. Recognition for experience. 40-hr. wk" 4-wk. paid annual vaca- 
tion, 10 statutory days. Sick benefits -& superannuation plans in effect. Room, board & 
laundry, $37 per mo. Apply: Superintendent of Nurses, Fort San, Saskatchewan, 
Operating Room Supervisor with postgraduate course in operating room technique for 
225-bed hospital with school of nursing, Good personJlel policies. Apply: Director of 
Nursing, Union Hospital. Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan. 


278 


THE CANADIA=" NL;R.
F. 



TEAM NURSING IN THESE 
HOSPITALS! 


WlST '..IA 


. . 


IIIITICI' 


... 
. . 
. . 
. 


YIKIIIIA 


Head Nurses - Assistant Head Nurses - Team leaders 
Qualified by professional training and personality to provide 
administratiye guidance and high quality bedside care. 
Salaries at the rate of $6,420 - $5,340 - $4,860 per year 
depending on experience and training. Annual increases. 
40 hour week. Shift differential where applicable. 4 weeks 
vacation. 7 paid holidays. Laundry of unifonns. Social 
security plus non-contributory retirement plan. 
General Duty 1\urses at the rate of $4.440 per year. 
TYrite to: 
MINERS MEMORIAL HOSPITAL ASSOCIATION 
BOX 61, WilLIAMSON, WEST VIRGINIA, U.S.A. 


GENERAL DUTY NURSES 


NURSING ASSISTANTS 


for all departments in a new 107-bed, 40-bassinet hospital. Gross salaries: 
Registered Nurses - $275. Nursing Assistants - $175. 40-hour week, 3-week 
vacation annually. Group pension plan & residence accommodation if desired. 


Apply Administrator of 
ST. JOSEPH'S GENERAL HOSPITAL, ELLIOT LAKE, ONTARIO. 


CHIEF DIETITIAN 


GUYS-MAUDSLEY 
NEUROSURGICAL UNIT 
LONDON ENGLAND 


Required immediately for 280-bed Tuberculosis 
Sanatorium. 


Salary scale is $3,630 . 100 - $3,850 per annum. 
Excellent working conditions, 40-hour week, paid 
annual leave, sick leave benefits, etc. Accommo- 
dation is available if required, for which $44 
per month is deducted from salary. 


Applications are invited for the post of 
Theatre Sister and Staff Nurses in the 
above Unit. Good previous experience is 
necessary. 


Applications stating age, qualifications etc. 
should be addressed to: 


SECRETARY, ST. JOHN'S SANATORIUM, 
ST, JOHN'S, NEWFOUNDLAND 


Applications to: 
THE SUPERINTENDENT OF NURSING, 
MAUDSLEY HOSPITAL, DENMARK HILL, 
LONDON, S.E.5, ENGLAND. 


MARCH. 1960 . VoL 56. No.3 


279 



THE VANCOUVER 
GENERAL HOSPITAL 


requires 
PEDIA TRIC, 
OPERATING ROOM & 
PSYCHIATRIC NURSES 
General staff positions 
also available. 
Salary: $280 - $336 general staff. 
Commencing salary $294 for ap- 
proved experience of 2-yrs. 
Salary: Operating Room Nurses, 
$286.25 - $343.25. 
A clinical differential of $10 a month 
in addition for approved postgraduate 
course. 


4-week vacation per year. 


Please apply to: 
Personnel Department, 
Vancouver General Hospital, 
Vancouver 9, British Columbia. 


REGISTERED NURSES 
REQUIRED 


(General Duty and Operating Room) 
Modern 52-bed hospital 50 miles from Ottowa 
in the heart of holiday resort area has openings. 
Commencing salary $240 per month ($10 extra 
night duty two weeks) all statutory holidays from 
employment dote. three weeks annual vocation, 
straight 8-hour day. 44-hour week. 
Private accommodation in luxurious new resi- 
dence with full board and all facilities including 
laundry. ($25 per month only deducted for resi- 
dence accommodation), 


Apply 
DIRECTOR OF NURSING. 
PONTIAC COMMUNITY HOSPITAL 
SHAWVILLE. QUEBEC 


CLINICAL INSTRUCTOR 
(Immediately) 
For school of 75 students, 1 class 
yearly. Salary schedule in con- 
formity with RNAO recommenda- 
tions. Attractive residence ac- 
commodation. 


Write: Director of Nursing, 


ST. JOSEPH'S HOSPITAL, SUDBURY. ONTARIO. 


MANITOBA 
Registered Nurse (for duties of Matron), Registered Nurse &./or Practical Nurse (for 
general duties) for II-bed Medical Nursing Unit. Good salaries & conditions. Apply: 
Lome Memorial Medical Nursing Unit. Swan Lake. Manitoba, 
ONT ARlO 
Registered Nurses for general duty nursing in all departments of hospital. Apply: Direc- 
tor of Nursing. Gen eral Hospita l. Belleville, O ntario, 
Registered Nurses ( Operating Room &. General Duty) for 20-bed private hospital. Salary: 
$259 per mo. plus full maintenance. Rotating shifts, averaging 42-hr. per wk. Accom- 
modations provided in nurses' residence. single rooms. Liberal personnel policies, group 
ins.. pension plan, I-mo. vacation after I-yr. service, sick leave. Excellent recreational 
facilities. Located in Thunder Bay district of Ontario. on main C.P.R. transcontinental 
line & Trans Canada Highway, Apply: Employment Supervisor. Marathon Corporation 
of Canada Limited, Marathon. OI1tario. 
Registered General Duty Nurses (Immediately) for 29-bed hospital. Salary: $265 per mo. 
with increments up to $295, 4-wk, vacation with pay after I-yr. service, 8 statutory 
holidays. Nicely furnished nurses' residence. Apply: Superintendent, Bingham Memorial 
Hospital, Matheson, Ontario. 
BRITISH COLUMBIA 
General Duty Nurse for 25-bed modern active hospital in rapidly growing vacation land. 
Good recreation facilities. Friendly community scenic location in mountain valley situated 
on Lake Windermere only 90-mi. from Banff & Lake Louise. Nursing policies as recom- 
mended by the RNABe. Full maintenance in attractive modern residence $50 per mo. 
Apply: Matron, Winderme re District Hospital. Invermere, British Columbia. 
Graduat ; Nurses (B ursa ries) Salary range $324-$373 after completion of 2 year training 
course as Radiotherapy Technician. Bursaries available during training period. First year 
$2,100, second year $2,200. 5-day wk., no shift work. M.S.A. I-mo. paid vacation each year. 
All statutory holidays. Applicants please state age, marital status, education & nursing 
experience, Apply to: Miss D. M. Findley. Director of Nursing, B.e. Cancer Institute. 2656 
Heather Street, Vancouver 9. British Colu mbia. Tel ephone: Trinity 4-9321. 
QUEBEC 
Nurse required, married or single, living near St. Joseph Blvd, () St. Denis. Permanent 
employment in doctor's office. 3 afternoons & 2 evenings a week. Call: VI. 5-8653. 


280 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



KINGSTON 
GENERAL HOSPITAL 


REQUIRES 
Assistant Evening and Night Su- 
pervisors, Operating Room Head 
Nurses, for: Neurosurgery, Oph- 
thalmology, Ear, Nose & Throat 
surgery. 
General Duty Registered Nurses 
(Male or Female), for Operating 
Room, medical surgical floors and 
Intensive Care Unit. 
Certified Nursing Assistants. 


For full details relating to hours, 
vacations & benefits, apply to: 
DIRECTOR OF NURSING 
KINGSTON GENERAL HOSPITAL 
KINGSTON, ONTARIO 


HAMil TON 
GENERAL HOSPITALS 
SCHOOL OF NURSING 


will have vacancies 
on the teaching staff 
in the field of 
SCIENCE AND NURSING 
at the end of the school term 


The school of nursing has a pro- 
gram of 2 years correlated theory 
and practice plus 1 year internship 
for approximately 300 students 


Apply to: Director of Nursing, 


HAMILTON 
GENERAL HOSPITALS, 
BARTON STREET EAST, 
HAMILTON, ONTARIO. 


SUPERVISOR CENTRAL SUPPLY 


Required by 
CITY H05PITAL, SASKATOON, 5ASK. 
1350 beds) 
Qualifications - Registered Nurse. supervisory 
experience. 
Duties - To supervise well organized central 
supply department with a large staff of 
nurses aides. 
Orientation of nursing students and others to 
the department. 
Liberal vacation with pay and accumulative sick 
leave benefits. 


Apply to: 
DIRECTOR OF NURSING 
CITY HOSPITAL, SASKATOON, SASK. 


GENERAL DUTY NURSES 


for 82-bed fully occredited General Hos- 
pital. Salary $275 - $315. 40-hour week, 
no split shifts. Living accommodation in 
modern nurses' residence and uniforms 
laundered for $8.00 - S 12.00 per month. 
Will refund cost of railway fare to Canora. 
after 6-mo. service. 


Apply to: 
Superintendent of Nursing, 
CANORA UNION HOSPITAL, 
CANORA, SASKATCHEWAN. 


MARCH, 1960 . Vol. 56, No.3 


REGISTERED NURSES 
AND 
CERTIFIED NURSING 
ASSIST ANTS 


SUNNYBROOK HOSPITAL, TORONTO 
DEER LODGE HOSPITAL, WINNIPEG 
QUEEN MARY VETERANS HOSPITAL, MONTREAL 
WESTMINSTER HOSPITAL, LONDON 
LANCASTER HOSPITAL, SAINT JOHN. N.B. 
STE. ANNE DE BELLEVUE VETERANS 
HOSPITAL, P.O. 
Pension plan; three weeks' paid vaca- 
tion; three weeks' cumulative sick 
leave; 5 day week; low cost living in 
staff residence - for Nurses. Applica- 
tion forms are available at Civil Ser- 
vice Commission Offices, National 
Employment Offices and main Post 
Offices. 
For further particulars contact the Civil 
Service Commission Office in the pro- 
vince where the position in which you 
are interested exists - 
ONTARIO - 25 St. Clair Ave. East. Toronto 
MANITOBA - 266 Graham Ave.. Winnipeg 
NEW BRUNSWICK - Post Office Bldg.. 
Canterbury St.. Saint John, N.B. 
OUEBEC - 685 Cathcart St., Montreal 


281 



WOODSTOCK GENERAL HOSPITAL 
Woodstock, Ontario 


requires 


Registered Nurses 
for Operating Room, Obstetrical, 
Medical and Surgical units. 


For further information write: 


THE DIRECTOR OF NURSING, 
GENERAL HOSPITAL, 
WOODSTOCK, ONTARIO. 


PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING 
CONSULTANT 
in Tuberculosis 


required by the Division of Tuberculosis Control, 
Deportment of Public Health, City of Toronto. 
Minimum requirements, advanced preparation in 
public health nursing, degree in nursing pre- 
ferred. Special preparation or experience in 
Tuberculosis Nursing desirable. 
Salary range $5,134-$5,991. Annual increments, 
5-doy week, vocation, shared hospitalization, sick 
pay and pension plan benefits. 


Apply: 
PERSONNEL DEPARMENT, ROOM 320, 
CITY HALL, TORONTO 1, ONTARIO. 


NURSING SUPERVISORS 


required for 


MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES, 
ESSONDALE, PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 
Salary: $324 - $3B9 per month 
Duties are those of nursing supervisors in modern 
psychiatric & geriatric units. 
Applicants must be British Subjects, registered 
nurses, with training in a mental hospital setting 
& supervisory experience. 


For further information & application forms, 
apply to: 
THE PERSONNEL OFFICER, B.C. CIVIL SERVICE 
COMMISSION, ESSONDALE. BRITISH COLUMBIA. 
IMMEDIATELY. COMPETITION No. 59:152 


PUBLIC GENERAL HOSPITAL 
CHATHAM, ONTARIO 
requires 
REGISTERED NURSES 
and 
CERTIFIED NURSING ASSISTANTS 
for 
, Medical, Surgical and Obstetrical Wards 
for further information 
APPLY TO: DIRECTOR OF NURSING, 
PUBLIC GENERAL HOSPITAL, 
CHATHAM, ONTARIO. 


282 


REGISTERED NURSES 
AND 
CERTIFIED NURSING 
ASSISTANTS 


REQUIRE
 FOR 
44-bed hospital with expansion 
program, 40-hr. wk. Situated in 
the Niagara Peninsula. Transpor- 
tation assistance. 


For salary rates & personnel policies 
APPL Y TO: DIRECTOR OF NURSING. 
HALDIMAND WAR MEMORIAL HOSPITAL, 
DUNNVILLE, ONTARIO 


INSTRUCTORS 


Required for 
CITY HOSPITAL 
SASKATOO
, SASK. 
t 350-beds) 


A nursing arts instructor and a clin- 
ical instructor in obstetrical nursing. 
Salary commensurate with preparation 
and experience. Liberal vacation with 
pay, cumulative sick leave, superan- 
nuation plan. 


APPLY DIRECTOR OF NURSING 


REGISTERED NURSES 


required for 
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES 
B.C. CIVIL SERVICE 
Starting salary $270-$292 per month 
depending upon experience, rising to 
$325 per month. Applicants must be 
Canadian citizens or British subjects 
and registered, or eligible for regis- 
tration in British Columbia. 


For application forms apply IMMfDIA TEl Y to the: 
PERSONNEL OFFICER, B.C. CIVIL SERVICE 
CO,,,,^'v\ISSION, ESSONDALE, B.C. 
COMPETITION NO. 59:608 


GENERAL STAFF NURSES 
WANTED 
To begin January 1, 1960 
Salary Reg. N. $265 gross 
1 
O-bed hospital 


Write: 


THE ADMINISTRATOR, 
NORFOLK GENERAL HOSPITAL, 
SIMCOE, ONTARIO. 


THE CANADL\ "\! NURSE 



... / 
 
, ".. 
" . _..... , '_ ., . ,. ' , 4:. " 
.- ..... 
 it., ',
 
 -; .J":'! 
.. ',Q"'.,' It' I..,. I 
. . ,

' 
 . , 
-' ;.. /
 



_. .--' 


....... 



, 
. 


4' , 


-r:-", '; ,.' ,- 


... 


-. ø.- 


I 


I . 


",
 , ' 
'\ '.tI ,. 
; /.... \. I..: , 
'" - 


.......-"-. - .. -- .. 


.,. .k- i",. 


THE WINNIPEG GENERAL HOSPITAL 


IS Recruiting General Duty Nurses for all Services 


SEND APPLICATIONS DIRECT TO: 
THE PERSONNEL DIRECTOR, WINNIPEG GENERAL HOSPITAL 
WINNIPEG 3, MANITOBA 


HAMIL TON 
GENERAL HOSPITALS 


Assistant 
Night Supervisor 


Applications are invited for the 
post of Assistant Night Supervisor 
for large obstetrical unit at the 
Mount Hamilton Hospital. Good 
salary, good personnel policies, 
pension plan. living in reseidence 
optional. 


Apply by leHer giving full particulars to: 


PERSONNEL OFFICE, 
HAMILTON 
GENERAL HOSPITAL, 
BARTON STREET EAST, 
HAMILTON, ONTARIO. 


1\IARCH 1960. Vol. 56. I\o. 3 


ONTARIO SOCIETY FOR 
CRIPPLED CHilDREN 
REQUIRES 
GRADUATE NURSE 


To assist with the supervision 
of their five summer camps. 
Administrative ability required 
- camping experience pre- 
ferable but not essential. Sa- 
lary commensurate with ex- 
perience. Employee Benefits. 
Permanent Position. 


Apply in writing to 
MISS HELEN WALLACE, Reg'd. N. 
SUPERVISOR OF CAMPS 
ONTARIO SOCIETY FOR 
CRIPPLED CHILDREN 
92 COLLEGE STREET, TORONTO 
ONTARIO 


283 



GRENFELL LABRADOR MEDICAL MISSION 


Positions now available for General Duty Nurses in Grenfell Mission 
hospitals in northern Newfoundland and labrador. Housekeeper 
for modern 120-bed hospital also needed. 


For full information please write: 
MISS DOROTHY A. PLANT, SECRETARY, 
GRENFELL LABRADOR MEDICAL MISSION, 
48 SPARKS ST., OTTAWA 4, ONTARIO. 


CALIFORNIA 
REGISTERED NURSES 
{General Duty with opportunity for advancement} 
New modern 130-bed General Hospital in dynamic college city in beautiful 
San Joaquin Valley only 2 hours from Los Angeles 
Only evening & night positions open 
Starting salary $350 per mo. 
5-day, 40-hr. work wk. Progressive personnel policies. 
Transportation cost to California will be reimbursed after 2-yr. satisfactory service. 
Send full particulars immediately to: 
DIRECTOR OF NURSING SERVICE, GREATER BAKERSFIELD MEMORIAL HOSPITAL 
P.O. BOX 26, BAKERSFIELD, CALIFORNIA 


SUPERINTENDENT OF NURSES 
fOR 
CLEARWATER LAKE HOSPITAL 
THE PAS, MANITOBA 
Required May, 1960. Well equipped 160-bed hospital with general and 
tuberculosis patients. Salary range $355-$400 per month, commensurate 
with experience and qualifications. Good residence accommodation and 
excellent personnel policies. For information and application apply: 
Director of Nursing Services: 
SANATORIUM BOARD OF MANITOBA, 
668 BANNATYNE AVENUE, WINNIPEG, MANITOBA. 


REGINA GENERAL HOSPITAL 
REQUIRES 
1. Clinical Supervisors in obstetrics, medicine and surgery. 
2. Registered male Nurse for a program of training and super- 
vising male nursing assistants. 
Apply to: 
ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR, NURSING SERVICE, 
REGINA GENERAL HOSPITAL, REGINA, SASKATCHEWAN 


284 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



SUBURBAN TORONTO 
GRADUATE NURSES & CERTIFIED NURSING ASSISTANTS 


Are invited to enquire re: employment opportunities in a well staffed new 
125 bed hospital in suburban west Toronto. General duty salary range: 
$270-$320 per mo. Certified Nursing Assistants $200-$220 per mo. 5 day 
week. Residence accommodation optional. Personnel manual forwarded on 
request. Enquire to: 


DIRECTOR OF NURSING, HUMBER MEMORIAL HOSPITAL, 200 CHURCH STREET, WESTON, 
TORONTO 15, ONTARIO - CH 4-5551 


REGISTERED NURSES 
FOR THE OPERATING ROOM, OBSTETRICAL AND MEDICAL 
SURGICAL UNITS OF A 3S0-BED GENERAL HOSPITAL 


Gross salary $270 - $310 per month if registered in Ontario. 
Differential of $10 for evening and night duty. 
40-hour week. Sick leave cumulative to 30 days. 
3 weeks vocation and eight statutory holidays. 
Apply: 
DIRECTOR OF NURSING SERVICES, 
METROPOLITAN GENERAL HOSPITAL, WINDSOR, ONTARIO 


GENERAL DUTY NURSES 
FOR ALL DEPARTMENTS 


Gross salary $276 monthly ($127 bi-weekly) with annual increment $10 
monthly ($4.60 bi-weekly) for three years, if registered in Ontario; $256 
monthly ($117.80 bi-weekly) until registered. Rotating periods of duty, 40-hr. 
per wk., 8 statutory holidays. 14-days vocation & 12 working days leave for 
illness with pay after 1-yr. Pension plan available. Ontario Hospital Insurance 
with Blue Cross supplemental & Physicians' Services Incorporated, partial 
payment by hospital. 
APPL Y 
DIRECTOR OF NURSING, GENERAL HOSPITAL, OSHAWA, ONTARIO. 


THE PETERBOROUGH CIVIC HOSPITAL 
REQUIRES 
GENERAL DUTY STAFF 
OPERATING ROOM STAFF 


For further information write: 


THE DIRECTOR OF NURSING 
PETERBOROUGH CIVIC HOSPITAL, PETERBOROUGH, ONTARIO 


MARCH, 1960 · Vol. 56, NO.3 


285 



UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL 
SASKATOON, SASKATCHEWAN 


Requires 
General Staff Nurses for Medical, Surgical, Obstetrical and Pediatric Services. 
Forty hour week. Salary $270 to $310 gross per month. Differential for 
evening and night duty. Residence accommodation if desired. 


Apply to: 
DIRECTOR OF NURSING, UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL, 
SASKATOON, SASKATCHEWAN 


VICTORIAN ORDER OF NURSES FOR CANADA 
has Staff and Supervisor), positions in 'l!arious parts of Canada. 
Personnel Practices Provide: 
· Opportunity for promotion. 
· Transportation while on duty. 
· Vacation with pay. 
· Retirement annuity benefits. 


For further information write to: 
Director in Chief, 
Victorian Order of Nurses for Canada 
5 Blackburn Ave., Ottawa 2, Ontario 


NOTRE DAME HOSPITAL OF MONTREAL 
NURSES NEEDED 
Salary, according to qualifications: $57.00 - $90.00 per week. 
Evening differential: $7.00 per week. - Night differential: $5.00 per week, 
Increases: After 6 months, 1 year, 2 years. 
Free: Two meals daily - laundering of uniforms. 
Statutory holidays - 2; Paid sick time - 2 weeks (after 1 year) 
Paid vacation: 3 weeks after 1 year. 
Opportunities for promotion - Inservice education program. 
For further information, write to: 
LA DIRECTRICE DU NURSING - HOPIT AL NOTRE-DAME - MONTREAL 


GRADUATE STAFF NURSES - YOU WILL LIKE IT HERE 


Opportunities for men & women on the service of your choice. A 953-bed 
teaching hospital with a friendly atmosphere, well planned orientation pro- 
gram, active graduate nurse club, cultural advantages & excellent transpor- 
tation facilities. 


Starting salary: $325 per mo., 6 holidays, sick leave, 3 wk. vacation. 


For further details write: 
Director - Nursing Service, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Ohio. 


286 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



Official Directory 
Provincial Associations of Registered Nurses 


ALBERTA 


Alberta Association of Registered Nurses 


Pres., Mrs. D. J. Taylor, Ste. 7, 10012,112 St., 
Edmonton; Past Pres., Miss 1\1. Street; Vice-Pres., 
Sr. 1\1. Beatrice, Misses 1\1. MacDonald, C. Ten- 
nant. Committees: FiJzance, Sr. C. Leclerc; Legis- 
latiOJI & By-Laws. Miss J. Clark; Ntlrsing Educa- 
tion, Miss R. Thompson; Nursing Service, Miss 
E. Taylor; Public Relations, Miss F. Moore. 
Executive Director, Mrs. Clara Van Dusen; Re- 
gistrar, Miss Ruth Schwindt, 10256-112 St., 
Edmonton. 


BRITISH COLUMBIA 


Registered Nurses' Association of British Columbia 
Pres., Miss E. Rossiter; Vice-Pres., Misses A. 
George, E. Williamson; Hon. Sec., ,Miss F. Fleming; 
Hon. Treas., Miss A. Cumming. Committees: Le- 
gislation & B'y-La1us, Miss M. Campbell; Nursing 
EducatioJl, Miss 1\1. Richmond; Nursing Sef"'l.'ice, 
:\liss :\of. Small; Pllblic Relations. :\Iiss 1\1. Mac- 
donell. Executive Secretary, Miss Alice L. Wright; 
Registrar, Miss Frances McQuarrie, 2524 Cypress 
St., Vancouver 9. 


MANITOBA 


Manitoba Association of Registered Nurses 


Pres., Mrs. H. C. Mazerall, 392 Campbell St., 
\\ïnnipeg 9. Executive Secretary & Registrar, 
Miss Lillian E. Pettigrew, 247 Balmoral St., 
Winnipeg 1. 


NEW BRUNSWICK 


New Brunswick Association of Registered Nurses 
Pres., :\Iiss L. O. Smith, Provincial Hospital, 
Lancaster; Past Pres., :\liss G. B. Stevens; Vice- 
Pres., :\Iisses K. MacLaggan, S. Miles; Hon. Sec., 
Sr. Theresa Carmel. Committees: Nursing Educa, 
lion, Miss D. Grieve; Nursing Service. Miss 1\1. 
J. Anderson; Finance. Miss K. MacLaggan; 
I_egislation & By,Laws, Miss S. Miles; Public Re- 
lations. Mrs. B. Norris. Executive Secretary, Miss 
Muriel Archibald; Registrar, Mrs. Lois Gladney, 
231 Saunders St., Fredericton. 


NEWFOUNDLAND 


Association of Registered Nurses 


Pres., :\Iiss J. Story, 337 Southsicle Rd., St. 
John's; Past Pres., Miss E. Summers; Vice-Pres., 
:\Iiss J. Lewis. Lt.,Col. H. Janes, Sr. M. Xaverius. 
Councillors: Major :\1. Lydall, Miss G. Rowsell, 
:\Irs. R. Kielley, Rep. St. John's Chapter, Miss J. 
Collis; Rep. Corner Brook Chapter, N. Tilley; 
Rep. Nursing Sisterhood, Sr. M. Calasanctius. 
Committees: Nursing Service. Miss H. Penny; 
NursiJlg Education, Miss G. Rowsell; Publicity & 
Public Relations. Miss I. Sutton; Legislation & 
By-Laws, Miss J. Lewis; FiuaJzce, Lt.,Col. H. Janes. 
Executive Secretary. Miss Pauline Laracy, 3 
Church Hill, St. John's. 


NOVA SCOTIA 


Registered Nurses' Association of Nova Scotia 


Pres., Miss 1\1. Matheson; Past Pres., Sr. C. 
Gerard; Vice, Pres., Sr. 1\1. Barbara, Misses R. 
:\Iyers, E. A. E. 1\IacLennan; Rec. Sec., Miss 1\1. 
F. Lytle. Committees: Nursing Education, Miss J. 
Church; Nursing Service, :\Ir. J. W. Landry; 


MARCH. 1960 . Vol. 56. No.3 


Financi', :\Iiss P. Lyttle; Legislation & By, Laws, 
:\Irs. :\1. Legge; Publtc Relations, Mrs. A. MacNicoll. 
Secretary-Registrar, Miss Nancy H. Watson, 73 
College St., Halifax. 


ONT ARlO 


Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario 


Pres.. Miss l\1. P. Morgan, Gen. Hosp., Hamil. 
ton; Vice-Pres., Miss E. 1\1. Howard, Mrs. 1\L B. 
Duncanson. Committees: NtlrsÍJlg Service, Miss E. 
:\1. Howard; Nursing Education, Miss H. G. Mc. 
A.rthur; PZlblic Relations, Miss I. Black; FÙlaJlce, 
:\liss J. S. Taylor; LegislatiOJI & By, Laws, Miss 
J. E. Young. District Presidents: Dist.l, Miss L. 
\V. Barr, 2111 Lincoln Rd., \\ïndsor; 2. Miss P. 
C. Bluett, Gen. Hosp., \Voodstock; 3, Mrs. J. K. 
Phillips, Box 167, Shelburne; 4, :\lrs. O. G. Lewis, 
P.O. Box 154, Fonrhill; 5, 1\Irs. R. B. Couse, 582 
O'Connor Drive, Toronto; 6, Miss A. 1\1. Murphy, 
54 Ale'Xander St., Belleville; 7, 1\Irs. A. B. Rin- 
toul, :\laitland; 8, 
Iiss D. F. Cowan, 5 Ossing- 
ton Ave., Ottawa; 9. Miss G. O'Leary, 204 Oak 
St., Sudbury; 10, Mrs. B. Stewart, Box 362, 
Dryden; 11, Miss E. E. Lan
man, Royal Victoria 
Hosp., Barrie: 12, Mrs. L. 
1. \Yiggins, Box 865, 
Kapuskasing. Executive Secretary, Miss Florence 
H. Walker; Registrar, Miss Mildred Weir, 33 
Price St., Toronto 5. 


PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND 


The Association of Nurses of Prince Edward Island 


Pres., Mrs. V. A. 
lacDonald. King's County 
'Iemorial Hosp., Montague; Past Pres., :Miss R. I. 
Ross; Vice-Pres., Misses 1. MacKay, A. Trainor. 
Committees: Nursing Education, Sr. 1\1. Monica; 
Nursing Service, Miss I. :\lacKay; Public Relations, 
Miss A. Trainor; Legislation & By,[ aws. Sr. 1\1. 
Irene; Finance, 1\Irs. L. :\1. MacDonald. Executive 
Secretary-Registrar, Mrs. Helen L. Bolger, 188 
Prince St.. Charlottetown. 


QUEBEC 


The Association of Nurses of the Province of Quebec 


Pres., 
Iiss E. 1\1. Merleau, 3201 Forest Hill 
Ave., 
Iontreal; Vice, Pres., (Fr.) :Miss G. Lamarre, 
Sr. M. Décarv; (En
.) Misses H. Lamont, G. 
Purcell; Hon. -Sec., Miss A. Gage; Hon. Treas., 
Sr. Thomas du Sauveur. Cozmcillors: Misses G. 
Gosselin (Dist. 2), D. Pontbriand (Dist. 4), S. 
Pilon (Dist. 6), L. Couet (Dist. 10). Committees: 
Nursing Educatwn. 
fiss E. Logan. Sr. J. Forest; 
Nursing Service, Misses 1\1. McKillop, G. Char- 
bonneau; Legislation, Miss E. C. Flanagan, Sr. 1\1. 
Bachand; Public RelatiOJls. :\lisses S. Giroux, A. 
Gage: Finance, Sr. Thomas du Sauveur. Secretary- 
Registrar & Visitor to English Schools of Nursing, 
Miss Helena F. Reimer, Visitors to French Schools 
of Nursing, Misses Suzanne Giroux, Jacqueline 
Ouimet, Association Headquarters, 640 Cathcart 
St., Montreal. 


SASKATCHEWAN 


Saskatchewan Registered Nurses' Association 


Pres., Miss E. L. Miner. Saskatchewan Dept. of 
Public Health, Regina; Vice-Pres., Miss P. Mc, 
Crath. Saskatchewan Dept. of P.H., Regina, Sr. 
:\1. Hildegard, St. Elizabeth Hosp., Humboldt. 
Committees: NursiJlg Ser'vice, Miss :\1. K. Ruane; 
Nursing Education, :\lrs. !\1. J. Rosso; Public 
Relations, Miss A. C. :\IiIls. Clzapter.r: Miss J. 1\1. 
Cummine, Xorth Battleford. Executive Secretary, 
Miss Victoria Antonini; Registrar, Miss Grace 
Motta, 2066 Retallack St., Regina. 


287 



Official Directory 
CANADIAN NURSES' ASSOCIATION 


74 Stanley Avenue, Ottawa 


President ................ 
Past President .......... 


Miss Alice Girard, Hõpital St. Luc, Lagauchetiere St., Montreal, Que. 
Miss Trenna G. Hunter, Metropolitan Health Corn., City Hall, Van- 
couver, B.C. 
Miss Helen Carpenter, 50 St. George St., Toronto 5, Onto 
Miss E. A. Electa MacLennan, School of Nursing, Dalhousie Univer- 
sity, Halifax, N.S. 
Miss Hazel Keeler, University Hospital, Saskatoon, Sask. 
Miss M. Pearl Stiver, 74 Stanley Ave., Ottawa. 


First Vice-President... 
Second Vice-President.... 


Third Vice-President..... 
General Secretary ........ 


OTHER MEMBERS OF EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 


Presidents of P,'ovincial Associations- 
Alberta . _..... ....... _.. Mrs. D. J. Taylor, Suite 7, 10012-112 St., Edmonton. 
British Columbia ........ Miss Edna Rossiter, Shaughnessy Hospital, Vancouver. 
Manitoba ................ Mrs. Hilda Mazerall, 392 Campbell St., Winnipeg 9. 
New Brunswick.......... Miss Lois Smith, Provincial Hospital, Lancaster. 
Newfoundland ........... Miss Janet Story, 337 Southside Rd., St. J( m's. 
Nova. Scotia. ............. Miss Margaret Matheson, Aberdeen Hospital, New Glasgow. 
Ontario _..,.. _ " ... _... .. Miss Margaret Morgan, Hamilton General Hospital, Hamilton. 
Prince Edward Island... Mrs. Vera MacDonald, King's County Memorial Hospital, Montague. 
Quebec .................. Miss Eve Merleau, 3201 Forrest Hill Avenue, Montreal. 
Saskatchewan .. . . . . . . . .. Miss Louise Miner, Dept. of Health, Regina. 


Religious Sisters (Regional Representation)- 
Maritimes ............... Rev. Sister M. Irene, Charlottetown Hospital, Charlottetown. 
Quebec .................. Rev. Sister M. Felicitas, St. Mary's Hospital, Montreal. 
Ontario .................. Rev. Sister Madeleine of Jesus, Ottawa General Hospital, Ottawa. 
Western Canada......... Rev. Sister M. Laurentia, Providence Hospital, Moose Jaw. 


Chairmen of National Committees- 
Nnrsing Service ......... Rev. Sister M. Felicitas, St. Mary's Hospital, Montreal. 
Nnrsing Education ...... Miss Hazel Keeler, University Hospital, Saskatoon. 
Pnblic Relations... _..... Miss Ethel M. Gordon, Apt. 110, 150 Argyle Ave., Ottawa 4. 
Le&,islation and By-Laws. Miss E. A. Electa MacLennan, School of Nursing, Dalhousie Univer- 
sity, Halifax. 
Finance ....... ......' -. Miss Helen Carpenter, 50 St. George St., Toronto 5. 

ournal Board........... Mrs. Isobel MacLeod, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal. 


EXECUTIVE OFFICERS 


Alberta Ass'n of Registered Nurses, Mrs. Clara Van Dusen. 10256 -112 St., Edmonton. 
Registered Nurses' Ass'n of British Columbia, Miss Alice L. Wright, 2524 Cypress St., Van- 
couver 9. 
Manitoba Ass'n of Registered Nurses, Miss Lillian E. Pettigrew, 247 Balmoral St., Winnipeg. 
New Brunswick Ass'n of Registered Nurses, Miss Muriel Archibald, 231 Saunders St., Fredericton. 
Ass'n of Registered Nurses of Newfoundland, Miss Pauline Laracy, 3 Church Hill, St. John's. 
Registered Nurses' Ass'n of Nova Scotia, Miss Nancy H. Watson, 73 College St., Halifax. 
Registered Nur8es' Ass'n of Ontario, Miss Florence H. Walker, 33 Price St., Toronto 5. 
Ass'n of Nurses of Prince Edward Island, Mrs. Helen L. Bolger, 188 Prince St. Charlottetown. 
Association of Nurses of the Province of Quebec, Miss Helena Reimer, 640 Cathcart St., Montreal. 
Saskatchpwan Registered Nursps' ASS'll, Miss Victoria Antonini, 2066 Retallack St., Regina. 


ASSOCIA TION OFFICERS 


Canadian Nurses' Absociation: 74 Stanley Ave., Ottawa. General Secretary, Treasurer, Miss M. Pearl 
Stiver. Secretary of Nursing Service, Miss F. Lillian Campion. Assistant to the General Secretar)', 
Miss Justine Delmotte. 
International Council of Nurses: 1 Dean Trench St., Westminster, London S.W. I, En
land. 
General Secretary, Miss Daisy C. Bridges. 


288 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



I 
For anything that 
J' ,,\):;. 
 


" 
 

; -\\ 
r."
 ;" 


I 


use Calmitol first 


. . . for every type of pruritus, CALMITOL
 is the 
fast acting conservative, low-cost, nonsensitizing 
antipruritic. Supplied: tubes, I
 oz., and I-lb. 
jars of noniITitant, easy-spreading ointment, 
For severe itching, CALMITOL Liquid, 2-oz. bottles. 
Write for Samples. 



y
 lf
..k 286SLPaul"W..M,....' 


APRIL, 1960. Vol. 56, No.4 


289 



INDEX TO ADVERTISERS 


APRIL, 


Abbott Laboratories Ltd. ....... 333 


Becton Dickinson ...,....,..,. 384 
Bland & Co. .........,....... 295 


Canadian Industries . . . . . . Cover II 
Canadian Tampax ............ 357 
Carnation Co. Ltd. ............ 345 
Cash's Names. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 362 
Thos. Cook & Son Ltd. ....... 363 


Dept. of National Defence-Army 351 
Desitin Chemical Co. ......,... 347 


Charles E. Frosst & Co. ....... 329 
G. T. Fulford Co. Ltd. ......., 359 


H. J. Heinz Co. of Canada Ltd. " 335 
Homemakers Products' (Canada) 
Ltd. ......,............... 331 


Imperial Tobacco of Canada Ltd. 362 
J ohn50n & Johnson Ltd. ....... 338 


* 


1960 


The Kendall Co. (Canada) Ltd. 349 
Knox Gelatine (Canada) 
Ltd. .,............ 339, 340, 341 
Kress & Owen Co. Canada Ltd. 361 


Thos. Leeming & Co. Inc. ..... 289 
J. B. Lippincott Co. ....., Cover IV 


The }'Iacmillan Co. of Canada.. 363 
C. V. :ì\losby Co. ,............ 353 


:-.Jivea Phannaceuticals Ltd. .... 355 


Parke Davis & Co. Ltd. ......, 343 
Perth Shoe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 306 


\V. B. Saunders Co. ........... 305 
Smith & N ephrew ............ 327 
Swift Canadian Co. Ltd. " Coyer III 


U.S. Vitamin Corp. of Canada 
Ltd. .................. 336, 337 


* 


* 


Subscription Rates: Canada & Bermuda: 6 months $1.75; one year, $3.00 two years, $5.00. 
Studwt nurses - one year, $2.00; three years, $5.00. 
U.S.A. & foreign: one year, $3.50; two years, $6.00. 
Single copies 35 cents. 
In combination with the American Journal of Nursillg or Nursing Outlook: one year, $8.00. 
Make cheques and money orders payable to The Canadian Nurse. 
Change 0/ address: Four weeks' notice and the old address as well as the new are necessary. 
Not responsible for Journals lost in mail due to errors in address. 
Authorized as Second-Class Mail, Post Office Department, Ottawa. 
Member of Canadian Circulation Audit Board. 


Ad,:ertising Reþresentati'l'es: \V. F. L. Edwards & Co., Ltd., 34 King S1. E., Toronto 1, Onto 
\Valter Slack, 801 Public Ledger Building, Philadelphia 6, Pa. 


1522 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal 25, Quebec 


290 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



THE 


CANADIAN NURSE 


VOLUME S6 


NUMBER 4 


APRIL 1960 


292 BETwEE:'\ OCRSELVES 


293 ApPLICATIO
 CA:-;ADlAN XCRSES' .\SSOCIATIO
 


294 CONVEXTIOX .\cCO\nroDulo:\, 1960 
296 XEW PRODUCTS 


300 RANDOl\[ CO:\[;\[E
TS 


307 THE CHALLENGE OF AXEW DECADE. ....H. .\1. Carpcnter 
309 PRACTICAL PROBLE
\[S OF 
PARKI
SON'S DISEASE.. 


D. DeJong 


314 E\'ALUATI
G AN OCCUPATIONAL HEAl TH 
Nt;RSING PROGRA:\[ BY A \VORK 
SAI\[PLlNG STCDY......E. AI. Gordun and J . .\1. Huffman 
321 RHEUI\[ATOID ARTHRITIS..............................W. G. J/acDougall 
323 RHEU}IATOID .\RTHRITIS AND yOU..... ..r. Orton-Johnson 
325 PHYSIOTHER-\PY IN RHEC:\IATOID ARTHRITIS......N. Laurie 


326 Xt;RSI
G ACROSS THF X.UIO:'\ 


342 PLAY THERAPY AND THE X CRSE...... ... 


.....F, .\1. Ouellet 


Thc 'l'ie'l(,s expressed 
in thc 'wriolts articles 
are thc 'l'Ù''l(,S of 
the ollthors alld 
do not necessan/y 
reprcsent the polic}' 
Or'l'iC'll'S of 
THE CA:'IrADIAX Xl.'RSE 
nor of the COllodion 
Xurscs' .Üsociation. 


330 :'J URSING PROFII ES 


352 MORE EFFECTIVE LIn:-;G ...................................f. E. Jf acGregor 
356 PRESEXILE DÜ[F 
TI.-\...............................................................f. Gibson 
360 Ix 
IDroRIA:\1 
361 BOOK REVIEWS 


364 E:\IPLOY\IE
T OPPORTUNITIE') 


Journal Board: 
Irs. A. 1. 
lacLeod, chairman, Sr. 
L Felicitas, 
lisses H. Carpenter, R. Chittick, S. Giroux, 
E. Gordon, K. 
lacLaggan, A. Girard, president CXA; :Misses M. P. Stiver, M, E. Kerr. 
Editorial Advisors: Alberta, Miss Irene 1\1. Robertson, 11831,8ith Ave., Edmonton; British Colwnbiat.Miss 
Marion E. Macdonell, 1807 \V. 36th Ave., Vancouver 13; Manitoba, Miss Sheila L. .Nixon, 
25 Langside St., \Vinnipeg; New Brunswick, Miss Shirley Y. A1coe, 180 Charlotte St., Fredericton; 
Newfoundland, Miss Isabel Sutton, 66a Mullock St., St. John's; Nova Scotia, Mrs. Hope Mack, 
P.O. Box 76, Hantsport; Ontario, Miss Jean Watt, R.K.A.O., 33 Price St., Toronto; Prince 
Edward Island, Sr. M. David, Charlottetown Hospital; Quebec, Miss Geneviève Lamarre, Hôpital 
de l'Enfant Jésus, Quebec City (French), Sr. M. Assumpta, St. Mary's Hospital! Montreal 
(English); Saskatchewan, Miss Victoria Antonini, S.R.:'\".A., 2066 Retallack St., Regma. 
Executive Director: :Margaret E. Kerr, 
I.A., R.N. 
Assistant Editors: Jean E. :MacGregor, B.
.,R.N.; Gabrielle D. Coté, M.A.,R.N., Pamela E. Poole, B.X.,R.:'\". 
Circulation Manager: \\ïnnifred MacLean. Production Assistant: Elizabeth :\L Hanlon. 
Advertising Assistant: Ruth H. Baumel 


1522 Sherbroeke Street West, Montreal 25, Quebec 


APRIL, 1960. Vol. 56, No. 4 


291 



'eetøeen ()
 


A LMOST E\ ERY PART of Canada has been 
battered by strong winds, freezing 
rains, snow and cold for the past several 
months. Though winter is officially over, 
many souvenirs of the season will still re- 
main for weeks. Soon, Easter finery in a 
week or two will herald the coming of 
spring, 1960. 
A quick glance through the pages of this 
issue will reveal the way in which the 
coming of a spring has influenced the ap- 
pearance of the J ollrl/ol. \ Vhen we were 
looking over one of last winter's issues as 
it came from the printers, we came upon 
facing pages, each with a caption at the 
top and half way down the left hand page a 
third short title. There they were - set in 
the blackest type imaginable! It was enough 
to depress the most optimistic of readers. 
\Ve started an immediate search for some 
more attractive type-faces to lighten that 
awful gloom. Our editorial staff favored 
open-face letters that are sometimes seen. 
Our printer pointed out that by the time 
about half of the copies were printed each 
month, the ink would ha,'e filled in the open 
spaces giving us as black captions as we 
have had. \Ve have therefore chosen a 
variety of type-faces for our major articles. 
Some of the brush headings, as for instance 
the one at the top of this page, we are 
keeping. \Ve hope you will like the new 
faces. 


* 


* 


* 


F or many years it has been the custom 
in C
 \. actIvItIes to have the first vice- 
president of the association serve as the 
chairman of the Finance Committee. It is in 
the latter capacity that our guest editor, 
HELEN M. CARPENTER, speaks to the nurses 
of Canada. 
On leave uf absence from her teaching 
position in the School of Nursing, Univer- 
sity of Toronto, )'liss Carpenter returned 
to the life of a student last autumn when 
she received the first fellowship to be award- 
ed by the Canadian Red Cross Society. She 
has been studying industriously to obtain 
her doctorate in education. Final examina- 
tions start in mid-),[ay so she wiII have 
completed her work prior to the convention 
in Halifax. 


* 


* 


* 


Ever since one of the popular monthly 
magazmes published an article on the use of 


292 


operative procedures in Parkinson's disease, 
we have been anxious to brim{ yOU an au- 
thoritative statement on the various aspects 
of this condition. \\-e have no doubt that 
you have been asked Questions about this 
operatiun just as we have. 
\Ve are very pleased, therefOl-e, that the 
information you will require to give logical 
answers to the relatives and friends of these 
is now available. Dr. De] ong is the coor- 
dinator of the Parkinson's Project at Queen 
),fary Yeteran's Hospital, )'10ntreal. 
* * * 
Over the years, ,,'e have had several re- 
ports of programs fO!- nur
es at the Christian 
\V orkers' Centre at Five Oaks, Ontario. 
J EAK ),f ",-CGREGOR represented the J vltrlwl at 
the Centre's special nurses' weekend last 
autumn and has written a more detailed ac- 
count of the pattern followed in planning for 
the various groups. Completely non-sec- 
tarian, there is an opportunity for peaceful 
thinking and fellmvship in idyllic surround- 
ings. Nurses in Ontario particularly may be 
interested to note the elates of the special 
weekends planned for 1960. 
* * * 
Have you registered for the 1960 Com-en- 
tion yet? Here IS your chance if you have 
overlooked it. 


Continuing research and new methods 
make it imperative for worker or executive 
to improve his qualifications for the job. He 
realize that the high school or university 
diploma marks only the beginning of a long 
trail of training and education. The view 
of education as a life-long pursuit takes 
on real and urgent meaning. 
Over the past few decades public education 
has made considerable headway. But our 
society still faces the stumbling block of a 
large numher of functionally illiterate people 
- men and women whom we expect to 
cope with personal problems and civic af- 
fairs for which they are not equipped . . . 
The vision, courage and resourcefulness we 
have often witnessed in the pioneer develop- 
ment of our resources must now be brought 
to bear on the formidable task of ".idespread 
and effective adult education. 
- JOHX FRIESE" 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



l\PPLIC;\TIOS 
C
\X:\Dt\J 111RSES' 
\SSOClr\TIOX 

Oth Biennial Jleeting 


30th BIENNIAL MEETING 
NOVA SCOTIAN HOTEL, 
HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 
JUNE 19th-24th, 1960 


for Office Use Only 
Material sent 
I Date 


NAME .. 


(PLEASE PRINT) 


ADDRESS 


REGISTERED IN PROVINCE.. 
ACTIVE MEMBER, _ _ 


NUMBER .. 
____ ASSOCIATE MEMBER 


IF STUDENT NURSE - SCHOOL OF NURSING 


CLASSIFICATION 
(PLEASE INSERT CHECK MARK WHERE APPLICABLE) 


HOSPITAL 
OTHER ...... 


PRIVATE NURSING 


PUBLIC HEALTH 
STUDENT NURSE 


OCCUPATIONAL __ 


(SPECI FYI 


STAFF. .. SUPERVISION. TEACHING ADMINISTRATION 
KINDLY ENCLOSE REGISTRATION FEE: R.N.-$lO.OO; STUDENT-$5.00. 


MAKE CHEQUE PAYABLE TO:- 
CANADIAN NURSES' ASSOCIATION, 
74 STANLEY AVENUE, 
OTT A W A, CANADA. 
NO REFUNDS AFTER JUNE 17th, 1960. 


The Housing Committee under the chairmanship of Mrs. Dorothy McKeown 
of Halifax is working closely with National Office to insure adequate accommodation 
for our nurses attending the 30th Biennial Meeting in Halifax, June 19 - 24, 1960. 
Blocks of rooms have been reserved in the Nova Scotian and Lord Nelson 
Hotels. In addition, arrangements have been made for Sisters to be accommodated 
in Mount St. Vincent College and student nurses at St. Mary's University. 
Other hotels, motels and tourist houses have been surveyed and details 
regarding the accommodation in these are available from National Office. 
Naturally, at a large convention single rooms are at a premium. A certain 
number of these must be held for our guest speakers. 
It is helpful if two nurses will arrange to room together and indicate this on 
the registration card overleaf. 


APRIL, 1960. Vol. 56. No. 4 


293 



UONVENTIOX 
'UUOMMOD.\TIO
, 1960 


NOVA SCOTIAN HOTEL, 
HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 
JUNE 19th-24th, 1960 


For Office Use Only 
Reservation made on 


Date 


REQUEST FOR ACCOMMODATION 


RESERVATION REQUESTED FOR: (PLEASE PRINT) 
NAME 
ADDRESS 


POSITION 
NAME AND ADDRESS OF PERSON WITH WHOM ACCOMMODATION MAY BE 
SHARED: 


TYPE OF ACCOMMODATION: HOTEL _ ...... MOTEL. . . . TOURIST HOME ... 
(PLEASE INDICATE 1st & 2nd CHOICE) 


BATH .... 


SI NGLE 


TWIN BEDS 


DOUBLE BEDS 


NUMBER OF PERSONS 


PRICE RANGE 


NO BATH 


SINGLE 


TWIN BEDS 


DOUBLE BEDS 


NUMBER OF PERSONS 


PRICE RANGE 


MEMBERS OF NURSING SISTERHOODS PLEASE INDICATE ORDER TO WHICH YOU 
BELONG: ................. 


ARRIVAL DATE.. .__ HOUR 
BY SPECIAL TRAIN: CANADIAN NATIONAL RAILWAYS 
REGULAR TRAIN 
AIRLINE 
BUS 
MOTOR 
- PLEASE RESERVE EARLY- 


IMPORT ANT 
PLEASE STATE DATE OF ARRIVAL IN ORDER THAT ACCOMMODATION MAY BE 
RESERVED. 


PLEASE RETURN FORMS TO: 
CANADIAN NURSES' ASSOCIATION, 
74 STANLEY AVENUE, 
OTT A W A, CANADA. 


291 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



ROYAL 
VICTORIA 
HOSPITAL 


SCHOOL Of NURSING 
MONTREAL, QUEBEC 


Postgraduate Courses 


(a) Six month clinical course in Obstet. 
rical Nursing. 
Classes - September and February. 


(b) Two month clinical course in Gyne- 
cological Nursing. 
Classes following the six month 
course in Obstetrical Nursing. 


(c) Eight week course in Care of the 
Premature Infant. 


2. Six month course in Operating Room 
Technique and Management. 
Classes - September and March. 


3. Six month courSe in Theory and Practice 
in Psychiatric Nursing. 
Classes - September and March. 


Complete maintenance or living-out allow- 
ance is provided for the full course. 


Salary - a generous allowance for the 
last half of the course. 


Graduate nurses must be registered and in 
good standing in their own Provinces. 


for information and details of the courses, 
apply to:- 
Miss H. M. Lamont, B.N. 
Director of Nursing, 
Royal Victoria Hospital, 
Montreal, P .Q. 


APRIL, 1960. Vol. 56, No. 4 


OUR UNIFORMS ARE 
GOOD MANNERED 
FOR THEY FOCUS ATTENTION 
ON THE WEARER 
NOT ON THEMSELVES 
THERE'S JUST NOTHING 
BETTER MADE 


/'(
 
. . '.!IIi\ ('- 
.." 
"C::J'o- 
I
 J: 
 

\' 
']I' 
f t)! 


.....' 


}f 
(
 


STYLE 1667 
TERYl.ENE, ARNH AND 
OUR SPECIAl. NURSE COTTON 


Catalogue on request 


Sold only by 
Bland and Company 
2048 Union Ave., Montreal, Canada 


295 



1teø 'P'UJdua4 


P'CBLISHED THRO'C"GH COCRTESY OF Canadian Pharmaccutical ] Oltlïwl 
AXD IX COOPFRATION \\ ITH THE PHAR
IACEUTICAL FIR:\IS. 


MENACYL 
Indications-Intensive, prolonged, or intermittently repeated salicylate therapy. 
Rheumatic fever, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis; tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy; 
tuberculcsis - whenever salicylates are indicated; dysmenorrhea; intraocular inflam- 
mation - choroiditis, choroidoretinitis. 
Description-Each tablet contains: acetylsalicylic acid 0.33 gm., menadione 0.33 mg., 
ascorbic acid 33.3 mg. 
Administration-Rbeumatic fever - 9 to 24 tablets daily; more intensive therapy 
requires 30 to 60 tablets daily. Rbeumatoid artbritis, osteoartbritis - 1 to 3 tablets three 
or more times daily, depending on the degree of analgesia necessary or possible. 
Tonsillectomy - Ih to 3 tablets daily, depending on age, as required. Intraocular in- 
llammation - 24 to 30 tablets daily for 7 to 10 days, continuing subsequently with 12 
to 18 tablets daily. Dysmenorrbea - 9 to 12 tablets daily. 

anu facturer-Lakeside Laboratorie:!; (Canada) Ltd., 24 Wellington St. W., Toronto . 
NEUROTAB 
Indications-Nervousness, anxiety, insomnia, etc. 
Description-A sugar-coated tablet containing the following: sparteine sulphate 
1/6 gr., passion flower 3 gr., crataegus 2 gr., tr. belladonna 1 min., epilol (phenobar- 
bital) 113 gr. 
Administration-One or more ta blet s after meals and at bed-time or as indicated. 
NIKETHAMIDE 
Indications-Conditions requiring a respiratory stimulant. 
Description-A 25;0 solution of Nikethamide (the diethylamide of pyridinebeta- 
carboxylic acid). 
Administration-Ph to 3 cc. subcut a neously, i ntramuscularly or intravenously. 
ORENZYME 
Indications-For resolution of inflammation and edema, alone in mild inflammatory 
conditions, and as an adjunct to parenteral and/or buccal trypsin in a number of 
clinical conditions, e.g., contusions, crush injuries, fractures, sprains, phlebitis, etc. 
Description-Each enteric coated tablet contains: Trypsin 68;0' chymotrypsin 30%, 
ribonuclease 2;0' equivalent to proteolytic activity of 20 mg. crystalline trypsin. 
Administration-Initially 2 tablets 4 times daily. As maintenance therapy or as an 
adjunct one tablet 3 or 4 times daily. 
Manufacturer-Wm. S. Merrell C
m pa n
l 7 8 Ta lb ot St., Sf. Thomas, Ont. 
PERMITIL TABLETS 
Indications-Anxiety, tension, agitation, and emotional disturbance. 
Description-Each tablet contains 0.25 mg., of fluphenazine, potent anti-anxiety 
agent without depressant effect. 
Administration-One tablet twice daily. 
Manufacturer-White Laboratories of Canada Ltd., Montreal 9. 
-- - 
POLARAMINE SYRUP 
Indications-Seasonal and non-seasonal allergies. 
Description-Each teaspoonful (5 cc.) of apricot-flavored syrup contams 2 mg. of 
dextro-chlorpheniramine maleate, antihistamine. 
Manufacturer-Schering Corp. Ltd. , Mon trea l 9. 
SALURON 
Indications-For the treatment of salt and water retention associated with cardiac 
or renal insufficiency, hepatic cirrhosis, pregnancy, steroid administration and the pre- 
menstrual syndrome. 
Description-Hydroflumethiazide, potent and selective oral diuretic of low toxicity. 
Saluron-induced saluresis differs from that produced by chlorothiazide and hydro- 
chlorothiazide, by virtue of its sparing action on potassium and bicarbonate ions. Each 
sustained-action tablet contains 50 mg. hydroflumethiazide. 
Administration-Usual dose is 50 mg. on arising. Some patients respond to as little 
as 25 mg. per day; but doses as high as 400 mg. may be used safely. 
Manufacturer-Bristol Laboratories, 286 St. Paul St., Montreal. 
- - - 
SANI-DUST 
Indications-For sanitizing floors, walls and equipment that are wiped normally by 
cloth or mop. Aids in destroying staphylococcus bacteria. 
Manufacturer-Talb Industries, P hB.(
delphia, P
. 
SEA LEGS TABLETS 
Indications-Travel sickness by land, sea or air. 
Description-Piprinhydrinate 5 mg. tablets. 
Manuf ac turer-The British Drug Houses (Canada) Ltd., Toronto 14. 
The Journal tresozts tharmacellticals for i
lformati(ill. _\'lIrses ullderstalld that only a physician may prescribe 


296 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



llliI''"ERSITY OF SASKATCHE'VA
 
School of Nursing 


.
 


., . 



-

. 


- 


:
 '
:'

 
'* 


" 


-..;..- 


--- 

. 


- 


, · :.;-!r.;.... . . 
 '. f , 
 . 
", ,. .. 

 

 +'"'...., in,. 'f
 
tt ..-

 _.,,
- , 
:t:
 :1 "t" Jt.-

u
 
, , 
. 


....
., it 


-.. 
. t". '. .. .. .. ..-...: 
" t'",- 


.- 


.}
 


?d 
;. 


i. 


. I' 


'''", 


"f If"" 


'It ',' 


""'t, 


L 


.l.
 ..... 


. ..' 

 


'... ! 



 


in cooperation "ith 
U:KI,TERSITY HOSPITAL 


PROGRAMS FOR GRADUATE NrRSES 
Teachin
 and Supervision 
To meet the needs of nurses wishing to prepare for positions of responsi- 
bility in either teaching or supervision in Schools of Nursing. 
Public Health Nursing 
To meet the needs of nurses wishing university preparation for staff work 
in public health nursing agencies. 
Administration of Ho
pital Nursing Service 
To meet the needs of nurses preparing for head nurse, supervisory or 
matron positions. 
This program is supported by the W. K. Kellogg Foundation. 
Diplomas are granted on successful completion of the above programs and 
credits earned may be applied toward the degree of Bachelor of Science in 
Nursing. 


PROGRA.l\-1S FOR HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES 
Leading to th
 Degree in Nursing 
Students with senior matriculation may pursue a combined academic 
and professional program leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in 
Nursing. In the final year students will elect to study Teaching and 
Supervision or Public Health Nursing. This broad educational background 
followed by graduate professional experience enables nurses to progress 
rapidly into positions of responsibility. 
Leading to the Diploma in Nursing 
A three year hospital program is conducted for students meeting the 
entrance requirements of the University. 


F or further illformation or illquiries about scholarships, í..l'rite to.- 
DIRECTOR, 
CHOOL OF .xrRSIXG, rXIVERSITY OF SA
KATCHE'VA
, 
SASKATOOX, HASKATCHEWAK 


APRIL, 1960. Vol. 56, NO.4 


297 



DALHOUSIE 


UNIVERSITY 


School of Nursing 
COURSES OFFERED 


1. Degree Course in Basic Professional Nursing 
Candidates for the degree of Bachelor of Nursing are required to complete 
2 years of university work before entering the clinical field, and one year 
of university work following the basic clinical period of 30 months. On 
completion of the course the student receives the Degree of Bachelor of 
Nursing and the Professional Diploma in either Teaching in Schools of 
Nursing or Public Health Nursing. 
2. Degree Course for Graduate Nurses 
Graduate nurses who wish to obtain the degree of Bachelor of Nursing are 
required to complete the three years of university work. 
3. Diploma Courses for Graduate Nurses 
(a) Public Health Nursing 
(b) Teaching in Schools of Nursing 
(c) Nursing Service Administration 


For further information apply to: 
DIRECTOR, SCHOOL OF NURSING 
DALHOUSIE UNIVERSITY, HALIFAX, N.S. 


SECROSTERON 
Indications-Habitual and threatened abortion, sterility (due to endometrial dys- 
function), menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, secondary amenorrhea, premenstrual tension and 
toxemia of pregnancy. 
Description-Orally active pregestational agent. Each 5 mg. tablet contains 5 mg. of 
(6:21 dimethyl ethisterone), which appears to be more than 11 times more potent than 
ethisterone. 
Side Effects: When given in recommended dosage Secrosteron manifests no side 
effects. Overdosage may produce pelvic pain resembling dysmenorrhea, "fullness of the 
head" and dizziness. 
Administration-Orally 5 to 15 mg. daily. For most indications one tablet three times 
daily. 
Manufacturer-The British Drug Houses (Canada) Ltd., Toronto 14. 
SYCOTROL 
Indications-In fear and anxiety where the comatic outlets appear as symptoms 
referable to the heart and gastrointestinal tract, e.g. in peptic ulcer and cardiovascular 
disorders. 
Description-Each tablet contains 3 mg. I-piperdine ethanol benzilate HCl. 
Administration-One 3 or 4 times daily. 
Manufacturer-Reed and Carnrick, Toronto 16. 
THEOLIXIN 
Indications-For rapid control of acute asthmatic attacks by oral administration, 
and achievement of therapeutic blood levels in IS minutes. 
Description-Highly soluble buffered theophylline in rapidly absorbed alcohol- 
water vehicle. Each tablespoonful (15 ml.) provides 0.33 gm. (5 gr.) theophylline sodium 
glycinate equivalent to 0.16 gm. (21f2 gr.) theophylline in 20% alcohol. 
Administration-Adults: 2 tablespoonfuls 3 times daily. Children: proportionately 
lower dosage based on age. 
Manufacturer-Austin Laboratories Ltd., 32 Baker St., Guelph, Ont. 
TRILAFON SUPPOSITORIES 
Indications-For antinauseant or tranquilizer therapy in children especially where 
oral administration is a problem. 
Description-Each suppository contains 2 or 4 mg., of perphenazine, antiemetic and 
tranquilizing agent. 
Manufacturer-Schering Corp. Ltd., Montreal 9. 


298 


THE CANADIAN NURSE 



UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 
COURSES fOR GRADUA TE NURSES 


1. Leading to the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Nursing (B.S.N.J: 
An integrated program which includes preparation for staff positions in 
public health nursing as well as the fundamentals of teaching, supervision 
and administration and their application to clinical nursing. Students are 
required to select one advanced clinical nursing course - i.e., Medical- 
Surgical, Obstetric, Pediatric, or Psychiatric Nursing, 
Students with an appropriate Senior Matriculation can complete the 
Course in approximately two years. Those with Junior Matriculation re- 
quire approximately three years. 
2. Leading to a Diploma in Pub'ic Hea'th Nursing: 
A ten-month course which prepares for staff positions in public health 
nursing. 
3. Leading to a Diploma in Clinical Teaching and Supervision: 
A ten-month course which prepares for hospital positions that entail 
teaching, supervisory and administrative activities. Students ore required 
to select one of the advanced clinical nursing courses listed above. 
N.B.: The School of Nursing also offers, for high school graduates with University Entrance, a 
Basic Professional Course leading to the degree of B.S.N. 


For further information write to the 


DIRECTOR, SCHOOL OF NURSING, UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 
VANCOUVER 8, BRITISH COLUMBIA. 


TRILAFON CONCENTRATE 
Indications-To relieve anxiety, tension, psychomotor hyperacidity and other symp- 
toms of emotional stress; to control nausea and vomiting due to various causes. 
Description-Each 5 ce. contains 16 mg. perphenazine. 
Manufacturer-Shering Corp. Ltd., Montreal 9. 
TENUA TE 


Indications-In control of obesity. 
Description-Each tablet contains 25 mg. of Tenuate (diethylproprion>. an anorexic 
agent without central nervous stimulation. 
Administration-One tablet 3 times a day one hour before meals and one in mid- 
evening if desired. 
Manufacturer-Wm. S. Merrell Company, 178 Talbot St., Weston, Ont. 
V ASODILAN 
Indications-For symptomatic treatment of peripheral vascular disease and dys- 
menorrhea. 
Contraindications-Intramuscular administration is not recommended in presence 
of hypotension or tachycardia. Intravenous or intra-arterial administration is not recom- 
mended. 
Description-Isoxsuprine, a myo-vascular relaxant, synthetic, non-hormonal, which 
provides selective relief of spasm of smooth muscle predominantly in the peripheral 
vascular bed, in t